Scholarly Research Excellence

Satyanarayan

Publications

9

Publications

9
1093
Routing Algorithm for a Clustered Network
Abstract:

The Cluster Dimension of a network is defined as, which is the minimum cardinality of a subset S of the set of nodes having the property that for any two distinct nodes x and y, there exist the node Si, s2 (need not be distinct) in S such that ld(x,s1) — d(y, s1)1 > 1 and d(x,s2) < d(x,$) for all s E S — {s2}. In this paper, strictly non overlap¬ping clusters are constructed. The concept of LandMarks for Unique Addressing and Clustering (LMUAC) routing scheme is developed. With the help of LMUAC routing scheme, It is shown that path length (upper bound)PLN,d < PLD, Maximum memory space requirement for the networkMSLmuAc(Az) < MSEmuAc < MSH3L < MSric and Maximum Link utilization factor MLLMUAC(i=3) < MLLMUAC(z03) < M Lc

Keywords:
Metric dimension, Cluster dimension, Cluster.
8
6551
Analysis of Message Authentication in Turbo Coded Halftoned Images using Exit Charts
Abstract:
Considering payload, reliability, security and operational lifetime as major constraints in transmission of images we put forward in this paper a steganographic technique implemented at the physical layer. We suggest transmission of Halftoned images (payload constraint) in wireless sensor networks to reduce the amount of transmitted data. For low power and interference limited applications Turbo codes provide suitable reliability. Ensuring security is one of the highest priorities in many sensor networks. The Turbo Code structure apart from providing forward error correction can be utilized to provide for encryption. We first consider the Halftoned image and then the method of embedding a block of data (called secret) in this Halftoned image during the turbo encoding process is presented. The small modifications required at the turbo decoder end to extract the embedded data are presented next. The implementation complexity and the degradation of the BER (bit error rate) in the Turbo based stego system are analyzed. Using some of the entropy based crypt analytic techniques we show that the strength of our Turbo based stego system approaches that found in the OTPs (one time pad).
Keywords:
Halftoning, Turbo codes, security, operationallifetime, Turbo based stego system.
7
6672
Wetting Behavior of Reactive and Non–Reactive Wetting of Liquids on Metallic Substrates
Abstract:
Wetting characteristics of reactive (Sn–0.7Cu solder) and non– reactive (castor oil) wetting of liquids on Cu and Ag plated Al substrates have been investigated. Solder spreading exhibited capillary, gravity and viscous regimes. Oils did not exhibit noticeable spreading regimes. Solder alloy showed better wettability on Ag coated Al substrate compared to Cu plating. In the case of castor oil, Cu coated Al substrate exhibited good wettability as compared to Ag coated Al substrates. The difference in wettability during reactive wetting of solder and non–reactive wetting of oils is attributed to the change in the surface energies of Al substrates brought about by the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs).
Keywords:
Wettability, contact angle, solder, castor oil, IMCs.
6
9523
Development of a Clustered Network based on Unique Hop ID
Abstract:

In this paper, Land Marks for Unique Addressing( LMUA) algorithm is develped to generate unique ID for each and every node which leads to the formation of overlapping/Non overlapping clusters based on unique ID. To overcome the draw back of the developed LMUA algorithm, the concept of clustering is introduced. Based on the clustering concept a Land Marks for Unique Addressing and Clustering(LMUAC) Algorithm is developed to construct strictly non-overlapping clusters and classify those nodes in to Cluster Heads, Member Nodes, Gate way nodes and generating the Hierarchical code for the cluster heads to operate in the level one hierarchy for wireless communication switching. The expansion of the existing network can be performed or not without modifying the cost of adding the clusterhead is shown. The developed algorithm shows one way of efficiently constructing the

Keywords:
Cluster Dimension, Cluster Basis, Metric Dimension, Metric Basis.
5
9580
Study of Reactive Wetting of Sn–0.7Cu and Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu Lead Free Solders during Solidification on Nickel Coated Al Substrates
Abstract:
Microstructure, wetting behavior and interfacial reactions between Sn–0.7Cu and Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu (SAC0307) solders solidified on Ni coated Al substrates were compared and investigated. Microstructure of Sn–0.7Cu alloy exhibited a eutectic matrix composed of primary β-Sn dendrites with a fine dispersion of Cu6Sn5 intermetallics whereas microstructure of SAC0307 alloy exhibited coarser Cu6Sn5 and finer Ag3Sn precipitates of IMCs with decreased tin dendrites. Contact angles ranging from 22° to 26° were obtained for Sn–0.7Cu solder solidified on substrate surface whereas for SAC0307 solder alloy contact angles were found to be in the range of 20° to 22°. Sn–0.7Cu solder/substrate interfacial region exhibited faceted (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 IMCs protruding into the solder matrix and a small amount of (Cu, Ni)3Sn4 intermetallics at the interface. SAC0307 solder/substrate interfacial region showed mainly (Cu, Ni)3Sn4 intermetallics adjacent to the coating layer and (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 IMCs in the solder matrix. The improvement in the wettability of SAC0307 solder alloy on substrate surface is attributed to the formation of cylindrical shape (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and a layer of (Cu, Ni)3Sn4 IMCs at the interface.
Keywords:
Lead-free solder, wetting, contact angle, intermetallics.
4
13307
OCR for Script Identification of Hindi (Devnagari) Numerals using Error Diffusion Halftoning Algorithm with Neural Classifier
Abstract:

The applications on numbers are across-the-board that there is much scope for study. The chic of writing numbers is diverse and comes in a variety of form, size and fonts. Identification of Indian languages scripts is challenging problems. In Optical Character Recognition [OCR], machine printed or handwritten characters/numerals are recognized. There are plentiful approaches that deal with problem of detection of numerals/character depending on the sort of feature extracted and different way of extracting them. This paper proposes a recognition scheme for handwritten Hindi (devnagiri) numerals; most admired one in Indian subcontinent our work focused on a technique in feature extraction i.e. Local-based approach, a method using 16-segment display concept, which is extracted from halftoned images & Binary images of isolated numerals. These feature vectors are fed to neural classifier model that has been trained to recognize a Hindi numeral. The archetype of system has been tested on varieties of image of numerals. Experimentation result shows that recognition rate of halftoned images is 98 % compared to binary images (95%).

Keywords:
OCR, Halftoning, Neural classifier, 16-segmentdisplay concept.
3
14472
Free Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Laminated Composite Panels
Abstract:

In this paper, free vibration analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced laminated composite panels is presented. Three types of panels such as flat, concave and convex are considered for study. Numerical simulation is carried out using commercially available finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical homogenization is employed to calculate the effective elastic properties of randomly distributed carbon nanotube reinforced composites. To verify the accuracy of the finite element method, comparisons are made with existing results available in the literature for conventional laminated composite panels and good agreements are obtained. The results of the CNT reinforced composite materials are compared with conventional composite materials under different boundary conditions.

Keywords:
CNT Reinforced Composite Panels, Effective ElasticProperties, Finite Element Method, Natural Frequency.
2
9996965
Optimal Placement of DG in Distribution System to Mitigate Power Quality Disturbances
Abstract:

Distributed Generation (DG) systems are considered an integral part in future distribution system planning. Appropriate size and location of distributed generation plays a significant role in minimizing power losses in distribution systems. Among the benefits of distributed generation is the reduction in active power losses, which can improve the system performance, reliability and power quality. In this paper, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal DG-unit size and location by loss sensitivity index in order to minimize the real power loss, total harmonic distortion (THD) and voltage sag index improvement. Simulation study is conducted on 69-bus radial test system to verify the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords:
Distributed generation, artificial bee colony method, loss reduction, radial distribution network.
1
9999110
EOG Controlled Motorized Wheelchair for Disabled Persons
Abstract:

Assistive robotics are playing a vital role in advancing the quality of life for disable people. There exist wide range of systems that can control and guide autonomous mobile robots. The objective of the control system is to guide an autonomous mobile robot using the movement of eyes by means of EOG signal. The EOG signal is acquired using Ag/AgCl electrodes and this signal is processed by a microcontroller unit to calculate the eye gaze direction. Then according to the guidance control strategy, the control commands of the wheelchair are sent. The classification of different eye movements allows us to generate simple code for controlling the wheelchair. This work was aimed towards developing a usable and low-cost assistive robotic wheel chair system for disabled people. To live more independent life, the system can be used by the handicapped people especially those with only eye-motor coordination.

Keywords:
Electrooculography, Microcontroller, Motors, Wheelchair.