Silicon-based Low-Power Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)
We demonstrate a 1×4 coarse wavelength
division-multiplexing (CWDM) planar concave grating
multiplexer/demultiplexer and its application in re-configurable
optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) system in silicon-on-insulator
substrate. The wavelengths of the demonstrated concave grating
multiplexer align well with the ITU-T standard. We demonstrate a
prototype of ROADM comprising two such concave gratings and four
wide-band thermo-optical MZI switches. Undercut technology which
removes the underneath silicon substrate is adopted in optical switches
in order to minimize the operation power. For all the thermal heaters,
the operation voltage is smaller than 1.5 V, and the switch power is
~2.4 mW. High throughput pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS)
data transmission with up to 100 Gb/s is demonstrated, showing the
high-performance ROADM functionality.
ROADM, Optical switch, low power consumption,
Exponential Stability and Periodicity of a Class of Cellular Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays
The problem of exponential stability and periodicity for a class of cellular neural networks (DCNNs) with time-varying delays is investigated. By dividing the network state variables into subgroups according to the characters of the neural networks, some sufficient conditions for exponential stability and periodicity are derived via the methods of variation parameters and inequality techniques. These conditions are represented by some blocks of the interconnection matrices. Compared with some previous methods, the method used in this paper does not resort to any Lyapunov function, and the results derived in this paper improve and generalize some earlier criteria established in the literature cited therein. Two examples are discussed to illustrate the main results.
Cellular neural networks, exponential stability, time varying delays, partitioned matrices, periodic solution.
Advanced Gronwall-Bellman-Type Integral Inequalities and Their Applications
In this paper, some new nonlinear generalized
Gronwall-Bellman-Type integral inequalities with mixed time delays
are established. These inequalities can be used as handy tools
to research stability problems of delayed differential and integral
dynamic systems. As applications, based on these new established
inequalities, some p-stable results of a integro-differential equation
are also given. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate
the validity of the main results.
Gronwall-Bellman-Type integral inequalities, integrodifferential equation, p-exponentially stable, mixed delays.
Augmented Lyapunov Approach to Robust Stability of Discrete-time Stochastic Neural Networks with Time-varying Delays
In this paper, the robust exponential stability problem of discrete-time uncertain stochastic neural networks with timevarying delays is investigated. By introducing a new augmented Lyapunov function, some delay-dependent stable results are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Compared with some existing results in the literature, the conservatism of the new criteria is reduced notably. Three numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Robust exponential stability, delay-dependent stability, discrete-time neural networks, stochastic, time-varying delays.
Robust BIBO Stabilization Analysis for Discrete-time Uncertain System
The discrete-time uncertain system with time delay is investigated for bounded input bounded output (BIBO). By constructing an augmented Lyapunov function, three different sufficient conditions are established for BIBO stabilization. These conditions are expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), whose feasibility can be easily checked by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived results.
Robust BIBO stabilization, delay-dependent stabilization, discrete-time system, time delay.
Preliminary Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Data Center: Case Study
As the data-driven economy is growing faster than
ever and the demand for energy is being spurred, we are facing
unprecedented challenges of improving energy efficiency in data
centers. Effectively maximizing energy efficiency or minimising the
cooling energy demand is becoming pervasive for data centers. This
paper investigates overall energy consumption and the energy
efficiency of cooling system for a data center in Finland as a case
study. The power, cooling and energy consumption characteristics
and operation condition of facilities are examined and analysed.
Potential energy and cooling saving opportunities are identified and
further suggestions for improving the performance of cooling system
are put forward. Results are presented as a comprehensive evaluation
of both the energy performance and good practices of energy
efficient cooling operations for the data center. Utilization of an
energy recovery concept for cooling system is proposed. The
conclusion we can draw is that even though the analysed data center
demonstrated relatively high energy efficiency, based on its power
usage effectiveness value, there is still a significant potential for
energy saving from its cooling systems.
Data center, case study, cooling system, energyefficiency.
On Methodologies for Analysing Sickness Absence Data: An Insight into a New Method
Sickness absence represents a major economic and
social issue. Analysis of sick leave data is a recurrent challenge to analysts because of the complexity of the data structure which is
often time dependent, highly skewed and clumped at zero. Ignoring these features to make statistical inference is likely to be inefficient
and misguided. Traditional approaches do not address these problems. In this study, we discuss model methodologies in terms of statistical techniques for addressing the difficulties with sick leave data. We also introduce and demonstrate a new method by performing a longitudinal assessment of long-term absenteeism using
a large registration dataset as a working example available from the Helsinki Health Study for municipal employees from Finland during the period of 1990-1999. We present a comparative study on model
selection and a critical analysis of the temporal trends, the occurrence
and degree of long-term sickness absences among municipal employees. The strengths of this working example include the large
sample size over a long follow-up period providing strong evidence in supporting of the new model. Our main goal is to propose a way to
select an appropriate model and to introduce a new methodology for analysing sickness absence data as well as to demonstrate model
applicability to complicated longitudinal data.
Sickness absence, longitudinal data, methodologies, mix-distribution model.
An Experimental Investigation of Factors Affecting Consumers' Reactions to Mobile APP-Based Promotions
The purpose of this study is to understand how
consumers react to a company's promotional offers with mobile
applications (APP) as premiums. This paper presents the results of an
experimental study where five features of APP were involved: the
cost (free/discounted) for earning APP, the relationship between APP
and the promoted product, the perceived usefulness, the perceived
ease of use, and the perceived playfulness of APP in the context of
light foods purchase. The results support that the above features,
except perceived ease of use, have substantial influences on
consumers' intention to adopt the APP. Among the five features, the
cost for earning APP has the most impact on the adopting intention
of APP. The study also found a positive influence of adopting
intention of APP on the consumer's purchase intention of the
promoted product. Thus, APP-based premiums may enhance the
consumer's purchase intention of a company's promoted products.
Mobile Application, Premium, Sales Promotion,
Analytical Model for Predicting Whole Building Heat Transfer
A new analytical model is developed which provides
close-formed solutions for both transient indoor and envelope
temperature changes in buildings. Time-dependent boundary
temperature is presented as Fourier series which can approximate real
weather conditions. The final close-formed solutions are simple,
concise, and comprehensive. The model was compared with
numerical results and good accuracy was obtained. The model can
be used as design and control guidelines in engineering applications
for analysing mechanical heat transfer properties for buildings.
Analytical model, heat transfer, whole building.
pth Moment Exponential Synchronization of a Class of Chaotic Neural Networks with Mixed Delays
This paper studies the pth moment exponential synchronization of a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed delays. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, by establishing a new integrodifferential inequality with mixed delays, several sufficient conditions have been derived to ensure the pth moment exponential stability for the error system. The criteria extend and improve some earlier results. One numerical example is presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.
pth Moment Exponential synchronization, Stochastic, Neural networks, Mixed time delays
Improved Robust Stability Criteria for Discrete-time Neural Networks
In this paper, the robust exponential stability problem of uncertain discrete-time recurrent neural networks with timevarying delay is investigated. By constructing a new augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, some new improved stability criteria are obtained in forms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Compared with some recent results in literature, the conservatism of the new criteria is reduced notably. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the proposed results.
Robust exponential stability, delay-dependent stability, discrete-time neutral networks, time-varying delays.
Systematic Analysis of Dynamic Association of Health Outcomes with Computer Usage for Office Staff
This paper systematically investigates the timedependent
health outcomes for office staff during computer work
using the developed mathematical model. The model describes timedependent
health outcomes in multiple body regions associated with
computer usage. The association is explicitly presented with a doseresponse
relationship which is parametrized by body region
parameters. Using the developed model we perform extensive
investigations of the health outcomes statically and dynamically. We
compare the risk body regions and provide various severity rankings
of the discomfort rate changes with respect to computer-related
workload dynamically for the study population. Application of the
developed model reveals a wide range of findings. Such broad
spectrum of investigations in a single report literature is lacking.
Based upon the model analysis, it is discovered that the highest
average severity level of the discomfort exists in neck, shoulder, eyes,
shoulder joint/upper arm, upper back, low back and head etc. The
biggest weekly changes of discomfort rates are in eyes, neck, head,
shoulder, shoulder joint/upper arm and upper back etc. The fastest
discomfort rate is found in neck, followed by shoulder, eyes, head,
shoulder joint/upper arm and upper back etc. Most of our findings are
consistent with the literature, which demonstrates that the developed
model and results are applicable and valuable and can be utilized to
assess correlation between the amount of computer-related workload
and health risk.
Computer-related workload, health outcomes,
dynamic association, dose-response relationship, systematic analysis.
Improved Robust Stability Criteria of a Class of Neutral Lur’e Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delays
This paper addresses the robust stability problem of a class of delayed neutral Lur’e systems. Combined with the property of convex function and double integral Jensen inequality, a new tripe integral Lyapunov functional is constructed to derive some new stability criteria. Compared with some related results, the new criteria established in this paper are less conservative. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.
Lur’e system, Convex function, Jensen integral inequality,
Triple-integral method, Exponential stability.
A User Study on the Adoption of Context-Aware Destination Mobile Applications
With the advances in information and communications technology, mobile context-aware applications have become powerful marketing tools. In Apple online store, there are numerous mobile applications (APPs) developed for destination tour. This study investigated the determinants of adoption of context-aware APPs for destination tour services. A model is proposed based on Technology Acceptance Model and privacy concern theory. The model was empirically tested based on a sample of 259 users of a tourism APP published by Kaohsiung Tourism Bureau, Taiwan. The results showed that the fitness of the model is well and, among all the factors, the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have the most significant influences on the intention to adopt context-aware destination APPs. Finally, contrary to the findings of previous literature, the effect of privacy concern on the adoption intention of context-aware APP is insignificant.
Mobile Application, Context-Aware, Privacy Concern, TAM.
A High-Crosstalk Silicon Photonic Arrayed Waveguide Grating
In this paper, we demonstrated a 1 × 4 silicon photonic cascaded arrayed waveguide grating, which is fabricated on a SOI wafer with a 220 nm top Si layer and a 2µm buried oxide layer. The measured on-chip transmission loss of this cascaded arrayed waveguide grating is ~ 5.6 dB, including the fiber-to-waveguide coupling loss. The adjacent crosstalk is 33.2 dB. Compared to the normal single silicon photonic arrayed waveguide grating with a crosstalk of ~ 12.5 dB, the crosstalk of this device has been dramatically increased.
Silicon photonic, arrayed waveguide grating, high-crosstalk, cascaded structure.
A Framework for Investigating Reverse Logistics Capability of E-Tailers
Environmental concern and consumer rights have entailed e-tailers to adopt better strategies to facilitate product returns from customers. As the demand for reverse logistics (RL) continues to grow, little is known about what motivates e-tailers to enhance their RL capabilities and about the role RL capabilities plays in enabling e-tailers to achieve better customer satisfaction and economic performance. Based on resource-based theory and institutional theory, this article proposes that the following factors play a critical role in influencing the RL capability of e-tailers: (a) Financial resource commitment to RL, (b) managerial resource commitment to RL, and (c) institutional pressure to implement RL. Based on the role of these factors, the study provides a framework and propositions that serve to guide future research addressing the link among resources, institutional pressure, and RL capability.
Reverse logistics, e-tailing, resource-based theory, institutional theory.