Open Science Research Excellence

Rajib Kar

Publications

8

Publications

8
9
Closed form Delay Model for on-Chip VLSIRLCG Interconnects for Ramp Input for Different Damping Conditions
Abstract:
Fast delay estimation methods, as opposed to simulation techniques, are needed for incremental performance driven layout synthesis. On-chip inductive effects are becoming predominant in deep submicron interconnects due to increasing clock speed and circuit complexity. Inductance causes noise in signal waveforms, which can adversely affect the performance of the circuit and signal integrity. Several approaches have been put forward which consider the inductance for on-chip interconnect modelling. But for even much higher frequency, of the order of few GHz, the shunt dielectric lossy component has become comparable to that of other electrical parameters for high speed VLSI design. In order to cope up with this effect, on-chip interconnect has to be modelled as distributed RLCG line. Elmore delay based methods, although efficient, cannot accurately estimate the delay for RLCG interconnect line. In this paper, an accurate analytical delay model has been derived, based on first and second moments of RLCG interconnection lines. The proposed model considers both the effect of inductance and conductance matrices. We have performed the simulation in 0.18μm technology node and an error of as low as less as 5% has been achieved with the proposed model when compared to SPICE. The importance of the conductance matrices in interconnect modelling has also been discussed and it is shown that if G is neglected for interconnect line modelling, then it will result an delay error of as high as 6% when compared to SPICE.
Keywords:
Delay Modelling; On-Chip Interconnect; RLCGInterconnect; Ramp Input; Damping; VLSI
7
504
IIR Filter design with Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization Technique
Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the application of craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) technique for designing the 8th order low pass Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. CRPSO, the much improved version of PSO, is a population based global heuristic search algorithm which finds near optimal solution in terms of a set of filter coefficients. Effectiveness of this algorithm is justified with a comparative study of some well established algorithms, namely, real coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Simulation results affirm that the proposed algorithm CRPSO, outperforms over its counterparts not only in terms of quality output i.e. sharpness at cut-off, pass band ripple, stop band ripple, and stop band attenuation but also in convergence speed with assured stability.

Keywords:
IIR Filter, RGA, PSO, CRPSO, Evolutionary Optimization Techniques, Low Pass (LP) Filter, Magnitude Response, Pole-Zero Plot, Stability.
6
5164
Accurate Crosstalk Analysis for RLC On-Chip VLSI Interconnect
Abstract:

This work proposes an accurate crosstalk noise estimation method in the presence of multiple RLC lines for the use in design automation tools. This method correctly models the loading effects of non switching aggressors and aggressor tree branches using resistive shielding effect and realistic exponential input waveforms. Noise peak and width expressions have been derived. The results obtained are at good agreement with SPICE results. Results show that average error for noise peak is 4.7% and for the width is 6.15% while allowing a very fast analysis.

Keywords:
Crosstalk, distributed RLC segments, On-Chip interconnect, output response, VLSI, noise peak, noise width.
5
7464
Explicit Delay and Power Estimation Method for CMOS Inverter Driving on-Chip RLC Interconnect Load
Abstract:
The resistive-inductive-capacitive behavior of long interconnects which are driven by CMOS gates are presented in this paper. The analysis is based on the ¤Ç-model of a RLC load and is developed for submicron devices. Accurate and analytical expressions for the output load voltage, the propagation delay and the short circuit power dissipation have been proposed after solving a system of differential equations which accurately describe the behavior of the circuit. The effect of coupling capacitance between input and output and the short circuit current on these performance parameters are also incorporated in the proposed model. The estimated proposed delay and short circuit power dissipation are in very good agreement with the SPICE simulation with average relative error less than 6%.
Keywords:
Delay, Inverter, Short Circuit Power, ¤Ç-Model, RLCInterconnect, VLSI
4
8397
Linear Phase High Pass FIR Filter Design using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:
This paper presents an optimal design of linear phase digital high pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO). In the design process, the filter length, pass band and stop band frequencies, feasible pass band and stop band ripple sizes are specified. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. An iterative method is introduced to find the optimal solution of FIR filter design problem. Evolutionary algorithms like real code genetic algorithm (RGA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) have been used in this work for the design of linear phase high pass FIR filter. IPSO is an improved PSO that proposes a new definition for the velocity vector and swarm updating and hence the solution quality is improved. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the algorithm over the prevailing optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, highly non-linear, and constrained FIR filter design problems.
Keywords:
FIR Filter, IPSO, GA, PSO, Parks and McClellan Algorithm, Evolutionary Optimization, High Pass Filter
3
15281
Swarm Intelligence based Optimal Linear Phase FIR High Pass Filter Design using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach
Abstract:
In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital high pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach (PSO-CFIWA) has been presented. In the design process, the filter length, pass band and stop band frequencies, feasible pass band and stop band ripple sizes are specified. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional gradient based optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. Given the filter specifications to be realized, the PSO-CFIWA algorithm generates a set of optimal filter coefficients and tries to meet the ideal frequency response characteristic. In this paper, for the given problem, the designs of the optimal FIR high pass filters of different orders have been performed. The simulation results have been compared to those obtained by the well accepted algorithms such as Parks and McClellan algorithm (PM), genetic algorithm (GA). The results justify that the proposed optimal filter design approach using PSOCFIWA outperforms PM and GA, not only in the accuracy of the designed filter but also in the convergence speed and solution quality.
Keywords:
FIR Filter; PSO-CFIWA; PSO; Parks and McClellanAlgorithm, Evolutionary Optimization Technique; MagnitudeResponse; Convergence; High Pass Filter
2
9997034
Thinned Elliptical Cylindrical Antenna Array Synthesis Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:

This paper describes optimal thinning of an Elliptical  Cylindrical Array (ECA) of uniformly excited isotropic antennas  which can generate directive beam with minimum relative Side Lobe  Level (SLL). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method, which  represents a new approach for optimization problems in  electromagnetic, is used in the optimization process. The PSO is used  to determine the optimal set of ‘ON-OFF’ elements that provides a  radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction. Optimization is done  without prefixing the value of First Null Beam Width (FNBW). The  variation of SLL with element spacing of thinned array is also  reported. Simulation results show that the number of array elements  can be reduced by more than 50% of the total number of elements in  the array with a simultaneous reduction in SLL to less than -27dB.

 

Keywords:
Thinned array, Particle Swarm Optimization, Elliptical Cylindrical Array, Side Lobe Label.
1
9997035
Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction
Abstract:

A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords:
Circular arrays, First null beam width, Side lobe level, FFA.