A Materialized View Approach to Support Aggregation Operations over Long Periods in Sensor Networks
The increasing interest on processing data created by
sensor networks has evolved into approaches to implement sensor
networks as databases. The aggregation operator, which calculates a
value from a large group of data such as computing averages or sums,
etc. is an essential function that needs to be provided when
implementing such sensor network databases. This work proposes to
add the DURING clause into TinySQL to calculate values during a
specific long period and suggests a way to implement the aggregation
service in sensor networks by applying materialized view and
incremental view maintenance techniques that is used in data
warehouses. In sensor networks, data values are passed from child
nodes to parent nodes and an aggregation value is computed at the root
node. As such root nodes need to be memory efficient and low
powered, it becomes a problem to recompute aggregate values from all
past and current data. Therefore, applying incremental view
maintenance techniques can reduce the memory consumption and
support fast computation of aggregate values.
Aggregation, Incremental View Maintenance,Materialized view, Sensor Network.
Silicon-based Low-Power Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)
We demonstrate a 1×4 coarse wavelength
division-multiplexing (CWDM) planar concave grating
multiplexer/demultiplexer and its application in re-configurable
optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) system in silicon-on-insulator
substrate. The wavelengths of the demonstrated concave grating
multiplexer align well with the ITU-T standard. We demonstrate a
prototype of ROADM comprising two such concave gratings and four
wide-band thermo-optical MZI switches. Undercut technology which
removes the underneath silicon substrate is adopted in optical switches
in order to minimize the operation power. For all the thermal heaters,
the operation voltage is smaller than 1.5 V, and the switch power is
~2.4 mW. High throughput pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS)
data transmission with up to 100 Gb/s is demonstrated, showing the
high-performance ROADM functionality.
ROADM, Optical switch, low power consumption,
Dispenser Longitudinal Movement ControlDesign Based on Auto - Disturbances –Rejection - Controller
Based on the feature of model disturbances and uncertainty being compensated dynamically in auto – disturbances-rejection-controller (ADRC), a new method using ADRC is proposed for the decoupling control of dispenser longitudinal movement in big flight envelope. Developed from nonlinear model directly, ADRC is especially suitable for dynamic model that has big disturbances. Furthermore, without changing the structure and parameters of the controller in big flight envelope, this scheme can simplify the design of flight control system. The simulation results in big flight envelope show that the system achieves high dynamic performance, steady state performance and the controller has strong robustness.
ADRC, ESO, nonlinear system
Comparison between Solar Simulation and Infrared Technique for Thermal Balance Test
The precision of heat flux simulation influences the
temperature field and test aberration for TB test and also reflects the
test level for spacecraft development. This paper describes TB tests for
a small satellite using solar simulator, electric heaters, calrod heaters
to evaluate the difference of the three methods. Under the same
boundary condition, calrod heaters cases were about 6oC higher than
solar simulator cases and electric heaters cases for
non-external-heat-flux cases (extreme low temperature cases). While
calrod heaters cases and electric heaters cases were 5~7oC and 2~3oC
lower than solar simulator cases respectively for high temperature
cases. The results show that the solar simulator is better than calrod
heaters for its better collimation, non-homogeneity and stability.
solar simulation, infrared simulation, TB test, TMM
Urban Management and China's Municipal Pattern
Not only is municipal pattern the institution basement of urban management, but it also determines the forms of the management results. There-s a considerable possibility of bankruptcy for China-s current municipal pattern as it-s an overdraft of land deal in fact. Based on the analysis of China-s current municipal pattern, the passage proposed an assumption of a new pattern verified legitimacy by conceptual as well as econometric models. Conclusion is: the added supernumerary value of investment in public goods was not included in China-s current municipal pattern, but hidden in the rising housing prices; we should set housing tax or municipal tax to optimize the municipal pattern, to correct the behavior of local governments and to ensure the regular development of China-s urbanization.
Urban management, China's municipal pattern, land
financial institution, housing tax, Public goods.
Analytical Study on a Longitudinal Joints of the Slab-Type Modular Bridges
In this study, a longitudinal joint connection was
proposed for the short-span slab-type modular bridges with rapid
construction. The slab-type modular bridge consists of a number of
precast slab modules and has the joint connection between the
modules in the longitudinal direction of the bridge. A finite element
based parameter analysis was conducted to design the shape and the
dimensions of the longitudinal joint connection. Numbers of shear
keys within the joint, height and depth of the shear key, tooth angle,
and the spacing were considered as the design parameters. Using the
local cracking load at the corner of the shear key and the
cross-sectional area of the joint, an efficiency factor was proposed to
evaluate the effectiveness of the longitudinal joint connection. The
dimensions of shear key were determined by comparing the cracking
loads and the efficiency factors obtained from the finite element
precast, slab bridge, modular bridge, shear key
Research on IBR-Driven Distributed Collaborative Visualization System
Image-based Rendering(IBR) techniques recently
reached in broad fields which leads to a critical challenge to build up
IBR-Driven visualization platform where meets requirement of high
performance, large bounds of distributed visualization resource
aggregation and concentration, multiple operators deploying and
CSCW design employing. This paper presents an unique IBR-based
visualization dataflow model refer to specific characters of IBR
techniques and then discusses prominent feature of IBR-Driven
distributed collaborative visualization (DCV) system before finally
proposing an novel prototype. The prototype provides a well-defined
three level modules especially work as Central Visualization Server,
Local Proxy Server and Visualization Aid Environment, by which
data and control for collaboration move through them followed the
previous dataflow model. With aid of this triple hierarchy architecture
of that, IBR oriented application construction turns to be easy. The
employed augmented collaboration strategy not only achieve
convenient multiple users synchronous control and stable processing
management, but also is extendable and scalable.
Image-Based Rendering, Distributed CollaborativeVisualization, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Model andSimulation, Modular Visualization Environment.
A Novel Tracking Method Using Filtering and Geometry
Image target detection and tracking methods based on
target information such as intensity, shape model, histogram and
target dynamics have been proven to be robust to target model
variations and background clutters as shown by recent researches.
However, no definitive answer has been given to occluded target by
counter measure or limited field of view(FOV). In this paper, we
will present a novel tracking method using filtering and computational
geometry. This paper has two central goals: 1) to deal with vulnerable
target measurements; and 2) to maintain target tracking out of FOV
using non-target-originated information. The experimental results,
obtained with airborne images, show a robust tracking ability with
respect to the existing approaches. In exploring the questions of target
tracking, this paper will be limited to consideration of airborne image.
Tracking, Computational geometry, Homography, Filter
The Dividend Payments for General Claim Size Distributions under Interest Rate
This paper evaluates the dividend payments for general
claim size distributions in the presence of a dividend barrier. The
surplus of a company is modeled using the classical risk process
perturbed by diffusion, and in addition, it is assumed to accrue interest
at a constant rate. After presenting the integro-differential equation
with initial conditions that dividend payments satisfies, the paper
derives a useful expression of the dividend payments by employing
the theory of Volterra equation. Furthermore, the optimal value of
dividend barrier is found. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the
optimality of optimal dividend barrier and the effects of parameters
on dividend payments.
Dividend payout, Integro-differential equation, Jumpdiffusion model, Volterra equation
A Novel Design for Hybrid Space-Time Block Codes and Spatial Multiplexing Scheme
Space-time block codes (STBC) and spatial multiplexing
(SM) are promising techniques that effectively exploit multipleinput
multiple-output (MIMO) transmission to achieve more reliable
communication and a higher multiplexing rate, respectively. In this
paper, we study a practical design for hybrid scheme with multi-input
multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMOOFDM)
systems to flexibly maximize the tradeoff between diversity
and multiplexing gains. Unlike the existing STBC and SM designs
which are suitable for the integer multiplexing rate, the proposed
design can achieve arbitrary number of multiplexing rate.
Space-Time Block Codes, Spatial Multiplexing,
Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Macroalgae Biomass Using Thermogravimetric Analyzer
The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of seven marine biomass, which are fixed Enteromorpha clathrata, floating Enteromorpha clathrata, Ulva lactuca L., Zosterae Marinae L., Thallus Laminariae, Asparagus schoberioides kunth and Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.), were studied with thermogravimetric analysis method. Simultaneously, cornstalk, which is a grass biomass, and sawdust, which is a lignocellulosic biomass, were references. The basic pyrolysis characteristics were studied by using TG- DTG-DTA curves. The results showed that there were three stages (dehydration, dramatic weight loss and slow weight loss) during the whole pyrolysis process of samples. The Tmax of marine biomass was significantly lower than two kinds of terrestrial biomass. Zosterae Marinae L. had a relatively high stability of pyrolysis, but floating Enteromorpha clathrata had lowest stability of pyrolysis and a good combustion characteristics. The corresponding activation energy E and frequency factor A were obtained by Coats-Redfern method. It was found that the pyrolysis reaction mechanism functions of three kinds of biomass are different.
macroalgae biomass, pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis, thermolysis kinetics.
Work Function Engineering of Functionally Graded ZnO+Ga2O3 Thin Film for Solar Cell and Organic Light Emitting Diodes Applications
ZnO+Ga2O3 functionally graded thin films (FGTFs)
were examined for their potential use as Solar cell and organic light
emitting diodes (OLEDs). FGTF transparent conducting oxides (TCO)
were fabricated by combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering. The
composition gradient was controlled up to 10% by changing the
plasma power of the two sputter guns. A Ga2O3+ZnO graded region
was placed on the top layer of ZnO. The FGTFs showed up to 80%
transmittance. Their surface resistances were reduced to < 10% by
increasing the Ga2O3: pure ZnO ratio in the TCO. The FGTFs- work
functions could be controlled within a range of 0.18 eV. The
controlled work function is a very promising technology because it
reduces the contact resistance between the anode and Hall transport
layers of OLED and solar cell devices.
Work Function, TCO, Functionally Graded Thin Films, Resistance, Transmittance.
Vickers Indentation Simulation of Buffer Layer Thickness Effect for DLC Coated Materials
Vickers indentation is used to measure the hardness
of materials. In this study, numerical simulation of Vickers
indentation experiment was performed for Diamond like Carbon
(DLC) coated materials. DLC coatings were deposited on stainless
steel 304 substrates with Chromium buffer layer using RF Magnetron
and T-shape Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Dual system The
objective of this research is to understand the elastic plastic
properties, stress strain distribution, ring and lateral crack growth and
propagation, penetration depth of indenter and delamination of
coating from substrate with effect of buffer layer thickness. The
effect of Poisson-s ratio of DLC coating was also analyzed. Indenter
penetration is more in coated materials with thin buffer layer as
compared to thicker one, under same conditions. Similarly, the
specimens with thinner buffer layer failed quickly due to high
residual stress as compared to the coated materials with reasonable
thickness of 200nm buffer layer. The simulation results suggested the
optimized thickness of 200 nm among the prepared specimens for
durable and long service.
Thin film, buffer layer. Diamond like Carbon,
Vickers indentation, Poisson's ratio, Finite element.
Selective Intra Prediction Mode Decision for H.264/AVC Encoders
H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement
in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards such
as MPEG-2, but computational complexity is increased significantly.
In this paper, we propose selective mode decision schemes for fast
intra prediction mode selection. The objective is to reduce the
computational complexity of the H.264/AVC encoder without
significant rate-distortion performance degradation. In our proposed
schemes, the intra prediction complexity is reduced by limiting the
luma and chroma prediction modes using the directional information
of the 16×16 prediction mode. Experimental results are presented to
show that the proposed schemes reduce the complexity by up to 78%
maintaining the similar PSNR quality with about 1.46% bit rate
increase in average.
Video encoding, H.264, Intra prediction.
Thermo-chemical Characteristics of Powder Fabricated by Oxidation of Spent PWR Fuel
Thermochemcial characteristics of powder fabricated
using oxidation treatment of spent PWR fuel and SIMFUEL were
evaluated for recycling of spent fuel such as DUPIC process.
Especially, the influence of spent fuel burn-ups on the powder
fabrication characteristics was experimentally evaluated, ranging from
27,300 to 65,000 MWd/tU. Densities of powder manufactured from an
oxidation, OREOX and the milling processes at the same process
conditions were compared as a function of the fuel burn-ups
respectively. Also, based on chemical analysis results, homogeneity of
fissile elements in oxidized powder was confirmed.
Spent PWR fuel, DUPIC, Oxidation, OREOX,
Powder, Chemical analysis
MAP-Based Image Super-resolution Reconstruction
From a set of shifted, blurred, and decimated image , super-resolution image reconstruction can get a high-resolution image. So it has become an active research branch in the field of image restoration. In general, super-resolution image restoration is an ill-posed problem. Prior knowledge about the image can be combined to make the problem well-posed, which contributes to some regularization methods. In the regularization methods at present, however, regularization parameter was selected by experience in some cases and other techniques have too heavy computation cost for computing the parameter. In this paper, we construct a new super-resolution algorithm by transforming the solving of the System stem Є=An into the solving of the equations X+A*X-1A=I , and propose an inverse iterative method.
High-resolution MAP image, Reconstruction, Image interpolation, Motion Estimation, Hermitian positive definite solutions.
Accelerating Sparse Matrix Vector Multiplication on Many-Core GPUs
Many-core GPUs provide high computing ability and
substantial bandwidth; however, optimizing irregular applications
like SpMV on GPUs becomes a difficult but meaningful task. In this
paper, we propose a novel method to improve the performance of
SpMV on GPUs. A new storage format called HYB-R is proposed to
exploit GPU architecture more efficiently. The COO portion of the
matrix is partitioned recursively into a ELL portion and a COO
portion in the process of creating HYB-R format to ensure that there
are as many non-zeros as possible in ELL format. The method of
partitioning the matrix is an important problem for HYB-R kernel, so
we also try to tune the parameters to partition the matrix for higher
performance. Experimental results show that our method can get
better performance than the fastest kernel (HYB) in NVIDIA-s
SpMV library with as high as 17% speedup.
GPU, HYB-R, Many-core, Performance Tuning,
An Improved Lattice Reduction Aided Detection Scheme for MIMO-OFDM System
This paper proposes an efficient lattice-reduction-aided
detection (LRD) scheme to improve the detection performance of
MIMO-OFDM system. In this proposed scheme, V candidate symbols
are considered at the first layer, and V probable streams are
detected with LRD scheme according to the first detected V candidate
symbols. Then, the most probable stream is selected through a ML
test. Since the proposed scheme can more accurately detect initial
symbol and can reduce transmission of error to rest symbols, the
proposed scheme shows more improved performance than conventional
LRD with very low complexity.
Lattice reduction aided detection, MIMO-OFDM,QRD-M, V-BLAST.
Determination of Penicillins Residues in Livestock and Marine Products by LC/MS/MS
Multi-residue analysis method for penicillins was
developed and validated in bovine muscle, chicken, milk, and flatfish.
Detection was based on liquid chromatography tandem mass
spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The developed method was validated for
specificity, precision, recovery, and linearity. The analytes were
extracted with 80% acetonitrile and clean-up by a single
reversed-phase solid-phase extraction step. Six penicillins presented
recoveries higher than 76% with the exception of Amoxicillin
(59.7%). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than
10%. LOQs values ranged from 0.1 and to 4.5 ug/kg. The method was
applied to 128 real samples. Benzylpenicillin was detected in 15
samples and Cloxacillin was detected in 7 samples. Oxacillin was
detected in 2 samples. But the detected levels were under the MRL
levels for penicillins in samples.
Penicillins, livestock product, Multi-residue analysis,LC/MS/MS
Numerical Simulation in the Air-Curtain Installed Subway Tunnel for the Indoor Air Quality
The Platform Screen Doors improve Indoor Air Quality
(IAQ) in the subway station; however, and the air quality is degraded
in the subway tunnel. CO2 concentration and indoor particulate matter
value are high in the tunnel. The IAQ level in subway tunnel degrades
by increasing the train movements. Air-curtain installation reduces
dusts, particles and moving toxic smokes and permits traffic by
generating virtual wall. The ventilation systems of the subway tunnel
need improvements to have better air-quality. Numerical analyses
might be effective tools analyze the flowfield inside the air-curtain
installed subway tunnel. The ANSYS CFX software is used for steady
computations of the airflow inside the tunnel. The single-track subway
tunnel has the natural shaft, the mechanical shaft, and the PSDs
installed stations. The height and width of the tunnel are 6.0 m and 4.0
m respectively. The tunnel is 400 m long and the air-curtain is installed
at the top of the tunnel. The thickness and the width of the air-curtain
are 0.08 m and 4 m respectively. The velocity of the air-curtain
changes between 20 - 30 m/s. Three cases are analyzed depending on
the installing location of the air-curtain. The discharged-air through
the natural shafts increases as the velocity of the air-curtain increases
when the air-curtain is installed between the mechanical and the
natural shafts. The pollutant-air is exhausted by the mechanical and the
natural shafts and remained air is pushed toward tunnel end. The
discharged-air through the natural shaft is low when the air-curtain
installed before the natural shaft. The mass flow rate decreases in the
tunnel after the mechanical shaft as the air-curtain velocity increases.
The computational results of the air-curtain installed tunnel become
basis for the optimum design study. The air-curtain installing location
is chosen between the mechanical and the natural shafts. The velocity
of the air-curtain is fixed as 25 m/s. The thickness and the blowing
angles of the air-curtain are the design variables for the optimum
design study. The object function of the design optimization is
maximizing the discharged air through the natural shaft.
air-curtain, indoor air quality, single-track subway
Research on the Micro Pattern forming of Spiral Grooves in a Dynamic Thrust Bearing
This paper deals with a novel technique for the
fabrication of Spiral grooves in a dynamic thrust bearing. The main
scheme proposed in this paper is to fabricate the microgrooves using
desktop forming system. This process has advantages compared to the
conventional electro-chemical machining in the viewpoint of a higher
productivity. For this reason, a new testing apparatus is designed and
built for press forming microgrooves on a surface of the thrust bearing.
The material used in this study is sintered Cu-Fe alloy. The effects of
the forming load on the performance of micro press forming are
experimentally investigated. From the experimental results, formed
depths are closed to the target ones with increasing the forming load.
Desktop forming system, Fluid dynamic bearing,
Thrust bearing, Microgroove.
Classifying Students for E-Learning in Information Technology Course Using ANN
This research’s objective is to select the model with
most accurate value by using Neural Network Technique as a way to
filter potential students who enroll in IT course by Electronic learning
at Suan Suanadha Rajabhat University. It is designed to help students
selecting the appropriate courses by themselves. The result showed
that the most accurate model was 100 Folds Cross-validation which
had 73.58% points of accuracy.
Artificial neural network, classification, students.
A Novel Transmission Scheme for Reliable Cooperative Communication
Cooperative communication scheme can be substituted
for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique when it may
not be able to support multiple antennas due to size, cost or
hardware limitations. In other words, cooperative communication
scheme is an efficient method to achieve spatial diversity without
multiple antennas. For satisfaction of rising QoS, we propose a
reliable cooperative communication scheme with M-QAM based Dual
Carrier Modulation (M-DCM), which can increase diversity gain.
Although our proposed scheme is very simple method, it gives us
frequency and spatial diversity. Simulation result shows our proposed
scheme obtains diversity gain more than the conventional cooperative
cooperation, diversity, M-DCM, OFDM.
Ventilation Efficiency in the Subway Environment for the Indoor Air Quality
Clean air in subway station is important to passengers. The Platform Screen Doors (PSDs) can improve indoor air quality in the subway station; however the air quality in the subway tunnel is degraded. The subway tunnel has high CO2 concentration and indoor particulate matter (PM) value. The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) level in subway environment degrades by increasing the frequency of the train operation and the number of the train. The ventilation systems of the subway tunnel need improvements to have better air-quality. Numerical analyses might be effective tools to analyze the performance of subway twin-track tunnel ventilation systems. An existing subway twin-track tunnel in the metropolitan Seoul subway system is chosen for the numerical simulations. The ANSYS CFX software is used for unsteady computations of the airflow inside the twin-track tunnel when the train moves. The airflow inside the tunnel is simulated when one train runs and two trains run at the same time in the tunnel. The piston-effect inside the tunnel is analyzed when all shafts function as the natural ventilation shaft. The supplied air through the shafts is mixed with the pollutant air in the tunnel. The pollutant air is exhausted by the mechanical ventilation shafts. The supplied and discharged airs are balanced when only one train runs in the twin-track tunnel. The pollutant air in the tunnel is high when two trains run simultaneously in opposite direction and all shafts functioned as the natural shaft cases when there are no electrical power supplies in the shafts. The remained pollutant air inside the tunnel enters into the station platform when the doors are opened.
indoor air quality, subway twin-track tunnel,
Reentry Trajectory Optimization Based on Differential Evolution
Reentry trajectory optimization is a multi-constraints
optimal control problem which is hard to solve. To tackle it, we
proposed a new algorithm named CDEN(Constrained Differential
Evolution Newton-Raphson Algorithm) based on Differential Evolution(
DE) and Newton-Raphson.We transform the infinite dimensional
optimal control problem to parameter optimization which is finite
dimensional by discretize control parameter. In order to simplify
the problem, we figure out the control parameter-s scope by process
constraints. To handle constraints, we proposed a parameterless constraints
handle process. Through comprehensive analyze the problem,
we use a new algorithm integrated by DE and Newton-Raphson to
solve it. It is validated by a reentry vehicle X-33, simulation results
indicated that the algorithm is effective and robust.
reentry vehicle, trajectory optimization, constraint optimal,differential evolution.
Classifying Bio-Chip Data using an Ant Colony System Algorithm
Bio-chips are used for experiments on genes and
contain various information such as genes, samples and so on. The
two-dimensional bio-chips, in which one axis represent genes and the
other represent samples, are widely being used these days. Instead of
experimenting with real genes which cost lots of money and much
time to get the results, bio-chips are being used for biological
experiments. And extracting data from the bio-chips with high
accuracy and finding out the patterns or useful information from such
data is very important. Bio-chip analysis systems extract data from
various kinds of bio-chips and mine the data in order to get useful
information. One of the commonly used methods to mine the data is
classification. The algorithm that is used to classify the data can be
various depending on the data types or number characteristics and so
on. Considering that bio-chip data is extremely large, an algorithm that
imitates the ecosystem such as the ant algorithm is suitable to use as an
algorithm for classification. This paper focuses on finding the
classification rules from the bio-chip data using the Ant Colony
algorithm which imitates the ecosystem. The developed system takes
in consideration the accuracy of the discovered rules when it applies it
to the bio-chip data in order to predict the classes.
Ant Colony System, DNA chip data, Classification.
Quality Properties of Fermented Mugworts and Rapid Pattern Analysis of Their Volatile Flavor Components by Electric Nose Based On SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) Sensor in GC System
The changes in quality properties and nutritional
components in two fermented mugworts (Artemisia capillaries
Thumberg, Artemisiaeasiaticae Nakai) were characterized followed
by the rapid pattern analysis of volatile flavor compounds by Electric
Nose based on SAW(Surface Acoustic Wave) sensor in GC system.
There were remarkable decreases in the pH and small changes in the
total soluble solids after fermentation. The L (lightness) and b
(yellowness) values in Hunter's color system were shown to be
decreased, whilst the a (redness) value was increased by fermentation.
The HPLC analysis demonstrated that total amino acids were
increased in quantity and the essential amino acids were contained
higher in A. asiaticaeNakai than in A. capillaries Thumberg. While
the total polyphenol contents were not affected by fermentation, the
total sugar contents were dramatically decreased. Scopoletinwere
highly abundant in A. capillarisThumberg, however, it was not
detected in A. asiaticaeNakai. Volatile flavor compounds by Electric
Nose showed that the intensity of several peaks were increased much
and seven additional flavor peaks were newly produced after
fermentation. The flavor differences of two mugworts were clearly
distinguished from the image patterns of VaporPrintTM which indicate
that the fermentation enables the two mugworts to have subtle flavor
Mugwort, Fermentation, Electric Nose, SAW sensor,
A New Proxy Signature Scheme As Secure As ElGamal Signature
Proxy signature helps the proxy signer to sign
messages on behalf of the original signer. It is very useful when
the original signer (e.g. the president of a company) is not
available to sign a specific document. If the original signer can
not forge valid proxy signatures through impersonating the proxy
signer, it will be robust in a virtual environment; thus the original
signer can not shift any illegal action initiated by herself to the
proxy signer. In this paper, we propose a new proxy signature
scheme. The new scheme can prevent the original signer from
impersonating the proxy signer to sign messages. The proposed
scheme is based on the regular ElGamal signature. In addition,
the fair privacy of the proxy signer is maintained. That means,
the privacy of the proxy signer is preserved; and the privacy can
be revealed when it is necessary.
ElGamal signature, Proxy signature, Security, Hash
function, Fair privacy.
An Improved STBC Structure and Transmission Scheme for High Rate and Reliability in OFDMA Cooperative Communication
Space-time block code(STBC) has been studied to get
full diversity and full rate in multiple input multiple output(MIMO)
system. Achieving full rate is difficult in cooperative communications
due to the each user consumes the time slots for transmitting
information in cooperation phase. So combining MIMO systems
with cooperative communications has been researched for full diversity
and full rate. In orthogonal frequency division multiple access
(OFDMA) system, it is an alternative way that each user shares their
allocated subchannels instead of using the MIMO system to improve
the transmission rate. In this paper, a Decode-and-forward (DF)
based cooperative communication scheme is proposed. The proposed
scheme has improved transmission rate and reliability in multi-path
fading channel of the OFDMA up-link condition by modified STBC
structure and subchannel sharing.
cooperation, improved rate, OFDMA, STBC.
A Fuzzy Classifier with Evolutionary Design of Ellipsoidal Decision Regions
A fuzzy classifier using multiple ellipsoids approximating decision regions for classification is to be designed in this paper. An algorithm called Gustafson-Kessel algorithm (GKA) with an adaptive distance norm based on covariance matrices of prototype data points is adopted to learn the ellipsoids. GKA is able toadapt the distance norm to the underlying distribution of the prototypedata points except that the sizes of ellipsoids need to be determined a priori. To overcome GKA's inability to determine appropriate size ofellipsoid, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to learn the size ofellipsoid. With GA combined with GKA, it will be shown in this paper that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark algorithms as well as algorithms in the field.
Ellipsoids, genetic algorithm, classification, fuzzyc-means (FCM)
Correction of Infrared Data for Electrical Components on a Board
In this paper, the data correction algorithm is suggested
when the environmental air temperature varies. To correct the infrared
data in this paper, the initial temperature or the initial infrared image
data is used so that a target source system may not be necessary. The
temperature data obtained from infrared detector show nonlinear
property depending on the surface temperature. In order to handle this
nonlinear property, Taylor series approach is adopted. It is shown that
the proposed algorithm can reduce the influence of environmental
temperature on the components in the board. The main advantage of
this algorithm is to use only the initial temperature of the components
on the board rather than using other reference device such as black
body sources in order to get reference temperatures.
Infrared camera, Temperature Data compensation,
Environmental Ambient Temperature, Electric Component
Powerful Tool to Expand Business Intelligence: Text Mining
With the extensive inclusion of document, especially
text, in the business systems, data mining does not cover the full
scope of Business Intelligence. Data mining cannot deliver its impact
on extracting useful details from the large collection of unstructured
and semi-structured written materials based on natural languages.
The most pressing issue is to draw the potential business intelligence
from text. In order to gain competitive advantages for the business, it
is necessary to develop the new powerful tool, text mining, to expand
the scope of business intelligence.
In this paper, we will work out the strong points of text mining in
extracting business intelligence from huge amount of textual
information sources within business systems. We will apply text
mining to each stage of Business Intelligence systems to prove that
text mining is the powerful tool to expand the scope of BI. After
reviewing basic definitions and some related technologies, we will
discuss the relationship and the benefits of these to text mining. Some
examples and applications of text mining will also be given. The
motivation behind is to develop new approach to effective and
efficient textual information analysis. Thus we can expand the scope
of Business Intelligence using the powerful tool, text mining.
Business intelligence, document warehouse, text mining.
Splitting Modified Donor-Cell Schemes for Spectral Action Balance Equation
The spectral action balance equation is an equation that
used to simulate short-crested wind-generated waves in shallow water
areas such as coastal regions and inland waters. This equation consists
of two spatial dimensions, wave direction, and wave frequency which
can be solved by finite difference method. When this equation with
dominating propagation velocity terms are discretized using central
differences, stability problems occur when the grid spacing is chosen
too coarse. In this paper, we introduce the splitting modified donorcell
scheme for avoiding stability problems and prove that it is
consistent to the modified donor-cell scheme with same accuracy. The
splitting modified donor-cell scheme was adopted to split the wave
spectral action balance equation into four one-dimensional problems,
which for each small problem obtains the independently tridiagonal
linear systems. For each smaller system can be solved by direct or
iterative methods at the same time which is very fast when performed
by a multi-cores computer.
donor-cell scheme, parallel algorithm, spectral action balance equation, splitting method.
Design of EDFA Gain Controller based on Disturbance Observer Technique
Based on a theoretical erbium-doped fiber amplifier
(EDFA) model, we have proposed an application of disturbance
observer(DOB) with proportional/integral/differential(PID) controller
to EDFA for minimizing gain-transient time of wavelength
-division-multiplexing (WDM) multi channels in optical amplifier in
channel add/drop networks. We have dramatically reduced the
gain-transient time to less than 30μsec by applying DOB with PID
controller to the control of amplifier gain. The proposed DOB-based
gain control algorithm for EDFA was implemented as a digital control
system using TI's DSP(TMS320C28346) chip and experimental
results of the system verify the excellent performance of the proposed
gain control methodology.
EDFA, Disturbance observer, gain control, WDM.
Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide in Terms of Scrubbing Techniques using Silver Nano-Particles
Silver nano-particles have been used for antibacterial
purpose and it is also believed to have removal of odorous compounds,
oxidation capacity as a metal catalyst. In this study, silver
nano-particles in nano sizes (5-30 nm) were prepared on the surface of
NaHCO3, the supporting material, using a sputtering method that
provided high silver content and minimized conglomerating problems
observed in the common AgNO3 photo-deposition method. The silver
nano-particles were dispersed by dissolving Ag-NaHCO3 into water,
and the dispersed silver nano-particles in the aqueous phase were
applied to remove inorganic odor compounds, H2S, in a scrubbing
reactor. Hydrogen sulfide in the gas phase was rapidly removed by the
silver nano-particles, and the concentration of sulfate (SO4
increased with time due to the oxidation reaction by silver as a
catalyst. Consequently, the experimental results demonstrated that the
silver nano-particles in the aqueous solution can be successfully
applied to remove odorous compounds without adding additional
energy sources and producing any harmful byproducts
Silver nano-particles, Scrubbing, Oxidation, Hydrogen sulfide, Ammonia
A Novel Estimation Method for Integer Frequency Offset in Wireless OFDM Systems
Ren et al. presented an efficient carrier frequency offset
(CFO) estimation method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM), which has an estimation range as large as the
bandwidth of the OFDM signal and achieves high accuracy without
any constraint on the structure of the training sequence. However,
its detection probability of the integer frequency offset (IFO) rapidly
varies according to the fractional frequency offset (FFO) change. In
this paper, we first analyze the Ren-s method and define two criteria
suitable for detection of IFO. Then, we propose a novel method for
the IFO estimation based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) principle
and the detection criteria defined in this paper. The simulation results
demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the Ren-s method
in terms of the IFO detection probability irrespective of a value of
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, integer frequency offset, estimation, training symbol
Variable Step-Size APA with Decorrelation of AR Input Process
This paper introduces a new variable step-size APA with decorrelation of AR input process is based on the MSD analysis. To achieve a fast convergence rate and a small steady-state estimation error, he proposed algorithm uses variable step size that is determined by minimising the MSD. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is achieved better performance than the other algorithms.
adaptive filter, affine projection algorithm, variable step size.
Crank-Nicolson Difference Scheme for the Generalized Rosenau-Burgers Equation
In this paper, numerical solution for the generalized Rosenau-Burgers equation is considered and Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme is proposed. Existence of the solutions for the difference scheme has been shown. Stability, convergence and priori error estimate of the scheme are proved. Numerical results demonstrate that the scheme is efficient and reliable.
Generalized Rosenau-Burgers equation, difference scheme, stability, convergence.
Template-Based Object Detection through Partial Shape Matching and Boundary Verification
This paper presents a novel template-based method to
detect objects of interest from real images by shape matching. To
locate a target object that has a similar shape to a given template
boundary, the proposed method integrates three components: contour
grouping, partial shape matching, and boundary verification. In the
first component, low-level image features, including edges and
corners, are grouped into a set of perceptually salient closed contours
using an extended ratio-contour algorithm. In the second component,
we develop a partial shape matching algorithm to identify the
fractions of detected contours that partly match given template
boundaries. Specifically, we represent template boundaries and
detected contours using landmarks, and apply a greedy algorithm to
search the matched landmark subsequences. For each matched
fraction between a template and a detected contour, we estimate an
affine transform that transforms the whole template into a hypothetic
boundary. In the third component, we provide an efficient algorithm
based on oriented edge lists to determine the target boundary from
the hypothetic boundaries by checking each of them against image
edges. We evaluate the proposed method on recognizing and
localizing 12 template leaves in a data set of real images with clutter
back-grounds, illumination variations, occlusions, and image noises.
The experiments demonstrate the high performance of our proposed
Object detection, shape matching, contour grouping.
3D Model Retrieval based on Normal Vector Interpolation Method
In this paper, we proposed the distribution of mesh
normal vector direction as a feature descriptor of a 3D model. A
normal vector shows the entire shape of a model well. The
distribution of normal vectors was sampled in proportion to each
polygon's area so that the information on the surface with less surface
area may be less reflected on composing a feature descriptor in order
to enhance retrieval performance. At the analysis result of ANMRR,
the enhancement of approx. 12.4%~34.7% compared to the existing
method has also been indicated.
Interpolated Normal Vector, Feature Descriptor, 3DModel Retrieval.
Comparison of FAHP and TOPSIS for Evacuation Capability Assessment of High-rise Buildings
A lot of computer-based methods have been developed
to assess the evacuation capability (EC) of high-rise buildings.
Because softwares are time-consuming and not proper for on scene
applications, we adopted two methods, fuzzy analytic hierarchy
process (FAHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to an
ideal solution (TOPSIS), for EC assessment of a high-rise building in
Jinan. The EC scores obtained with the two methods and the
evacuation time acquired with Pathfinder 2009 for floors 47-60 of the
building were compared with each other. The results show that FAHP
performs better than TOPSIS for EC assessment of high-rise buildings,
especially in the aspect of dealing with the effect of occupant type and
distance to exit on EC, tackling complex problem with multi-level
structure of criteria, and requiring less amount of computation.
However, both FAHP and TOPSIS failed to appropriately handle the
situation where the exit width changes while occupants are few.
Evacuation capability assessment, FAHP, high-rise
Motion Area Estimated Motion Estimation with Triplet Search Patterns for H.264/AVC
In this paper a fast motion estimation method for
H.264/AVC named Triplet Search Motion Estimation (TS-ME) is
proposed. Similar to some of the traditional fast motion estimation
methods and their improved proposals which restrict the search points
only to some selected candidates to decrease the computation
complexity, proposed algorithm separate the motion search process to
several steps but with some new features. First, proposed algorithm try
to search the real motion area using proposed triplet patterns instead of
some selected search points to avoid dropping into the local minimum.
Then, in the localized motion area a novel 3-step motion search
algorithm is performed. Proposed search patterns are categorized into
three rings on the basis of the distance from the search center. These
three rings are adaptively selected by referencing the surrounding
motion vectors to early terminate the motion search process. On the
other hand, computation reduction for sub pixel motion search is also
discussed considering the appearance probability of the sub pixel
motion vector. From the simulation results, motion estimation speed
improved by a factor of up to 38 when using proposed algorithm than
that of the reference software of H.264/AVC with ignorable picture
Motion estimation, VLSI, image processing,
The Stigma of Mental Illness and the Way of Destigmatization: The Effects of Interactivity and Self-Construal
Some believe that stigma is the worst side effect of the
people who have mental illness. Mental illness researchers have
focused on the influence of mass media on the stigmatization of the
people with mental illness. However, no studies have investigated the
effects of the interactive media, such as blogs, on the stigmatization
of mentally ill people, even though the media have a significant
influence on people in all areas of life. The purpose of this study is to
investigate the use of interactivity in destigmatization of the mentally
ill and the moderating effect of self-construal (independent versus
interdependent self-construal) on the relation between interactivity
and destigmatization. The findings suggested that people in the
human-human interaction condition had less social distance toward
people with mental illness. Additionally, participants with higher
independence showed more favorable affection and less social
distance toward mentally ill people. Finally, direct contact with
mentally ill people increased a person-s positive affect toward people
with mental illness. The current study should provide insights for
mental health practitioners by suggesting how they can use
interactive media to approach the public that stigmatizes the mentally
Mental health, destigmatization, interactivity, selfconstrual
Removal of a Reactive Dye by Adsorption Utilizing Waste Aluminium Hydroxide Sludge as an Adsorbent
Removal of a reactive dye (Reactive blue 4) by
adsorption utilizing waste aluminium hydroxide sludge as an
adsorbent was investigated. The removal of the dye was optimized
using response surface methodology (RSM). In the RSM
experiments; initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and
contact time were critical parameters. RSM experiments were
performed at the range of initial dye concentration 31.82-368.18
mg/L, adsorbent concentration 3.18-36.82 g/L, contact time 15.82-
56.18 h. Optimum initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration
and contact time were obtained as 108.83 mg/L, 29.36 g/L and 33.57
h respectively. At these conditions, maximum removal of the dye was
obtained as 95%. The experiments were performed at the optimum
conditions to verify these results and the same results were obtained.
Adsorption, Reactive blue 4, Response surface
methodology (RSM), Waste aluminium hydroxide sludge
The Application of Specialized Memory Manager in Interactive CAD Systems
Interactive CAD systems have to allocate and
deallocate memory frequently. Frequent memory allocation and
deallocation can play a significant role in degrading application
performance. An application may use memory in a very specific way
and pay a performance penalty for functionality it does not need. We
could counter that by developing specialized memory managers.
Interactive CAD systems, Specialized Memory
Realization of Electronically Tunable Currentmode First-order Allpass Filter and Its Application
This article presents a resistorless current-mode firstorder allpass filter based on second generation current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs). The features of the circuit are that: the pole frequency can be electronically controlled via the input bias current: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of 2 CCCIIs and single grounded capacitor, without any external resistors and component matching requirements. Consequently, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. Low input and high output impedances of the proposed configuration enable the circuit to be cascaded in current-mode without additional current buffers. The PSpice simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The application example as a current-mode quadrature oscillator is included.
First-order all pass filter, current-mode, CCCII.
Potential cIBR-Conjugated PLGA Nanoparticles for Selective Targeting to Leukemic Cells
The expression of LFA-1 diverges from the
physiological condition, thus active targeting carrier can provide the
benefits from difference into LFA-1 expression in various conditions.
Here, the selectivity of cIBR-conjugated nanoparticles (cIBR-NPs),
in terms of uptake, was investigated using PBMCs, Mixed PBMCMolt-
3 cells and Molt-3 cells. The expressions of LFA-1 on Molt-3
cells, from flow cytometry and Western blot, possessed the highest
level whereas PBMCs showed the lowest level. The kinetic uptake
profiles of cIBR-NPs were obtained by flow cytometry, which the
degree of cellular uptake presented a similar trend with the level of
LFA-1 indicating the influence of LFA-1 expression on the cellular
uptake of cIBR-NPs. The conformation of LFA-1 had a slight effect
on the cellular uptake of cIBR-NPs. Overall we demonstrated that
cIBR-NPs enhanced cellular uptake and improved the selectivity of
drug carriers to LFA-1 on the leukemia cells, which related with the
order of LFA-1 expression.
cIBR, LFA-1, Molt-3, PBMCs
Preliminary Design of Frozen Soil Simulation System Based on Finite Element Simulation
Full - Scale Accelerated Loading System, one part of
“the Eleventh - Five - Year National Grand Technology Infrastructure
Program" is a facility to evaluate the performance and service life of
different kinds of pavements subjected to traffic loading under full -
controlled environment. While simulating the environments of frigid
zone and permafrost zone, the accurate control of air temperature, road
temperature and roadbed temperature are the key points and also
aporias for the designment. In this paper, numerical simulations are
used to determine the design parameters of the frozen soil simulation
system. At first, a brief introduction of the Full - Scale Accelerate
Loading System was given. Then, the temperature control method of
frozen soil simulation system was proposed. Finally, by using finite
element simulations, the optimal design of frozen soil simulation
system was obtained. This proposed design, which was obtained by
finite element simulations, provided significant referents to the
ultimate design of the environment simulation system.
China, finite element simulation, frozen soilsimulation system, preliminary design.
Application of Lattice Boltzmann Methods in Heat and Moisture Transfer in Frozen Soil
Although water only takes a little percentage in the total mass of soil, it indeed plays an important role to the strength of structure. Moisture transfer can be carried out by many different mechanisms which may involve heat and mass transfer, thermodynamic phase change, and the interplay of various forces such as viscous, buoyancy, and capillary forces. The continuum models are not well suited for describing those phenomena in which the connectivity of the pore space or the fracture network, or that of a fluid phase, plays a major role. However, Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) are especially well suited to simulate flows around complex geometries. Lattice Boltzmann methods were initially invented for solving fluid flows. Recently, fluid with multicomponent and phase change is also included in the equations. By comparing the numerical result with experimental result, the Lattice Boltzmann methods with phase change will be optimized.
Frozen soil, Lattice Boltzmann method, Phase change,
Feature Point Reduction for Video Stabilization
Corner detection and optical flow are common techniques for feature-based video stabilization. However, these algorithms are computationally expensive and should be performed at a reasonable rate. This paper presents an algorithm for discarding irrelevant feature points and maintaining them for future use so as to improve the computational cost. The algorithm starts by initializing a maintained set. The feature points in the maintained set are examined against its accuracy for modeling. Corner detection is required only when the feature points are insufficiently accurate for future modeling. Then, optical flows are computed from the maintained feature points toward the consecutive frame. After that, a motion model is estimated based on the simplified affine motion model and least square method, with outliers belonging to moving objects presented. Studentized residuals are used to eliminate such outliers. The model estimation and elimination processes repeat until no more outliers are identified. Finally, the entire algorithm repeats along the video sequence with the points remaining from the previous iteration used as the maintained set. As a practical application, an efficient video stabilization can be achieved by exploiting the computed motion models. Our study shows that the number of times corner detection needs to perform is greatly reduced, thus significantly improving the computational cost. Moreover, optical flow vectors are computed for only the maintained feature points, not for outliers, thus also reducing the computational cost. In addition, the feature points after reduction can sufficiently be used for background objects tracking as demonstrated in the simple video stabilizer based on our proposed algorithm.
background object tracking, feature point reduction,low cost tracking, video stabilization.
An Evaluation Method for Two-Dimensional Position Errors and Assembly Errors of a Rotational Table on a 4 Axis Machine Tool
This paper describes a method to measure and
compensate a 4 axes ultra-precision machine tool that generates micro
patterns on the large surfaces. The grooving machine is usually used
for making a micro mold for many electrical parts such as a light guide
plate for LCD and fuel cells. The ultra precision machine tool has three
linear axes and one rotational table. Shaping is usually used to
generate micro patterns. In the case of 50 μm pitch and 25 μm height
pyramid pattern machining with a 90° wedge angle bite, one of linear
axis is used for long stroke motion for high cutting speed and other
linear axis are used for feeding. The triangular patterns can be
generated with many times of long stroke of one axis. Then 90°
rotation of work piece is needed to make pyramid patterns with
superposition of machined two triangular patterns.
To make a two dimensional positioning error, straightness of two
axes in out of plane, squareness between the each axis are important.
Positioning errors, straightness and squarness were measured by laser
interferometer system. Those were compensated and confirmed by
ISO230-6. One of difficult problem to measure the error motions is
squareness or parallelism of axis between the rotational table and
linear axis. It was investigated by simultaneous moving of rotary table
and XY axes. This compensation method is introduced in this paper.
Ultra-precision machine tool, muti-axis errors,squraness, positioning errors.
An Algorithm of Finite Capacity Material Requirement Planning System for Multi-stage Assembly Flow Shop
This paper aims to develop an algorithm of finite
capacity material requirement planning (FCMRP) system for a multistage
assembly flow shop. The developed FCMRP system has two
main stages. The first stage is to allocate operations to the first and
second priority work centers and also determine the sequence of the
operations on each work center. The second stage is to determine the
optimal start time of each operation by using a linear programming
model. Real data from a factory is used to analyze and evaluate the
effectiveness of the proposed FCMRP system and also to guarantee a
practical solution to the user. There are five performance measures,
namely, the total tardiness, the number of tardy orders, the total
earliness, the number of early orders, and the average flow-time. The
proposed FCMRP system offers an adjustable solution which is a
compromised solution among the conflicting performance measures.
The user can adjust the weight of each performance measure to
obtain the desired performance. The result shows that the combination
of FCMRP NP3 and EDD outperforms other combinations
in term of overall performance index. The calculation time for the
proposed FCMRP system is about 10 minutes which is practical for
the planners of the factory.
Material requirement planning, Finite capacity,Linear programming, Permutation, Application in industry.
Analysis of the Structural Fluctuation of the Permitted Building Areas and Housing Distribution Ratios - Focused on 5 Cities Including Bucheon
The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation
between permitted building areas and housing distribution ratios and
their fluctuation, and test a distribution model during 3 successive governments in 5 cities including Bucheon in reference to the time
series administrative data, and thereby, interpret the results of the analysis in association with the policies pursued by the successive
governments to examine the structural fluctuation of permitted building areas and housing distribution ratios.
In order to analyze the fluctuation of permitted building areas and
housing distribution ratios during 3 successive governments and
examine the cycles of the time series data, the spectral analysis was performed, and in order to analyze the correlation between permitted
building areas and housing distribution ratios, the tabulation was performed to describe the correlations statistically, and in order to
explain about differences of fluctuation distribution of permitted building areas and housing distribution ratios among 3 governments,
the goodness of fit test was conducted.
The Permitted Building Areas, Housing Distribution Ratios, the Structural Fluctuation.
Security Analysis on Anonymous Mutual Authentication Protocol for RFID Tag without Back-End Database and its Improvement
RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) system has
been widely used in our life, such as transport systems, passports,
automotive, animal tracking, human implants, library, and so on.
However, the RFID authentication protocols between RF (Radio
Frequency) tags and the RF readers have been bring about various
privacy problems that anonymity of the tags, tracking, eavesdropping,
and so on. Many researchers have proposed the solution of the
problems. However, they still have the problem, such as location
privacy, mutual authentication. In this paper, we show the problems of
the previous protocols, and then we propose a more secure and
efficient RFID authentication protocol.
RFID, mutual authentication, serverless, anonymity.
Deniable Authentication Protocol Resisting Man-in-the-Middle Attack
Deniable authentication is a new protocol which not only enables a receiver to identify the source of a received message but also prevents a third party from identifying the source of the message. The proposed protocol in this paper makes use of bilinear pairings over elliptic curves, as well as the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol. Besides the security properties shared with previous authentication protocols, the proposed protocol provides the same level of security with smaller public key sizes.
Deniable Authentication, Man-in-the-middleAttack, Cryptography, Elliptic Curves.
Numerical Grid Generation of Oceanic Model for the Andaman Sea
The study of the Andaman Sea can be studied by
using the oceanic model; therefore the grid covering the study area
should be generated. This research aims to generate grid covering
the Andaman Sea, situated between longitudes 90◦E to 101◦E and
latitudes 1◦N to 18◦N. A horizontal grid is an orthogonal curvilinear
with 87 × 217 grid points. The methods used in this study are
cubic spline and bilinear interpolations. The boundary grid points
are generated by spline interpolation while the interior grid points
have to be specified by bilinear interpolation method. A vertical grid
is sigma coordinate with 15 layers of water column.
Sigma Coordinate, Curvilinear Coordinate, AndamanSea.
Characterization of the LMOS with Different Channel Structure
In this paper, we propose a novel metal oxide
semiconductor field effect transistor with L-shaped channel structure
(LMOS), and several type of L-shaped structures are also designed,
studied and compared with the conventional MOSFET device for the
same average gate length (Lavg). The proposed device electrical
characteristics are analyzed and evaluated by three dimension (3-D)
ISE-TCAD simulator. It can be confirmed that the LMOS devices
have higher on-state drain current and both lower drain-induced
barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (S.S.) than its
conventional counterpart has. In addition, the transconductance and
voltage gain properties of the LMOS are also improved.
Average gate length (Lavg), drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), L-shaped channel MOSFET (LMOS), subthreshold swing (S.S.).
Implementing a Prototype System for Power Facility Management using RFID/WSN
Firstly, research and development on RFID focuses on
manufacturing and retail sectors, because it can improve supply chain
efficiency. But, now a variety of field is considered the next research
area for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Although RFID is
infancy, RFID technology has great potential in power industry to
significantly reduce cost, and improve quality of power supply. To
complement the limitation of RFID, we adopt the WSN (Wireless
Sensor Network) technology. However, relevant experience is limited,
the challenge will be to derive requirement from business practice and
to determine whether it is possible or not. To explore this issue, we
conduct a case study on implementing power facility management
system using RFID/WSN in Korea Electric Power Corporation
(KEPCO). In this paper we describe requirement from power industry.
And we introduce design and implementation of the test bed.
Power Facility Management, RFID/WSN,Transmission Tower, Underground Tunnel, ZigBee.
Normalized Cumulative Spectral Distribution in Music
As the remedy used music becomes active and
meditation effect through the music is verified, people take a growing
interest about psychological balance or remedy given by music. From
traditional studies, it is verified that the music of which spectral
envelop varies approximately as 1/f (f is frequency) down to a
frequency of low frequency bandwidth gives psychological balance.
In this paper, we researched signal properties of music which gives
psychological balance. In order to find this, we derived the property
from voice. Music composed by voice shows large value in NCSD.
We confirmed the degree of deference between music by curvature of
normalized cumulative spectral distribution. In the music that gives
psychological balance, the curvature shows high value, otherwise, the
curvature shows low value.
Cognitive Psychology, Normalized Cumulative
Spectral Distribution, Curvature.
A Robust Visual Tracking Algorithm with Low-Rank Region Covariance
Region covariance (RC) descriptor is an effective
and efficient feature for visual tracking. Current RC-based tracking
algorithms use the whole RC matrix to track the target in video
directly. However, there exist some issues for these whole RCbased
algorithms. If some features are contaminated, the whole RC
will become unreliable, which results in lost object-tracking. In
addition, if some features are very discriminative to the
background, other features are still processed and thus reduce the
efficiency. In this paper a new robust tracking method is proposed,
in which the whole RC matrix is decomposed into several low rank
matrices. Those matrices are dynamically chosen and processed so
as to achieve a good tradeoff between discriminability and
complexity. Experimental results have shown that our method is
more robust to complex environment changes, especially either
when occlusion happens or when the background is similar to the
target compared to other RC-based methods.
Visual tracking, region covariance descriptor, lowrankregion covariance
Development of Fen4/C And Fen2/C Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrodearomitization of Model Compounds of Heavy Oil
Two novel hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts:
FeN4/C and FeN2/C, were prepared using an impregnation-pyrolysis
method. The two materials were investigated as catalysts for
hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodearomitization (HDA) of
model compounds. The turnover frequency of the two FeN catalysts
is comparable to (FeN4/C) or even higher (FeN2/C) than that of
MoNi/Al2O3. The FeN4/C catalyst also exhibited catalytic activity
catalyst, FeN2/C, FeN4/C, HDS, HDA
A Pairing-based Blind Signature Scheme with Message Recovery
Blind signatures enable users to obtain valid signatures for a message without revealing its content to the signer. This paper presents a new blind signature scheme, i.e. identity-based blind signature scheme with message recovery. Due to the message recovery property, the new scheme requires less bandwidth than the identitybased blind signatures with similar constructions. The scheme is based on modified Weil/Tate pairings over elliptic curves, and thus requires smaller key sizes for the same level of security compared to previous approaches not utilizing bilinear pairings. Security and efficiency analysis for the scheme is provided in this paper.
Blind Signature, Message Recovery, Pairings, Elliptic Curves, Blindness
ECA-SCTP: Enhanced Cooperative ACK for SCTP Path Recovery in Concurrent Multiple Transfer
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) has been
proposed to provide reliable transport of real-time communications.
Due to its attractive features, such as multi-streaming and multihoming,
the SCTP is often expected to be an alternative protocol
for TCP and UDP. In the original SCTP standard, the secondary path
is mainly regarded as a redundancy. Recently, most of researches
have focused on extending the SCTP to enable a host to send its
packets to a destination over multiple paths simultaneously. In order
to transfer packets concurrently over the multiple paths, the SCTP
should be well designed to avoid unnecessary fast retransmission
and the mis-estimation of congestion window size through the paths.
Therefore, we propose an Enhanced Cooperative ACK SCTP (ECASCTP)
to improve the path recovery efficiency of multi-homed host
which is under concurrent multiple transfer mode. We evaluated the
performance of our proposed scheme using ns-2 simulation in terms
of cwnd variation, path recovery time, and goodput. Our scheme
provides better performance in lossy and path asymmetric networks.
SCTP, Concurrent Multiple Transfer, CooperativeSack, Dynamic ack policy
Privacy Threats in RFID Group Proof Schemes
RFID tag is a small and inexpensive microchip which is
capable of transmitting unique identifier through wireless network in a
short distance. If a group of RFID tags can be scanned simultaneously
by one reader, RFID Group proof could be generated. Group proof can
be used in various applications, such as good management which is
usually achieved using barcode system. A lot of RFID group proof
schemes have been proposed by many researchers. In this paper, we
introduce some existing group proof schemes and then analyze their
vulnerabilities to the privacy. Moreover, we propose a new attack
model, which threats the privacy of user by tracking tags in a group.
grouping proof, privacy, RFID, yoking proof
A Study of Efficiency and Prioritize of Eurasian Logistics Network
Recently, Northeast Asia has become one of the three
largest trade areas, covering approximately 30% of the total trade
volume of the world. However, the distribution facilities are saturated
due to the increase in the transportation volume within the area and
with the European countries. In order to accommodate the increase of
the transportation volume, the transportation networking with the
major countries in Northeast Asia and Europe is absolutely necessary.
The Eurasian Logistics Network will develop into an international
passenger transportation network covering the Northeast Asian region
and an international freight transportation network connecting across
Eurasia Continent. This paper surveys the changes and trend of the
distribution network in the Eurasian Region according to the political,
economic and environmental changes of the region, analyses the
distribution network according to the changes in the transportation
policies of the related countries, and provides the direction of the
development of composite transportation on the basis of the present
conditions of transportation means. The transportation means optimal
for the efficiency of transportation system are suggested to be train
ferries, sea & rail or sea & rail & sea. It is suggested to develop
diversified composite transportation means and routes within the
boundary of international cooperation system.
Eurasian Logistics, Integrated Distribution Transport,Northeast Asia, Transportation Networking
Collaborative Web-Based E-learning Environment for Information Security Curriculum
In recent years, the development of e-learning is very
rapid. E-learning is an attractive and efficient way for computer
education. Student interaction and collaboration also plays an
important role in e-learning. In this paper, a collaborative web-based
e-learning environment is presented. A wide range of interactive and
collaborative methods are integrated into a web-based environment.
This e-learning environment is designed for information security
E-learning, information Security, curriculum,
Innovation Knowledge and Capability, Work Efficiency of Accountants and the Success of SME Registered in Nakorn Pathom Province
The objectives of this research were to compare the success of SME registered in Nakorn Pathom Province divided in personal data also to study the relations between the innovation knowledge and capability and the success of SME registered in Nakorn Pathom Province and to study the relations between the work efficiency and the success of SME registered in Nakorn Pathom Province. A questionnaire was utilized as a tool to collect data. Statistics utilized in this research included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and multiple regression analysis. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.The findings revealed that the majority of respondents were male with the age between 25-34 years old, hold undergraduate degree, married and stay together. The average income of respondents was between 10,001-20,000 baht. It also found that in terms of innovation knowledge and capability, there were two variables had an influence on the amount of innovation knowledge and capability, innovation evaluation which were physical characteristic and innovation process.
ccountants, Innovation, Knowledge, Work Efficiency.
Receding Horizon Filtering for Mobile Robot Systems with Cross-Correlated Sensor Noises
This paper reports on a receding horizon filtering for
mobile robot systems with cross-correlated sensor noises and
uncertainties. Also, the effect of uncertain parameters in the state of
the tracking error model performance is considered. A distributed
fusion receding horizon filter is proposed. The distributed fusion
filtering algorithm represents the optimal linear combination of the
local filters under the minimum mean square error criterion. The
derivation of the error cross-covariances between the local receding
horizon filters is the key of this paper. Simulation results of the
tracking mobile robot-s motion demonstrate high accuracy and
computational efficiency of the distributed fusion receding horizon
Distributed fusion, fusion formula, Kalman filter,multisensor, receding horizon, wheeled mobile robot
An Enhanced Key Management Scheme Based on Key Infection in Wireless Sensor Networks
We propose an enhanced key management scheme
based on Key Infection, which is lightweight scheme for tiny sensors.
The basic scheme, Key Infection, is perfectly secure against node
capture and eavesdropping if initial communications after node
deployment is secure. If, however, an attacker can eavesdrop on
the initial communications, they can take the session key. We use
common neighbors for each node to generate the session key. Each
node has own secret key and shares it with its neighbor nodes. Then
each node can establish the session key using common neighbors-
secret keys and a random number. Our scheme needs only a few
communications even if it uses neighbor nodes- information. Without
losing the lightness of basic scheme, it improves the resistance against
eavesdropping on the initial communications more than 30%.
Wireless Sensor Networks, Key Management
Remarks on Some Properties of Decision Rules
This paper shows that some properties of the decision
rules in the literature do not hold by presenting a counterexample. We
give sufficient and necessary conditions under which these properties
are valid. These results will be helpful when one tries to choose the
right decision rules in the research of rough set theory.
set, Decision table, Decision rule, coverage factor.
Secondary School Students- Perceptions about Biological Issues in South Korea
The purpose of present paper was to investigate
perceptions of Korean secondary school students about social issues
related to biological sciences. Twenty issues were selected based on
topics of articles in the newspaper from 2005 to 2010. The issues were
categorized into biotechnology, health-disease and environment
domains. Subjects were 541 high school students (male 253 and
female 288). On the survey, students were asked to answer on 5-point
Lickert scales how they thought of the effect of biological phenomena
or events related to biological issues on the individual life and the
society. They perceived that the biological issues would be more
effectible on the society than on the individual life. Female students
had a little more perceptions than males.
biological issue, biological sciences, perception,
Transportation Under the Threat of Influenza
There are a number of different cars for transferring hundreds of close contacts of swine influenza patients to hospital, and we need to carefully assign the passengers to those cars in order to minimize the risk of influenza spreading during transportation. The paper presents an approach to straightforward obtain the optimal solution of the relaxed problems, and develops two iterative improvement algorithms to effectively tackle the general problem.
Influenza spread, discrete optimization, stationary point, iterative improvement
Optical and Structural Properties of a ZnS Buffer Layer Fabricated with Deposition Temperature of RF Magnetron Sputtering System
Optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnS thin films
were investigated as potential replacements for CBD(chemical bath
deposition) CdS buffer layers in the application of CIGS solar cells.
ZnS thin films were fabricated on glass substrates at RT, 150oC, 200oC,
and 250oC with 50 sccm Ar gas using an RF magnetron sputtering
system. The crystal structure of the thin film is found to be zinc blende
(cubic) structure. Lattice parameter of ZnS is slightly larger than CdS
on the plane and thus better matched with that of CIGS. Within a
400-800 nm wavelength region, the average transmittance was larger
than 75%. When the deposition temperature of the thin film was
increased, the blue shift phenomenon was enhanced. Band gap energy
of the ZnS thin film tended to increase as the deposition temperature
increased. ZnS thin film is a promising material system for the CIGS
buffer layer, in terms of ease of processing, low cost, environmental
friendliness, higher transparency, and electrical properties
ZnS thin film, Buffer layer, CIGS, Solar cell.
How CATV Survive in the Era of Convergence?
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the case of the
U.S. Pivot and to suggest an appropriate model including entry
strategies and success factors for QPS of Cable TV. The
telecommunication companies have been operating QPS including
IPTV service, which enables them to cross over broadcasting areas.
Due to this circumstance, the Cable TV operators are now concerned
and are planning to add QPS with the mobile service. Based on the
Porter's five forces model, an analytical framework has been proposed
to MVNO in Cable TV industry in the United States. As a result of this
study, MVNO in Cable TV industry has to have a clear killer
application with their sufficient contents. Subsequently, the direction
of the future Cable TV industry is proposed.
CATV, MVNO, Pivot, QPS
Issues and Architecture for Supporting Data Warehouse Queries in Web Portals
Data Warehousing tools have become very popular and currently many of them have moved to Web-based user interfaces to make it easier to access and use the tools. The next step is to enable these tools to be used within a portal framework. The portal framework consists of pages having several small windows that contain individual data warehouse query results. There are several issues that need to be considered when designing the architecture for a portal enabled data warehouse query tool. Some issues need special techniques that can overcome the limitations that are imposed by the nature of data warehouse queries. Issues such as single sign-on, query result caching and sharing, customization, scheduling and authorization need to be considered. This paper discusses such issues and suggests an architecture to support data warehouse queries within Web portal frameworks.
Data Warehousing tools, data warehousing queries, web portal frameworks.
Analysis of Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Phononic Crystals with Hollow Cylinders
Large full frequency band gaps of surface and bulk
acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic band structures with
hollow cylinders are addressed in this paper. It is well-known that
absolute frequency band gaps are difficultly obtained in a band
structure consisted of low-acoustic-impedance cylinders in
high-acoustic-impedance host materials such as PMMA/Ni band
structures. Phononic band structures with hollow cylinders are
analyzed and discussed to obtain large full frequency band gaps not
only for bulk modes but also for surface modes. The tendency of
absolute frequency band gaps of surface and bulk acoustic waves is
also addressed by changing the inner radius of hollow cylinders in this
paper. The technique and this kind of band structure are useful for
tuning the frequency band gaps and the design of acoustic waveguides.
Phononic crystals, Band gap, SAW, BAW.
Bias Stability of a-IGZO TFT and a new Shift-Register Design Suitable for a-IGZO TFT
We have fabricated a-IGZO TFT and investigated the
stability under positive DC and AC bias stress. The threshold voltage
of a-IGZO TFT shifts positively under those biases, and that reduces
on-current. For this reason, conventional shift-register circuit
employing TFTs which stressed by positive bias will be unstable, may
do not work properly. We have designed a new 6-transistor
shift-register, which has less transistors than prior circuits. The TFTs
of the proposed shift-register are not suffering from positive DC or AC
stress, mainly kept unbiased. Despite the compact design, the stable
output signal was verified through the SPICE simulation even under
RC delay of clock signal.
Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO), Thin FilmTransistor (TFT), shift-register
Applications of Conic Optimization and Quadratic Programming in the Investigation of Index Arbitrage in the Thai Derivatives and Equity Markets
This research seeks to investigate the frequency and
profitability of index arbitrage opportunities involving the SET50
futures, SET50 component stocks, and the ThaiDEX SET50 ETF
(ticker symbol: TDEX). In particular, the frequency and profit of
arbitrage are measured in the following three arbitrage tests: (1)
SET50 futures vs. ThaiDEX SET50 ETF, (2) SET50 futures vs.
SET50 component stocks, and (3) ThaiDEX SET50 ETF vs. SET50
component stocks are investigated. For tests (2) and (3), the problems
involve conic optimization and quadratic programming as subproblems.
This research is first to apply conic optimization and
quadratic programming techniques in the context of index arbitrage
and is first to investigate such index arbitrage in the Thai equity and
derivatives markets. Thus, the contribution of this study is twofold.
First, its results would help understand the contribution of the
derivatives securities to the efficiency of the Thai markets. Second,
the methodology employed in this study can be applied to other
geographical markets, with minor adjustments.
Conic optimization, Equity index arbitrage, Executionlags, Quadratic programming, SET50 index futures, ThaiDEX SET50ETF, Transaction costs
Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: A General Review on Adsorbents
CO2 is the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas,
accounting for 77% of the human contribution to the greenhouse
effect in 2004. In the recent years, global concentration of CO2 in the
atmosphere is increasing rapidly. CO2 emissions have an impact on
global climate change. Anthropogenic CO2 is emitted primarily from
fossil fuel combustion. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one
option for reducing CO2 emissions. There are three major approaches
for CCS: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and
oxyfuel process. Post-combustion capture offers some advantages as
existing combustion technologies can still be used without radical
changes on them.
There are several post combustion gas separation and capture
technologies being investigated, namely; (a) absorption, (b)
cryogenic separation, (c) membrane separation (d) micro algal biofixation
and (e) adsorption. Apart from establishing new techniques,
the exploration of capture materials with high separation performance
and low capital cost are paramount importance. However, the
application of adsorption from either technology, require easily
regenerable and durable adsorbents with a high CO2 adsorption
capacity. It has recently been reported that the cost of the CO2
capture can be reduced by using this technology. In this paper, the
research progress (from experimental results) in adsorbents for CO2
adsorption, storage, and separations were reviewed and future
research directions were suggested as well.
Carbon capture and storage, pre-combustion, postcombustion,
Development of the Measurement Apparatus for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Core Material
A measurement apparatus is designed and fabricated to
measure the effective thermal conductivity (keff) of a VIP (vacuum
insulation panel) core specimen under various vacuum states and
external loads. The apparatus consists of part for measuring keff, and
parts for controlling external load and vacuum condition. Uncertainty
of the apparatus is validated by measuring the standard reference
material and comparing with commercial devices with VIP samples.
Assessed uncertainty is maximum 2.5 % in case of the standard
reference material, 10 % in case of VIP samples. Using the apparatus,
keff of glass paper under various vacuum levels is examined.
Effective thermal conductivity, guarded hot plate
method, vacuum insulation panel
Acoustic Source Localization Based On the Extended Kalman Filter for an Underwater Vehicle with a Pair of Hydrophones
In this study, we consider a special situation that only a pair of hydrophone on a moving underwater vehicle is available to localize a fixed acoustic source of far distance. The trigonometry can be used in this situation by using two different DOA of different locations. Notice that the distance between the two locations should be measured. Therefore, we assume that the vehicle is sailing straightly and the moving distance for each unit time is measured continuously. However, the accuracy of the localization using the trigonometry is highly dependent to the accuracy of DOAs and measured moving distances. Therefore, we proposed another method based on the extended Kalman filter that gives more robust and accurate localization result.
Localization, acoustic, underwater, extended Kalman
In vitro Studies of Mucoadhesiveness and Release of Nicotinamide Oral Gels Prepared from Bioadhesive Polymers
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the
mucoadhesion and the release of nicotinamide gel formulations using
in vitro methods. An agar plate technique was used to investigate the
adhesiveness of the gels whereas a diffusion apparatus was employed
to determine the release of nicotinamide from the gels. In this
respect, 10% w/w nicotinamide gels containing bioadhesive
polymers: Carbopol 934P (0.5-2% w/w), hydroxypropylmethyl
cellulose (HPMC) (4-10% w/w), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
(SCMC) (4-6% w/w) and methylcellulose 4000 (MC) (3-5% w/w)
were prepared. The gel formulations had pH values in the range of
7.14 - 8.17, which were considered appropriate to oral mucosa
application. In general, the rank order of pH values appeared to be
SCMC > MC4000 > HPMC > Carbopol 934P. Types and
concentrations of polymers used somewhat affected the
adhesiveness. It was found that anionic polymers (Carbopol 934 and
SCMC) adhered more firmly to the agar plate than the neutral
polymers (HPMC and MC 4000). The formulation containing 0.5%
Carbopol 934P (F1) showed the highest release rate. With the
exception of the formulation F1, the neutral polymers tended to give
higher relate rates than the anionic polymers. For oral tissue
treatment, the optimum has to be balanced between the residence
time (adhesiveness) of the formulations and the release rate of the
drug. The formulations containing the anionic polymers: Carbopol
934P or SCMC possessed suitable physical properties (appearance,
pH and viscosity). In addition, for anionic polymer formulations,
justifiable mucoadhesive properties and reasonable release rates of
nicotinamide were achieved. Accordingly, these gel formulations
may be applied for the treatment of oral mucosal lesions.
Nicotinamide, bioadhesive polymer,
mucoadhesiveness, release rate, gel.
Electrolytic Dissolutions of UO2 and SIMFUEL in Carbonate Solutions at Several pHs
Electrolytic dissolution characteristics of UO2 and
SIMFUEL electrodes were studied at several potentials in carbonate
solutions of a high concentration at several pHs. The electrolytic
uranium dissolution was much affected by a corrosion product of
UO2CO3 generated at the electrode during the dissolution in carbonate
solution. The corrosion product distorted the voltammogram at UO2
and SIMFUEL electrodes in the potential region of oxygen evolution
and increased the overpotential of oxygen evolution at the electrode.
The effective dissolution in a carbonate solution could be obtained at
an applied potential such as +4 V (vs SSE) or more which had an
overpotential of oxygen evolution high enough to rupture the
corrosion product on the electrode surface.
Anodic, Electrolytic, Dissolution, SIMFUEL,
Uranium dioxide, Carbonate
High-Intensity Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field effects on Early Physiological Development in Arabidopsis thaliana
The influences of pulsed electric fields on early
physiological development in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied.
Inside a 4-mm electroporation cuvette, pre-germination seeds were
subjected to high-intensity, nanosecond electrical pulses generated
using laboratory-assembled pulsed electric field system. The field
strength was varied from 5 to 20 kV.cm-1 and the pulse width and the
pulse number were maintained at 10 ns and 100, respectively,
corresponding to the specific treatment energy from 300 J.kg-1 to 4.5
kJ.kg-1. Statistical analyses on the average leaf area 5 and 15 days
following pulsed electric field treatment showed that the effects
appear significant the second week after treatments with a maximum
increase of 80% compared to the control (P < 0.01).
Arabidopsis thaliana, full-wave analysis, leaf area,
high-intensity nanosecond pulsed electric fields
The Light Response Characteristics of Oxide-Based Thin Film Transistors
We fabricated the inverted-staggered etch stopper
structure oxide-based TFT and investigated the characteristics of oxide
TFT under the 400 nm wavelength light illumination. When 400 nm
light was illuminated, the threshold voltage (Vth) decreased and
subthreshold slope (SS) increased at forward sweep, while Vth and SS
were not altered when larger wavelength lights, such as 650 nm, 550
nm and 450 nm, were illuminated. At reverse sweep, the transfer curve
barely changed even under 400 nm light. Our experimental results
support that photo-induced hole carriers are captured by donor-like
interface trap and it caused the decrease of Vth and increase of SS. We
investigated the interface trap density increases proportionally to the
photo-induced hole concentration at active layer.
thin film transistor, oxide-based semiconductor, lightresponse
Hydrothermal Fabrication of Iodine Doped Titanium Oxide Films on Ti Substrate
Titanium oxide films with different morphologies have for the first time been fabricated through hydrothermal reactions between a titanium substrate and iodine powder in water or ethanol. SEM revealed that iodine supported titanium (Ti-I2) surface shows different morphologies with variable treatment conditions. The mean surface roughness (Ra) was increased in the different groups. Use of surfactant has a role to increase the roughness of the film. The surface roughness was in the range of 0.15 μm-0.42 μm. Furthermore, the electrochemical examinations showed that the Ti-I2 surface fabricated in alcoholic medium has high corrosion resistance than in aqueous medium.
Corrosion, Hydrothermal, Surface roughness, Titanium oxide.
A Novel 14 nm Extended Body FinFET for Reduced Corner Effect, Self-Heating Effect, and Increased Drain Current
In this paper, we have proposed a novel FinFET with
extended body under the poly gate, which is called EB-FinFET, and
its characteristic is demonstrated by using three-dimensional (3-D)
numerical simulation. We have analyzed and compared it with
conventional FinFET. The extended body height dependence on the
drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (S.S)
have been also investigated. According to the 3-D numerical
simulation, the proposed structure has a firm structure, an acceptable
short channel effect (SCE), a reduced series resistance, an increased
on state drain current (I
on) and a large normalized I
the structure can also improve corner effect and reduce self-heating
effect due to the extended body. Our results show that the EBFinFET
is excellent for nanoscale device.
SOI, FinFET, tri-gate, self-heating effect.
Security Enhanced RFID Middleware System
Recently, the RFID (Radio Frequency
Identification) technology attracts the world market attention as
essential technology for ubiquitous environment. The RFID
market has focused on transponders and reader development.
But that concern has shifted to RFID software like as
high-valued e-business applications, RFID middleware and
related development tools. However, due to the high sensitivity
of data and service transaction within the RFID network,
security consideration must be addressed. In order to guarantee
trusted e-business based on RFID technology, we propose a
security enhanced RFID middleware system. Our proposal is
compliant with EPCglobal ALE (Application Level Events),
which is standard interface for middleware and its clients. We
show how to provide strengthened security and trust by
protecting transported data between middleware and its client,
and stored data in middleware. Moreover, we achieve the
identification and service access control against illegal service
abuse. Our system enables secure RFID middleware service
and trusted e-business service.
RFID Middleware, ALE (Application Level Events), Security.
Comparison between Minimum Direct and Indirect Jerks of Linear Dynamic Systems
Both the minimum energy consumption and
smoothness, which is quantified as a function of jerk, are generally
needed in many dynamic systems such as the automobile and the
pick-and-place robot manipulator that handles fragile equipments.
Nevertheless, many researchers come up with either solely
concerning on the minimum energy consumption or minimum jerk
trajectory. This research paper proposes a simple yet very interesting
relationship between the minimum direct and indirect jerks
approaches in designing the time-dependent system yielding an
alternative optimal solution. Extremal solutions for the cost functions
of direct and indirect jerks are found using the dynamic optimization
methods together with the numerical approximation. This is to allow
us to simulate and compare visually and statistically the time history
of control inputs employed by minimum direct and indirect jerk
designs. By considering minimum indirect jerk problem, the
numerical solution becomes much easier and yields to the similar
results as minimum direct jerk problem.
Optimization, Dynamic, Linear Systems, Jerks.
Design of Multi-disease Diagnosis Processor using Hypernetworks Technique
In this paper, we propose disease diagnosis hardware
architecture by using Hypernetworks technique. It can be used to
diagnose 3 different diseases (SPECT Heart, Leukemia, Prostate
cancer). Generally, the disparate diseases require specified diagnosis
hardware model for each disease. Using similarities of three diseases
diagnosis processor, we design diagnosis processor that can diagnose
three different diseases. Our proposed architecture that is combining
three processors to one processor can reduce hardware size without
decrease of the accuracy.
Diagnosis processor, Hypernetworks, Leukemia, Mask, Prostate cancer, SPECT Heart data
Urban-Rural Balance, Regional Coordination and Land Transfer in China
It-s difficult for China-s current land transfer
institutions limited to county-wide to solve the contradiction between
urban-rural development and construction land shortage. On the basis of analyzing China-s construction land transfer system, and evaluation
toward Transfer of development rights (TDR) practices in Anhui and
Chongqing, the passage proposes: (1) we should establish a multi-level
land indicators trade market under the guidance of regional spatial
objectives, and allow land transfer paid across cities and counties
within a specific area following the regulation of both government and
market; (2) it would be better to combine organically the policy ntentions of land plan, regional plan, urban plan and economic plan, and link them with land indicators transfer to promote a wider range of
urban-rural balance and regional coordination.
China's land institutions, transfer of development rights, urban-rural balance, regional coordination.
The Splitting Upwind Schemes for Spectral Action Balance Equation
The spectral action balance equation is an equation that
used to simulate short-crested wind-generated waves in shallow water
areas such as coastal regions and inland waters. This equation consists
of two spatial dimensions, wave direction, and wave frequency which
can be solved by finite difference method. When this equation with
dominating convection term are discretized using central differences,
stability problems occur when the grid spacing is chosen too coarse.
In this paper, we introduce the splitting upwind schemes for avoiding
stability problems and prove that it is consistent to the upwind scheme
with same accuracy. The splitting upwind schemes was adopted
to split the wave spectral action balance equation into four onedimensional
problems, which for each small problem obtains the
independently tridiagonal linear systems. For each smaller system
can be solved by direct or iterative methods at the same time which
is very fast when performed by a multi-processor computer.
upwind scheme, parallel algorithm, spectral action balance equation, splitting method.
Lunar Rover Virtual Simulation System with Autonomous Navigation
The paper researched and presented a virtual simulation system based on a full-digital lunar terrain, integrated with kinematics and dynamics module as well as autonomous navigation simulation module. The system simulation models are established. Enabling technologies such as digital lunar surface module, kinematics and dynamics simulation, Autonomous navigation are investigated. A prototype system for lunar rover locomotion simulation is developed based on these technologies. Autonomous navigation is a key echnology in lunar rover system, but rarely involved in virtual simulation system. An autonomous navigation simulation module have been integrated in this prototype system, which was proved by the simulation results that the synthetic simulation and visualizing analysis system are established in the system, and the system can provide efficient support for research on the autonomous navigation of lunar rover.
Lunar rover, virtual simulation, autonomous navigation, full-digital lunar terrain
A Collaborative Framework for Visual Modeling on Web 2.0
Cooperative visual modeling is more and more
necessary in our complicated world. A collaborative environment
which supports interactive operation and communication is required
to increase work efficiency. We present a collaborative visual
modeling framework which collaborative platform could be built on.
On this platform, cooperation and communication is available for
designers from different regions. This framework, which is different
from other collaborative frameworks, contains a uniform message
format, a message handling mechanism and other functions such as
message pretreatment and Role-Communication-Token Access
Control (RCTAC). We also show our implementation of this
framework called Orchestra Designer, which support BPLE
workflow modeling cooperatively online.
colllaborative framework; visual modeling;
message handling mechanism
Fabrication of Microfluidic Device for Quantitative Monitoring of Algal Cell Behavior Using X-ray LIGA Technology
In this paper, a simple microfluidic device for monitoring algal cell behavior is proposed. An array of algal microwells is fabricated by PDMS soft-lithography using X-ray LIGA mold, placed on a glass substrate. Two layers of replicated PDMS and substrate are attached by oxygen plasma bonding, creating a microchannel for the microfluidic system. Algal cell are loaded into the microfluidic device, which provides positive charge on the bottom surface of wells. Algal cells, which are negative charged, can be attracted to the bottom of the wells via electrostatic interaction. By varying the concentration of algal cells in the loading suspension, it is possible to obtain wells with a single cell. Liquid medium for cells monitoring are flown continuously over the wells, providing nutrient and waste exchange between the well and the main flow. This device could lead to the uncovering of the quantitative biology of the algae, which is a key to effective and extensive algal utilizations in the field of biotechnology, food industry and bioenergy research and developments.
Algal cells, microfluidic device, X-ray LIGA, X-ray
lithography, metallic mold, synchrotron light, PDMS
A Novel Spectrum Sensing Scheme Based on Periodicity of DVB-T Pilot Signals
This paper proposes a novel spectrum sensing technique
for the digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) systems, which
utilizes the periodicity of pilot signals in the orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols. The proposed scheme can
overcome the effect of the timing synchronization error by recorrelating
the correlation values in the same sample distances. The
numerical results demonstrate that the detection probability performance
of the proposed scheme outperforms that of the conventional
scheme when there exists a timing synchronization error.
DVB-T, spectrum sensing, OFDM, timing synchronizationerror.
A Matrix Evaluation Model for Sustainability Assessment of Manufacturing Technologies
Technology assessment is a vital part of decision process in manufacturing, particularly for decisions on selection of new sustainable manufacturing processes. To assess these processes, a matrix approach is introduced and sustainability assessment models are developed. Case studies show that the matrix-based approach provides a flexible and practical way for sustainability evaluation of new manufacturing technologies such as those used in surface coating. The technology assessment of coating processes reveals that compared with powder coating, the sol-gel coating can deliver better technical, economical and environmental sustainability with respect to the selected sustainability evaluation criteria for a decorative coating application of car wheels.
Evaluation matrix, sustainable manufacturing,
surface coating, technology assessment
Low-MAC FEC Controller for JPEG2000 Image Transmission Over IEEE 802.15.4
In this paper, we propose the low-MAC FEC controller for practical implementation of JPEG2000 image transmission using IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed low-MAC FEC controller has very small HW size and spends little computation to estimate channel state. Because of this advantage, it is acceptable to apply IEEE 802.15.4 which has to operate more than 1 year with battery. For the image transmission, we integrate the low-MAC FEC controller and RCPC coder in sensor node of LR-WPAN. The modified sensor node has increase of 3% hardware size than conventional zigbee sensor node.
FEC, IEEE 802.15.4, JPEG2000, low-MAC.
A Study on Cancer-Cell Invasion Based On the Diffuse Interface Model
In this study, a three-dimensional haptotaxis model to simulate the migration of a population of cancer cells has been proposed. The invasion of cancer cells is related with the hapto-attractant and the effect of the interface energies between the cells and the ECM. The diffuse interface model, which incorporates the haptotaxis mechanism and interface energies, is employed. The semi-implicit Fourier spectral scheme is adopted for efficient evaluation of the simulation. The simulation results thoroughly reveal the dynamics of cancer-cell migration.
Haptotaxis, Cancer Cells, Cell Migration, Interface Energy, Diffuse Interface Model
Interfacial Layer Effect on Novel p-Ni1-xO:Li/n-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells
This study fabricates p-type Ni1−xO:Li/n-Si heterojunction solar cells (P+/n HJSCs) by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and investigates the effect of substrate temperature on photovoltaic cell properties. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, four point probe, and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared discover the optoelectrical properties of p-Ni1-xO thin films. The results show that p-Ni1-xO thin films deposited at 300 oC has the highest grain size (22.4 nm), average visible transmittance (~42%), and electrical resistivity (2.7 Ωcm). However, the conversion efficiency of cell is shown only 2.33% which is lower than the cell (3.39%) fabricated at room temperature. This result can be mainly attributed to interfacial layer thickness (SiOx) reduces from 2.35 nm to 1.70 nm, as verified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.
Heterojunction, nickel oxide, solar cells, sputtering.
Investigation on Adjustable Mirror Bender Using Light Beam Size
In this research, the use of light beam size to design the adjustable mirror bender is presented. The focused beam line characterized by its size towards the synchrotron light beam line is investigated. The COSMOSWorks is used in all simulation components of curvature adjustment system to analyze in finite element method. The results based on simulation covers the use of applied forces during adjustment of the mirror radius are presented.
Light beam-line, mirror bender, synchrotron light machine.
A Generalized Coordination Setting Method for Distribution Systems with Closed-loop
The protection issues in distribution systems with open and closed-loop are studied, and a generalized protection setting scheme based on the traditional over current protection theories is proposed to meet the new requirements. The setting method is expected to be easier realized using computer program, so that the on-line adaptive setting for coordination in distribution system can be implemented. An automatic setting program is created and several cases are taken into practice. The setting results are verified by the coordination curves of the protective devices which are plotted using MATLAB.
protection setting, on-line system analysis, over current protection, closed-loop distribution system
Assessment of Sediment Remediation Potential using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology
Bio-electrical responses obtained from freshwater
sediments by employing microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology were
investigated in this experimental study. During the electricity
generation, organic matter in the sediment was microbially oxidized
under anaerobic conditions with an electrode serving as a terminal
electron acceptor. It was found that the sediment organic matter
(SOM) associated with electrochemically-active electrodes became
more humified, aromatic, and polydispersed, and had a higher average
molecular weight, together with the decrease in the quantity of SOM.
The alteration of characteristics of the SOM was analogous to that
commonly observed in the early stage of SOM diagenetic process (i.e.,
humification). These findings including an elevation of the sediment
redox potential present a possibility of the MFC technology as a new
soil/sediment remediation technique based on its potential benefits:
non-destructive electricity generation and bioremediation.
Anaerobic oxidation, microbial fuel cell, remediation,sediment.
New Proxy Signatures Preserving Privacy and as Secure as ElGamal Signatures
Digital signature is a useful primitive to attain the integrity and authenticity in various wire or wireless communications. Proxy signature is one type of the digital signatures. It helps the proxy signer to sign messages on behalf of the original signer. It is very useful when the original signer (e.g. the president of a company) is not available to sign a specific document. If the original signer can not forge valid proxy signatures through impersonating the proxy signer, it will be robust in a virtual environment; thus the original signer can not shift any illegal action initiated by herself to the proxy signer. In this paper, we propose a new proxy signature scheme. The new scheme can prevent the original signer from impersonating the proxy signer to sign messages. The proposed scheme is based on the regular ElGamal signature. In addition, the fair privacy of the proxy signer is maintained. That means, the privacy of the proxy signer is preserved; and the privacy can be revealed when it is necessary.
ElGamal signature, proxy signature, security, hash function, fair privacy.
Using Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter Track 3D Arm Motion based on Hierarchical Limb Model
For improving the efficiency of human 3D tracking, we
present an algorithm to track 3D Arm Motion. First, the Hierarchy
Limb Model (HLM) is proposed based on the human 3D skeleton
model. Second, via graph decomposition, the arm motion state space,
modeled by HLM, can be discomposed into two low dimension
subspaces: root nodes and leaf nodes. Finally, Rao-Blackwellised
Particle Filter is used to estimate the 3D arm motion. The result of
experiment shows that our algorithm can advance the computation
Hierarchy Limb Model; Rao-Blackwellised Particle
Filter; 3D tracking
Implementation of a Reed-Solomon Code as an ECC in Yet Another Flash File System
Flash memory has become an important storage device
in many embedded systems because of its high performance, low
power consumption and shock resistance. Multi-level cell (MLC) is
developed as an effective solution for reducing the cost and increasing
the storage density in recent years. However, most of flash file system
cannot handle the error correction sufficiently. To correct more errors
for MLC, we implement Reed-Solomon (RS) code to YAFFS, what is
widely used for flash-based file system. RS code has longer computing
time but the correcting ability is much higher than that of Hamming
Reed-Solomon, NAND flash memory, YAFFS, ErrorCorrecting Code, Flash File System
Parallelization and Optimization of SIFT Feature Extraction on Cluster System
Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) has been
widely applied, but extracting SIFT feature is complicated and
time-consuming. In this paper, to meet the demand of the real-time
applications, SIFT is parallelized and optimized on cluster system,
which is named pSIFT. Redundancy storage and communication are
used for boundary data to improve the performance, and before
representation of feature descriptor, data reallocation is adopted to
keep load balance in pSIFT. Experimental results show that pSIFT
achieves good speedup and scalability.
cluster, image matching, parallelization and
Electrical Characteristics of SCR - based ESD Device for I/O and Power Rail Clamp in 0.35um Process
This paper presents a SCR-based ESD protection devices for I/O clamp and power rail clamp, respectably. These devices have a low trigger voltage and high holding voltage characteristics than conventional SCR device. These devices are fabricated by using 0.35um BCD (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) processes. These devices were validated using a TLP system. From the experimental results, the device for I/O ESD clamp has a trigger voltage of 5.8V. Also, the device for power rail ESD clamp has a holding voltage of 7.7V.
ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), ESD protection
device, SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), Latch-up
On SNR Estimation by the Likelihood of near Pitch for Speech Detection
People have the habitual pitch level which is used when people say something generally. However this pitch should be changed irregularly in the presence of noise. So it is useful to estimate SNR of speech signal by pitch. In this paper, we obtain the energy of input speech signal and then we detect a stationary region on voiced speech. And we get the pitch period by NAMDF for the stationary region that is not varied pitch rapidly. After getting pitch, each frame is divided by pitch period and the likelihood of closed pitch is estimated. In this paper, we proposed new parameter, NLF, to estimate the SNR of received speech signal. The NLF is derived from the correlation of near pitch periods. The NLF is obtained for each stationary region in voiced speech. Finally we confirmed good performance of the estimation of the SNR of received input speech in the presence of noise.
Likelihood, pitch, SNR, speech.
Investigations on Some Operations of Soft Sets
Soft set theory was initiated by Molodtsov in 1999. In the past years, this theory had been applied to many branches of mathematics, information science and computer science. In 2003, Maji et al. introduced some operations of soft sets and gave some operational rules. Recently, some of these operational rules are pointed out to be not true. Furthermore, Ali et al., in their paper, introduced and discussed some new operations of soft sets. In this paper, we further investigate these operational rules given by Maji et al. and Ali et al.. We obtain some sufficient-necessary conditions such that corresponding operational rules hold and give correct forms for some operational rules. These results will be help for us to use rightly operational rules of soft sets in research and application of soft set theory.
Soft sets, union, intersection, complement.
Thermal Stability of a Vertical SOI-Based Capacitorless One-Transistor DRAM with Trench-Body Structure
A vertical SOI-based MOSFET with trench body
structure operated as 1T DRAM cell at various temperatures has been
studied and investigated. Different operation temperatures are
assigned for the device for its performance comparison, thus the
thermal stability is carefully evaluated for the future memory device
applications. Based on the simulation, the vertical SOI-based
MOSFET with trench body structure demonstrates the electrical
characteristics properly and possess conspicuous kink effect at
various operation temperatures. Transient characteristics were also
performed to prove that its programming window values and
retention time behaviors are acceptable when the new 1T DRAM cell
is operated at high operation temperature.
SOI, 1T DRAM, thermal stability.
Analysis of the Visual Preference of Patterns in Pedestrian Roads
The purpose of this study is to analyze the visual
preference of patterns in pedestrian roads. In this study, animation was
applied for the estimation of dynamic streetscape. Six patterns of
pedestrian were selected in order to analyze the visual preference. The
shapes are straight, s-curve, and zigzag. The ratio of building's height
and road's width are 2:1 and 1:1. Twelve adjective pairs used in the
field investigation were selected from adjectives which are used
usually in the estimation of streetscape. They are interesting-boring,
simple-complex, calm-noisy, open-enclosed, active-inactive,
lightly-depressing, regular-irregular, unique-usual, rhythmic-not
rhythmic, united-not united, stable-unstable, tidy-untidy.
Dynamic streetscape must be considered important in pedestrian
shopping mall and park because it will be an attraction. So, s-curve
pedestrian road, which is the most beautiful as a result of this study,
should be designed in this area. Also, the ratio of building's height and
road's width along pedestrian road should be reduced.
Visual preference, streetscape, animation, simulation,
ODA for Gender Equality in Fragile States
This study starts with the review on the role of external assistance to fragile states where the state lacks the capacity to provide better quality lives for its people. One of the tools being the Official Development Assistance, this paper focuses on the its disbursement patterns to fragile states that targets women's empowerment and gender equality to verify where donors stand on their actions on fragile states. The findings show that whereas donors have increased their aid volume with gender equality objectives in absolute terms, it is still lacking when compared to total amount. Hence, donors need to further strengthen their commitment to promoting gender equality in its aid activities as well as to allocate more assistance with significant and principal objectives on gender.
Fragile states, gender equality, Official Development Assistance (ODA), women's empowerment.
An Integrated Supply Chain Management to Manufacturing Industries
Manufacturers have been exploring innovative strategies to achieve and sustain competitive advantages as they face a new era of intensive global competition. Such strategy is known as Supply Chain Management (SCM), which has gained a tremendous amount of attention from both researchers and practitioners over the last decade. Supply chain management (SCM) is considered as the most popular operating strategy for improving organizational competitiveness in the twenty-first century. It has attracted a lot of attention recently due to its role involving all of the activities in industrial organizations, ranging from raw material procurement to final product delivery to customers. Well-designed supply chain systems can substantially improve efficiency and product quality, and eventually enhance customer satisfaction and profitability. In this paper, a manufacturing engineering perspective on supply chain integration is presented. Research issues discussed include the product and process design for the supply chain, design evaluation of manufacturing in the supply chain, agent-based techniques for supply chain integration, intelligent information for sharing across the supply chain, and a development of standards for product, process, and production data exchange to facilitate electronic commerce. The objective is to provide guidelines and references for manufacturing engineers and researchers interested in supply chain integration.
Supply Chain, Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Integration, Manufacturing Industries.
A Study on the Planning Criteria of Block-Unit Redevelopment to Improve Residential Environment - Focused on Redevelopment Project in Seoul -
In Korea, elements that decide the quality of residential environment are not only diverse, but show deviation as well. However, people do not consider these elements and instead, they try to settle the uniformed style of residential environment, which focuses on the construction development of apartment housing and business based plans. Recently, block-unit redevelopment is becoming the standout alternative plan of standardize redevelopment projects, but constructions become inefficient because of indefinite planning criteria.
In conclusion, the following research is about analyzing and categorizing the development method and legal ground of redevelopment project district and plan determinant and applicable standard; the purpose of this study is to become a basis in compatible analysis of planning standards that will happen in the future.
Shape Restrictions, Improvement of Reagulation, Diversity of Residential Environment, Classification of Redevelopment Project, Planning Criteria of Redevelopment, Special Architectural District (SAD).
An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications
In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative
scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error
rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the
coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage
is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed
cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive
signals from both broadcasting station and cellular station. The
proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to
achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The
performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.
Cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD,
channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system.
Efficient Single Relay Selection Scheme for Cooperative Communication
This paper proposes a single relay selection scheme in
cooperative communication. Decode-and-forward scheme is
considered when a source node wants to cooperate with a single relay
for data transmission. To use the proposed single relay selection
scheme, the source node makes a little different pattern signal which is
not complex pattern and broadcasts it. The proposed scheme does not
require the channel state information between the source node and
candidates of the relay during the relay selection. Therefore, it is able
to be used in many fields.
Relay selection, cooperative communication, df, channel codes.
Cooperative CDD Scheme Based On Adaptive Modulation in Wireless Communication System
Among spatial diversity scheme, orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) and cyclic delay diversity (CDD) have been widely studied for the cooperative wireless relaying system. However, conventional OSTBC and CDD cannot cope with change in the number of relays owing to low throughput or error performance. In this paper, we propose a cooperative cyclic delay diversity (CDD) scheme that use hierarchical modulation at the source and adaptive modulation based on cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code at the relays.
Adaptive modulation, Cooperative communication, CDD, OSTBC.
Efficient Iterative Detection Technique in Wireless Communication System
Recently, among the MIMO-OFDM detection techniques, a lot of papers suggested V-BLAST scheme which can achieve high data rate. Therefore, the signal detection of MIMO-OFDM system is important issue. In this paper, efficient iterative V-BLAST detection technique is proposed in wireless communication system. The proposed scheme adjusts the number of candidate symbol and iterative scheme based on channel state. According to the simulation result, the proposed scheme has better BER performance than conventional schemes and similar BER performance of the QRD-M with iterative scheme. Moreover complexity of proposed scheme has 50.6% less than complexity of QRD-M detection with iterative scheme. Therefore the proposed detection scheme can be efficiently used in wireless communication.
MIMO-OFDM, V-BLAST, QR-decomposition, QRD-M, DFE, Iterative scheme, Channel condition.
Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based On Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System
In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better tradeoff between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.
MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, Channel condition.
Design of Orientation-Free Handler and Fuzzy Controller for Wire-Driven Heavy Object Lifting System
This paper presents an intention interface and controller for a wire-driven heavy object lifting system that assists the operator with moving a heavy object. The handler is designed to allow a comfortable working posture for the operator. Plus, as a human assistive system, the operator is involved in the control loop, where a fuzzy control system is used to consider the human control characteristics. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed system are proved by experiments.
Fuzzy controller, Handler design, Heavy object lifting system, Human-assistive device, Human-in-the-loop system.
Deriving Generic Transformation Matrices for Multi-Axis Milling Machine
This paper proposes a new method to find the equations
of transformation matrix for the rotation angles of the two rotational
axes and the coordinates of the three linear axes of an orthogonal
multi-axis milling machine. This approach provides intuitive physical
meanings for rotation angles of multi-axis machines, which can be
used to evaluate the accuracy of the conversion from CL data to NC
CAM, multi-axis milling machining.
Public Policy for Quality School Lunch Development in Thailand
Obesity, stunting and wasting problems among Thai school-aged children are increasing due to inappropriate food consumption behavior and poor environments for desirable nutritional behavior. Because of a low school lunch budget of only 0.40 USD per person per day, food quality is not up to nutritional standards. Therefore, the Health Department with the Education Ministry and the Thai Health Promotion Foundation have developed a quality school lunch project during 2009–2013. The program objectives were development and management of public policy to increase school lunch budget. The methods used a healthy public policy motivation process and movement in 241 local administrative organizations and 538 schools. The problem and solution research was organized to study school food and nutrition management, create a best practice policy mobilization model and hold a public hearing to motivate an increase of school meal funding. The results showed that local public policy has been motivated during 2009-2011 to increase school meal budget using local budgets. School children with best food consumption behavior and exercise increased from 13.2% in 2009 to 51.6% in 2013 and stunting decreased from 6.0% in 2009 to 4.7% in 2013. As the result of national policy motivation (2012-2013), the cabinet meeting on October 22, 2013 has approved an increase of school lunch budget from 0.40 USD to 0.62 USD per person per day. Thus, 5,800,469 school children nationwide have benefited from the budget increase.
Public policy, Quality school lunch, Thailand.
Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate
Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal
insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general,
it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m·K. However, this thermal
conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective
thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge
conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of
VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To
confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is
performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical
model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge
conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the
experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show
that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and
thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended
that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film
Envelope, Edge conduction, Thermal conductivity,
Vacuum insulation panel.
Analysis of Combined Heat Transfer through the Core Materials of VIPs with Various Scattering Properties
Vacuum Insulation Panel (VIP) can achieve very low
thermal conductivity by evacuating its inner space. Heat transfer in the
core materials of highly-evacuated VIP occurs by conduction through
the solid structure and radiation through the pore. The effect of various
scattering modes in combined conduction-radiation in VIP is
investigated through numerical analysis. The discrete ordinates
interpolation method (DOIM) incorporated with the commercial code
FLUENT® is employed. It is found that backward scattering is more
effective in reducing the total heat transfer while isotropic scattering is
almost identical with pure absorbing/emitting case of the same optical
thickness. For a purely scattering medium, the results agrees well with
additive solution with diffusion approximation, while a modified term
is added in the effect of optical thickness to backward scattering is
employed. For other scattering phase functions, it is also confirmed
that backwardly scattering phase function gives a lower effective
thermal conductivity. Thus the materials with backward scattering
properties, with radiation shields are desirable to lower the thermal
conductivity of VIPs.
Combined conduction and radiation, discrete
ordinates interpolation method, scattering phase function, vacuum
Investigation of Long-Term Thermal Insulation Performance of Vacuum Insulation Panels with Various Enveloping Methods
To practically apply vacuum insulation panels (VIPs)
to buildings or home appliances, VIPs have demanded long-term
lifespan with outstanding insulation performance. Service lives of
VIPs enveloped with Al-foil and three-layer Al-metallized envelope
are calculated. For Al-foil envelope, the service life is longer but edge
conduction is too large compared with the Al-metallized envelope. To
increase service life even more, the proposed double enveloping
method and metal-barrier-added enveloping method are further
analyzed. The service lives of the VIP to employ two enveloping
methods are calculated. Also, pressure increase and thermal insulation
performance characteristics are investigated. For the metalbarrier-
added enveloping method, effective thermal conductivity
increase with time is close to that of Al-foil envelope, especially, for
getter-inserted VIPs. For double enveloping method, if water vapor is
perfectly adsorbed, the effect of service life enhancement becomes
much greater. From these methods, the VIP can be guaranteed for
service life of more than 20 years.
Vacuum insulation panels, Service life, Double
enveloping, Metal-barrier-added enveloping, Edge conduction.
A Cooperative Transmission Scheme Using Two Sources Based On OFDM System
In wireless communication, space-time block code (STBC), cyclic delay diversity (CDD) and space-time cyclic delay diversity (STCDD)are used as the spatial diversity schemes and have been widely studied for the reliablecommunication. If these schemes are used, the communication system can obtain the improved performance. However,the quality of the system is degraded when the distance between a source and a destination is distant in wireless communication system. In this paper, the cooperative transmission scheme using two sources is proposed and improves the performance of the wireless communication system.
OFDM, Cooperative communication, CDD, STBC, STCDD.
SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application
This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR)
based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated
circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage
and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based
ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is
verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified
effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of
5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization
depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3 and D4).
ESD, SCR, Holding voltage, Latch-up.
Coordinated Multi-Point Scheme Based On Channel State Information in MIMO-OFDM System
Recently, increasing the quality of experience (QoE) is
an important issue. Since performance degradation at cell edge
extremely reduces the QoE, several techniques are defined at
LTE/LTE-A standard to remove inter-cell interference (ICI). However,
the conventional techniques have disadvantage because there is a
trade-off between resource allocation and reliable communication.
The proposed scheme reduces the ICI more efficiently by using
channel state information (CSI) smartly. It is shown that the proposed
scheme can reduce the ICI with fewer resources.
Adaptive beam forming, CoMP, LTE-A, ICI
Modeling and Validation of Microspheres Generation in the Modified T-Junction Device
This paper presents a model for a modified T-junction
device for microspheres generation. The numerical model is
developed using a commercial software package: COMSOL
Multiphysics. In order to test the accuracy of the numerical model,
multiple variables, such as the flow rate of cross-flow, fluid properties,
structure, and geometry of the microdevice are applied. The results
from the model are compared with the experimental results in the
diameter of the microsphere generated. The comparison shows a good
agreement. Therefore the model is useful in further optimization of the
device and feedback control of microsphere generation if any.
CFD modeling, validation, microsphere generation,
Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale: Preliminary Factor and Psychometric Analysis
The aims of this study were to determine the factor
structure and psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and convergent
validity) of the Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale
(MMEDS). It consists of 71-items measure experience, strategies
used and consequences of ethnic discrimination. A sample of 649
university students from one of the higher education institution in
Malaysia was asked to complete MMEDS, as well as Perceived
Ethnic and Racial Discrimination. The exploratory factor analysis on
ethnic discrimination experience extracted two factors labeled ‘unfair
treatment’ (15 items) and ‘Denial of the ethnic right’ (12 items)
which accounted for 60.92% of the total variance. The two sub scales
demonstrated clear reliability with internal consistency above .70.
The convergent validity of the Scale was supported by an expected
pattern of correlations (positive and significant correlation) between
the score of unfair treatment and denial of the ethnic right and the
score of Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination by Peers Scale.
The results suggest that the MMEDS is a reliable and valid measure.
However, further studies need to be carried out in other groups of
sample as to validate the Scale.
Factor structure, psychometric properties,
exploratory factor analysis.
The Influence of Swirl Burner Geometry on the Sugar-Cane Bagasse Injection and Burning
A comprehensive CFD model is developed to
represent heterogeneous combustion and two burner designs of
supply sugar-cane bagasse into a furnace. The objective of this work
is to compare the insertion and burning of a Brazilian south-eastern
sugar-cane bagasse using a new swirl burner design against an actual
geometry under operation. The new design allows control the
particles penetration and scattering inside furnace by adjustment of
axial/tangential contributions of air feed without change their mass
flow. The model considers turbulence using RNG k-, combustion
using EDM, radiation heat transfer using DTM with 16 ray directions
and bagasse particle tracking represented by Schiller-Naumann
model. The obtained results are favorable to use of new design swirl
burner because its axial/tangential control promotes more penetration
or more scattering than actual design and allows reproduce the actual
design operation without change the overall mass flow supply.
Comprehensive CFD model, sugar-cane bagasse
combustion, swirl burner.
A Comprehensive CFD Model for Sugar-Cane Bagasse Heterogeneous Combustion in a Grate Boiler System
The comprehensive CFD models have been used to
represent and study the heterogeneous combustion of biomass. In the
present work, the operation of a global flue gas circuit in the sugarcane
bagasse combustion, from wind boxes below primary air grate
supply, passing by bagasse insertion in swirl burners and boiler
furnace, to boiler bank outlet is simulated. It uses five different
meshes representing each part of this system located in sequence:
wind boxes and grate, boiler furnace, swirl burners, superheaters and
boiler bank. The model considers turbulence using standard k-ε,
combustion using EDM, radiation heat transfer using DTM with 16
ray directions and bagasse particle tracking represented by Schiller-
Naumann model. The results showed good agreement with expected
behavior found in literature and equipment design. The more detailed
results view in separated parts of flue gas system allows observing
some flow behaviors that cannot be represented by usual
simplifications like bagasse supply under homogeneous axial and
rotational vectors and others that can be represented using new
considerations like the representation of 26 thousand grate orifices by
144 rectangular inlets.
Comprehensive CFD model, sugar-cane bagasse
combustion, sugar-cane bagasse grate boiler.
Extraction of Bran Protein Using Enzymes and Polysaccharide Precipitation
Rice bran is normally used as a raw material for rice
bran oil production or sold as feed with a low price. Conventionally,
the protein in defatted rice bran was extracted using alkaline
extraction and acid precipitation, which involves in chemical usage
and lowering some nutritious component. This study was conducted
in order to extract of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) from
defatted rice bran using enzymes and employing polysaccharides in a
precipitating step. The properties of RBPC obtained will be compared
to those of a control sample extracted using a conventional method.
The results showed that extraction of protein from rice bran using
enzymes exhibited the higher protein recovery compared to that
extraction with alkaline. The extraction conditions using alcalase 2%
(v/w) at 50 C, pH 9.5 gave the highest protein (2.44%) and yield
(32.09%) in extracted solution compared to other enzymes. Rice bran
protein concentrate powder prepared by a precipitation step using
alginate (protein in solution: alginate 1:0.016) exhibited the highest
protein (27.55%) and yield (6.84%). Precipitation using alginate was
better than that of acid. RBPC extracted with alkaline (ALK) or
enzyme alcalase (ALC), then precipitated with alginate (AL)
(samples RBP-ALK-AL and RBP-ALC-AL) yielded the precipitation
rate of 75% and 91.30%, respectively. Therefore, protein
precipitation using alginate was then selected. Amino acid profile of
control sample, and sample precipitated with alginate, as compared to
casein and soy protein isolated, showed that control sample showed
the highest content among all sample. Functional property study of
RBP showed that the highest nitrogen solubility occurred in pH 8-10.
There was no statically significant between emulsion capacity and
emulsion stability of control and sample precipitated by alginate.
However, control sample showed a higher of foaming capacity and
foaming stability compared to those of sample precipitated with
alginate. The finding was successful in terms of minimizing
chemicals used in extraction and precipitation steps in preparation of
rice bran protein concentrate. This research involves in a production
of value-added product in which the double amount of protein (28%)
compared to original amount (14%) contained in rice bran could be
beneficial in terms of adding to food products e.g. healthy drink with
high protein and fiber. In addition, the basic knowledge of functional
property of rice bran protein concentrate was obtained, which can be
used to appropriately select the application of this value-added
product from rice bran.
Alginate, carrageenan, rice bran, rice bran protein.
Improved Wi-Fi Backscatter System for Multi-to-Multi Communication
The conventional Wi-Fi backscatter system can only
process one-to-one communication between the Wi-Fi reader and the
Wi-Fi tag. For improvement of throughput of the conventional system,
this paper proposes the multi-to-multi communication system. In the
proposed system, the interference by the multi-to-multi
communication is effectively cancelled by the orthogonal multiple
access based on the identification code of the tag. Although the
overhead is generated by the procedure for the multi-to-multi
communication, because the procedure is processed by the Wi-Fi
protocol, the overhead is insignificant for the entire communication
procedure. From the numerical results, it is confirmed that the
proposed system has nearly proportional increased throughput in
according to the number of the tag that simultaneously participates in
Backscatter, Multi-to-multi communication,
Improved Performance Scheme for Joint Transmission in Downlink Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission
In this paper, improved performance scheme for
joint transmission (JT) is proposed in downlink (DL) coordinated
multi-point (CoMP) in case of the constraint transmission power.
This scheme is that a serving transmission point (TP) requests the
JT to an inter-TP and it selects a precoding technique according
to the channel state information (CSI) from user equipment (UE).
The simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER) and the
throughput performances of the proposed scheme provide the high
spectral efficiency and the reliable data at the cell edge.
CoMP, joint transmission, minimum mean square
error, zero-forcing, zero-forcing dirty paper coding.
Improved Performance of Cooperative Scheme in the Cellular and Broadcasting System
In the cooperative transmission scheme, both the
cellular system and broadcasting system are composed. Two cellular
base stations (CBSs) communicating with a user in the cell edge use
cooperative transmission scheme in the conventional scheme. In the
case that the distance between two CBSs and the user is distant, the
conventional scheme does not guarantee the quality of the
communication because the channel condition is bad. Therefore, if the
distance between CBSs and a user is distant, the performance of the
conventional scheme is decreased. Also, the bad channel condition has
bad effects on the performance. The proposed scheme uses two relays
to communicate well with CBSs when the channel condition between
CBSs and the user is poor. Using the relay in the high attenuation
environment can obtain both advantages of the high bit error rate
(BER) and throughput performance.
Cooperative communications, diversity gain, OFDM,
The Effect of Damping Treatment for Noise Control on Offshore Platforms Using Statistical Energy Analysis
Structure-borne noise is an important aspect of
offshore platform sound field. It can be generated either directly by
vibrating machineries induced mechanical force, indirectly by the
excitation of structure or excitation by incident airborne noise.
Therefore, limiting of the transmission of vibration energy
throughout the offshore platform is the key to control the structureborne
noise. This is usually done by introducing damping treatment
to the steel structures. Two types of damping treatment using onboard
are presented. By conducting a Statistical Energy Analysis
(SEA) simulation on a jack-up rig, the noise level in the source room,
the neighboring rooms, and remote living quarter cabins are
compared before and after the damping treatments been applied. The
results demonstrated that, in the source neighboring room and living
quarter area, there is a significant noise reduction with the damping
treatment applied, whereas in the source room where air-borne sound
predominates that of structure-borne sound, the impact is not
obvious. The conclusion on effective damping treatment in the
offshore platform is made which enable acoustic professionals to
implement noise control during the design stage for offshore crews’
hearing protection and habitant comfortability.
Statistical energy analysis, damping treatment, noise
control, offshore platform.
Efficient Variable Modulation Scheme Based on Codebook in the MIMO-OFDM System
Because current wireless communication requires high
reliability in a limited bandwidth environment, this paper proposes
the variable modulation scheme based on the codebook. The variable
modulation scheme adjusts transmission power using the codebook in
accordance with channel state. Also, if the codebook is composed of
many bits, the reliability is more improved by the proposed scheme.
The simulation results show that the performance of proposed scheme
has better reliability than the the performance of conventional scheme.
MIMO-OFDM, variable modulation, codebook,
Cooperative CDD Scheme Based on Hierarchical Modulation in OFDM System
In order to achieve high data rate and increase the
spectral efficiency, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system has
been proposed. However, multiple antennas are limited by size and
cost. Therefore, recently developed cooperative diversity scheme,
which profits the transmit diversity only with the existing hardware by
constituting a virtual antenna array, can be a solution. However, most
of the introduced cooperative techniques have a common fault of
decreased transmission rate because the destination should receive the
decodable compositions of symbols from the source and the relay. In
this paper, we propose a cooperative cyclic delay diversity (CDD)
scheme that use hierarchical modulation. This scheme is free from the
rate loss and allows seamless cooperative communication.
MIMO, Cooperative communication, CDD,
An Improved Cooperative Communication Scheme for IoT System
In internet of things (IoT) system, the communication
scheme with reliability and low power is required to connect a
terminal. Cooperative communication can achieve reliability and
lower power than multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system.
Cooperative communication increases the reliability with low
power, but decreases a throughput. It has a weak point that the
communication throughput is decreased. In this paper, a novel scheme
is proposed to increase the communication throughput. The novel
scheme is a transmission structure that increases transmission rate.
A decoding scheme according to the novel transmission structure is
proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme increases
the throughput without bit error rate (BER) performance degradation.
Cooperative communication, IoT, STBC, Transmission
Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol in Joint Pain Relief Gel Containing Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of
6-Gingerol(6G) and 6-Shogaol(6S) in joint pain relief gel containing
ginger extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved by
using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Luna, mobile phase
containing acetonitrile and water (gradient elution). The flow rate
was 1.0 ml/min and the absorbance was monitored at 282 nm. The
proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters
such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of
detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and determined
based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)
guidelines. The linearity ranges of 6G and 6S were obtained over 20-
60 and 6-18 μg/ml respectively. Good linearity was observed over the
above-mentioned range with linear regression equation Y= 11016x-
23778 for 6G and Y = 19276x-19604 for 6S (x is concentration of
analytes in μg/ml and Y is peak area). The value of correlation
coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for both markers. The limit of
detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 6G were
0.8567 and 2.8555 μg/ml and for 6S were 0.3672 and 1.2238 μg/ml
respectively. The recovery range for 6G and 6S were found to be
91.57 to 102.36 % and 84.73 to 92.85 % for all three spiked levels.
The RSD values from repeated extractions for 6G and 6S were 3.43
and 3.09% respectively. The validation of developed method on
precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and range were also
performed with well-accepted results.
Ginger, 6-gingerol, HPLC, 6-shogaol.
An Improved Transmission Scheme in Cooperative Communication System
Recently developed cooperative diversity scheme
enables a terminal to get transmit diversity through the support of other
terminals. However, most of the introduced cooperative schemes have
a common fault of decreased transmission rate because the destination
should receive the decodable compositions of symbols from the source
and the relay. In order to achieve high data rate, we propose a
cooperative scheme that employs hierarchical modulation. This
scheme is free from the rate loss and allows seamless cooperative
Cooperative communication, hierarchical
modulation, high data rate, transmission scheme.
A High-Crosstalk Silicon Photonic Arrayed Waveguide Grating
In this paper, we demonstrated a 1 × 4 silicon photonic cascaded arrayed waveguide grating, which is fabricated on a SOI wafer with a 220 nm top Si layer and a 2µm buried oxide layer. The measured on-chip transmission loss of this cascaded arrayed waveguide grating is ~ 5.6 dB, including the fiber-to-waveguide coupling loss. The adjacent crosstalk is 33.2 dB. Compared to the normal single silicon photonic arrayed waveguide grating with a crosstalk of ~ 12.5 dB, the crosstalk of this device has been dramatically increased.
Silicon photonic, arrayed waveguide grating, high-crosstalk, cascaded structure.
Cooperative Scheme Using Adjacent Base Stations in Wireless Communication
In a wireless communication system, the failure of base
station can result in a communication disruption in the cell. This paper
proposes a way to deal with the failure of base station in a wireless
communication system based on OFDM. Cooperative communication
of the adjacent base stations can be a solution of the problem. High
performance is obtained by the configuration of transmission signals
which is applied CDD scheme in the cooperative communication.
The Cooperative scheme can be a e ective solution in case of the
Base station, CDD, OFDM, Diversity gain, MIMO.
An Electrically Modulatable Silicon Waveguide Grating Using an Implantation Technology
The first pn-type carrier-induced silicon Bragg-grating filter is demonstrated. The extinction-ratio modulations are 11.5 dB and 10 dB with reverse and forward biases, respectively. 8-Gpbs data rate is achieved with a reverse bias.
Silicon photonics, Waveguide grating, Carrier-induced, Extinction-ratio modulation.
Image Features Comparison-Based Position Estimation Method Using a Camera Sensor
In this paper, propose method that can user’s position
that based on database is built from single camera. Previous
positioning calculate distance by arrival-time of signal like GPS
(Global Positioning System), RF(Radio Frequency). However, these
previous method have weakness because these have large error range
according to signal interference. Method for solution estimate position
by camera sensor. But, signal camera is difficult to obtain relative
position data and stereo camera is difficult to provide real-time
position data because of a lot of image data, too. First of all, in this
research we build image database at space that able to provide
positioning service with single camera. Next, we judge similarity
through image matching of database image and transmission image
from user. Finally, we decide position of user through position of most
similar database image. For verification of propose method, we
experiment at real-environment like indoor and outdoor. Propose
method is wide positioning range and this method can verify not only
position of user but also direction.
Positioning, Distance, Camera, Features, SURF
(Speed-Up Robust Features), Database, Estimation.
Active Surface Tracking Algorithm for All-Fiber Common-Path Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography
A conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has limited imaging depth, which is 1-2 mm, and suffers unwanted noise such as speckle noise. The motorized-stage-based OCT system, using a common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (CP-FD-OCT) configuration, provides enhanced imaging depth and less noise so that we can overcome these limitations. Using this OCT systems, OCT images were obtained from an onion, and their subsurface structure was observed. As a result, the images obtained using the developed motorized-stage-based system showed enhanced imaging depth than the conventional system, since it is real-time accurate depth tracking. Consequently, the developed CP-FD-OCT systems and algorithms have good potential for the further development of endoscopic OCT for microsurgery.
Common-path OCT, FD-OCT, OCT, Tracking algorithm.
Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering
The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.
Contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection.
Comparison of Back-Projection with Non-Uniform Fast Fourier Transform for Real-Time Photoacoustic Tomography
Photoacoustic imaging is the imaging technology that combines the optical imaging and ultrasound. This provides the high contrast and resolution due to optical imaging and ultrasound imaging, respectively. We developed the real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using linear-ultrasound transducer and digital acquisition (DAQ) board. There are two types of algorithm for reconstructing the photoacoustic signal. One is back-projection algorithm, the other is FFT algorithm. Especially, we used the non-uniform FFT algorithm. To evaluate the performance of our system and algorithms, we monitored two wires that stands at interval of 2.89 mm and 0.87 mm. Then, we compared the images reconstructed by algorithms. Finally, we monitored the two hairs crossed and compared between these algorithms.
Back-projection, image comparison, non-uniform FFT, photoacoustic tomography.
Hybrid MIMO-OFDM Detection Scheme for High Performance
In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used
to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM
system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains
are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas.
In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system,
various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper
aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both
diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.
DFE, diversity gain, hybrid, MIMO, multiplexing gain.
Enhanced Magnetoelastic Response near Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnetic Materials: Experimental and Theoretical Analysis
The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) recently has attracted constant interest in ferromagnetic systems for obtaining enhanced large magnetoelastic response. In the present study, structural and magnetoelastic properties of MPB involved ferromagnetic Tb1-xGdxFe2 (0≤x≤1) system has been investigated. The change of easy magnetic direction from <111> to <100> with increasing x up MPB composition of x=0.9 is detected by step-scanned  synchrotron X-ray diffraction reflections. The Gd substitution for Tb changes the composition for the anisotropy compensation near MPB composition of x=0.9, which was confirmed by the analysis of detailed scanned XRD, magnetization curves and the calculation of the first anisotropy constant K1. The spin configuration diagram accompanied with different crystal structures for Tb1-xGdxFe2 was designed. The calculated first anisotropy constant K1 shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.9. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction, and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant │λS∕K1│ appears at MPB composition, which makes it a potential material for magnetostrictive application. Based on experimental results, a theoretically approach was also proposed to signify that the facilitated magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic effect near MPB composition are a consequence of the anisotropic flattening of free energy of ferromagnetic crystal. Our work specifies the universal existence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials which is important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties and may provide a new route to develop advanced functional materials.
Free energy, lattice distortion, magnetic anisotropy, magnetostriction, morphotropic phase boundary.
Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System
In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.
Adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay.
The Effect of Main Factors on Forces during FSJ Processing of AA2024 Aluminum
An attempt is made here to measure the forces of three directions, under conditions of different feed speeds, different tilt angles of tool and without or with the pin on the tool, by using octagonal ring dynamometer in the AA2024 aluminum FSJ (Friction Stir Joining) process, and investigate how four main factors influence forces in the FSJ process. It is found that, high feed speed lead to small feed force and small lateral force, but high feed speed leads to large feed force in the stable joining stage of process. As the rotational speed increasing, the time of axial force drop from the maximum to the minimum required increased in the push-up process. In the stable joining stage, the rotational speed has little effect on the feed force; large rotational speed leads to small lateral force and axial force. The maximum axial force increases as the tilt angle of tool increases at the downward movement stage. At the moment of start feeding, as tilt angle of tool increases, the amplitudes of the axial force increasing become large. In the stable joining stage, with the increase of tilt angle of tool, the axial force is increased, the lateral force is decreased, and the feed force almost unchanged. The tool with pin will decrease axial force in the downward movement stage. The feed force and lateral force will increase, but the axial force will reduced in the stable joining stage by using the tool with pin compare to by using the tool without pin.
FSJ, force factor, AA2024, friction stir joining.
Computer Modeling and Plant-Wide Dynamic Simulation for Industrial Flare Minimization
Flaring emissions during abnormal operating conditions such as plant start-ups, shut-downs, and upsets in chemical process industries (CPI) are usually significant. Flare minimization can help to save raw material and energy for CPI plants, and to improve local environmental sustainability. In this paper, a systematic methodology based on plant-wide dynamic simulation is presented for CPI plant flare minimizations under abnormal operating conditions. Since off-specification emission sources are inevitable during abnormal operating conditions, to significantly reduce flaring emission in a CPI plant, they must be either recycled to the upstream process for online reuse, or stored somewhere temporarily for future reprocessing, when the CPI plant manufacturing returns to stable operation. Thus, the off-spec products could be reused instead of being flared. This can be achieved through the identification of viable design and operational strategies during normal and abnormal operations through plant-wide dynamic scheduling, simulation, and optimization. The proposed study includes three stages of simulation works: (i) developing and validating a steady-state model of a CPI plant; (ii) transiting the obtained steady-state plant model to the dynamic modeling environment; and refining and validating the plant dynamic model; and (iii) developing flare minimization strategies for abnormal operating conditions of a CPI plant via a validated plant-wide dynamic model. This cost-effective methodology has two main merits: (i) employing large-scale dynamic modeling and simulations for industrial flare minimization, which involves various unit models for modeling hundreds of CPI plant facilities; (ii) dealing with critical abnormal operating conditions of CPI plants such as plant start-up and shut-down. Two virtual case studies on flare minimizations for start-up operation (over 50% of emission savings) and shut-down operation (over 70% of emission savings) of an ethylene plant have been employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study.
Flare minimization, large-scale modeling and simulation, plant shut-down, plant start-up.
Designing a Motivated Tangible Multimedia System for Preschoolers
The paper examined the capability of a prototype of a tangible multimedia system that was augmented with tangible objects in motivating young preschoolers in learning. Preschoolers’ learning behaviour is highly captivated and motivated by external physical stimuli. Hence, conventional multimedia which solely dependent on digital visual and auditory formats for knowledge delivery could potentially place them in inappropriate state of circumstances that are frustrating, boring, or worse, impede overall learning motivations. This paper begins by discussion with the objectives of the research, followed by research questions, hypotheses, ARCS model of motivation adopted in the process of macro-design, and the research instrumentation, Persuasive Multimedia Motivational Scale was deployed for measuring the level of motivation of subjects towards the experimental tangible multimedia. At the close, a succinct description of the findings of a relevant research is provided. In the research, a total of 248 preschoolers recruited from seven Malaysian kindergartens were examined. Analyses revealed that the tangible multimedia system improved preschoolers’ learning motivation significantly more than conventional multimedia. Overall, the findings led to the conclusion that the tangible multimedia system is a motivation conducive multimedia for preschoolers.
Tangible multimedia, preschooler, motivation, multimedia.
Design and Implementation of Embedded FM Transmission Control SW for Low Power Battery System
In this paper, an embedded frequency modulation
(FM) transmission control software (SW) for a low power battery
system is designed and implemented. The simultaneous translation
systems for various languages are needed as so many international
conferences and festivals are held in world wide. Especially in
portable transmitting and receiving systems, the ability of long
operation life is used for a measure of value. This paper proposes
an embedded FM transmission control SW for low power battery
system and shows the results of the SW implemented on a portable
FM transmission system.
FM transmission, simultaneous translation system,
portable transmitting and receiving systems, low power embedded
Design of Open Framework Based Smart ESS Profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS
In this paper, an open framework based smart energy
storage system (ESS) profile for photovoltaic (PV)-ESS and
uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-ESS is proposed and designed.
An open framework based smart ESS is designed and developed for
unifying the different interfaces among manufacturers. The smart
ESS operates under the profile which provides the specifications
of peripheral devices such as different interfaces and to the open
framework. The profile requires well systemicity and expandability
for addible peripheral devices. Especially, the smart ESS should
provide the expansion with existing systems such as UPS and the
linkage with new renewable energy technology such as PV. This
paper proposes and designs an open framework based smart ESS
profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS. The designed profile provides the
existing smart ESS and also the expandability of additional peripheral
devices on smart ESS such as PV and UPS.
ESS, open framework, profile, PV, UPS.
A Genetic Algorithm Based Permutation and Non-Permutation Scheduling Heuristics for Finite Capacity Material Requirement Planning Problem
This paper presents a genetic algorithm based permutation and non-permutation scheduling heuristics (GAPNP) to solve a multi-stage finite capacity material requirement planning (FCMRP) problem in automotive assembly flow shop with unrelated parallel machines. In the algorithm, the sequences of orders are iteratively improved by the GA characteristics, whereas the required operations are scheduled based on the presented permutation and non-permutation heuristics. Finally, a linear programming is applied to minimize the total cost. The presented GAPNP algorithm is evaluated by using real datasets from automotive companies. The required parameters for GAPNP are intently tuned to obtain a common parameter setting for all case studies. The results show that GAPNP significantly outperforms the benchmark algorithm about 30% on average.
Finite capacity MRP, genetic algorithm, linear programming, flow shop, unrelated parallel machines, application in industries.
Development of a Technology Assessment Model by Patents and Customers' Review Data
Recent years have seen an increasing number of patent disputes due to excessive competition in the global market and a reduced technology life-cycle; this has increased the risk of investment in technology development. While many global companies have started developing a methodology to identify promising technologies and assess for decisions, the existing methodology still has some limitations. Post hoc assessments of the new technology are not being performed, especially to determine whether the suggested technologies turned out to be promising. For example, in existing quantitative patent analysis, a patent’s citation information has served as an important metric for quality assessment, but this analysis cannot be applied to recently registered patents because such information accumulates over time. Therefore, we propose a new technology assessment model that can replace citation information and positively affect technological development based on post hoc analysis of the patents for promising technologies. Additionally, we collect customer reviews on a target technology to extract keywords that show the customers’ needs, and we determine how many keywords are covered in the new technology. Finally, we construct a portfolio (based on a technology assessment from patent information) and a customer-based marketability assessment (based on review data), and we use them to visualize the characteristics of the new technologies.
Technology assessment, patents, citation information, opinion mining.
Forthcoming Big Data on Smart Buildings and Cities: An Experimental Study on Correlations among Urban Data
Cities are complex systems of diverse and inter-tangled activities. These activities and their complex interrelationships create diverse urban phenomena. And such urban phenomena have considerable influences on the lives of citizens. This research aimed to develop a method to reveal the causes and effects among diverse urban elements in order to enable better understanding of urban activities and, therefrom, to make better urban planning strategies. Specifically, this study was conducted to solve a data-recommendation problem found on a Korean public data homepage. First, a correlation analysis was conducted to find the correlations among random urban data. Then, based on the results of that correlation analysis, the weighted data network of each urban data was provided to people. It is expected that the weights of urban data thereby obtained will provide us with insights into cities and show us how diverse urban activities influence each other and induce feedback.
Big data, correlation analysis, data recommendation system, urban data network.
An Attribute Based Access Control Model with POL Module for Dynamically Granting and Revoking Authorizations
Currently, resource sharing and system security are
critical issues. This paper proposes a POL module composed of
PRIV ILEGE attribute (PA), obligation and log which improves
attribute based access control (ABAC) model in dynamically granting
authorizations and revoking authorizations. The following describes
the new model termed PABAC in terms of the POL module
structure, attribute definitions, policy formulation and authorization
architecture, which demonstrate the advantages of it. The POL
module addresses the problems which are not predicted before and
not described by access control policy. It can be one of the subject
attributes or resource attributes according to the practical application,
which enhances the flexibility of the model compared with ABAC.
A scenario that illustrates how this model is applied to the real world
Access control, attribute based access control, granting
authorizations, privilege, revoking authorizations, system security.
BTG-BIBA: A Flexibility-Enhanced Biba Model Using BTG Strategies for Operating System
Biba model can protect information integrity but might
deny various non-malicious access requests of the subjects, thereby
decreasing the availability in the system. Therefore, a mechanism that
allows exceptional access control is needed. Break the Glass (BTG)
strategies refer an efficient means for extending the access rights of
users in exceptional cases. These strategies help to prevent a system
from stagnation. An approach is presented in this work for integrating
Break the Glass strategies into the Biba model. This research proposes
a model, BTG-Biba, which provides both an original Biba model used
in normal situations and a mechanism used in emergency situations.
The proposed model is context aware, can implement a fine-grained
type of access control and primarily solves cross-domain access
problems. Finally, the flexibility and availability improvement with
the use of the proposed model is illustrated.
Biba model, break the glass, context, cross-domain,
Measurement of CES Production Functions Considering Energy as an Input
Because of its flexibility, CES attracts much interest in economic growth and programming models, and the macroeconomics or micro-macro models. This paper focuses on the development, estimating methods of CES production function considering energy as an input. We leave for future research work of relaxing the assumption of constant returns to scale, the introduction of potential input factors, and the generalization method of the optimal nested form of multi-factor production functions.
Bias of technical change, CES production function, elasticity of substitution, energy input.
Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor
For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in a pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed. The moisture content of the sludge was 48.53%, and its LHV was 454.6 kcal/kg. Primary gas and secondary gas were fixed at 3 Nm3/min and 1 Nm3/min, respectively. Diesel burners with on-off controllers were used to control the temperature; the bed temperature was set to 750±20 °C, and the freeboard temperature was 850±20 °C. The experimental data show that the NO emission increased with bed temperature. The maximum NO emission is 139 ppm, which is in agreement with the regulation. The CO emission is low than 100 ppm through the operation period. The mean particle size of fly ash collected from baghouse decreased with operating time. The ration of bottom ash to fly ash is about 3. Compared with bottom ash, the potassium in the fly ash is much higher. It implied that the potassium content is not the key factor for aggregation of bottom ash.
Sludge incineration, fluidized bed combustion, fly ash, bottom ash.
Detecting Rat’s Kidney Inflammation Using Real Time Photoacoustic Tomography
Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a promising medical imaging modality that combines optical imaging contrast with the spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can also distinguish the changes in biological features. But, real-time PAT system should be confirmed due to photoacoustic effect for tissue. Thus, we have developed a real-time PAT system using a custom-developed data acquisition board and ultrasound linear probe. To evaluate performance of our system, phantom test was performed. As a result of those experiments, the system showed satisfactory performance and its usefulness has been confirmed. We monitored the degradation of inflammation which induced on the rat’s kidney using real-time PAT.
Photoacoustic tomography, inflammation detection, rat, kidney, contrast agent, ultrasound.
Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness
We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.
Structural robustness, structural reliability, redundancy component, redundancy matrix.
Effect of Scarp Topography on Seismic Ground Motion
Local irregular topography has a great impact on earthquake ground motion. For scarp topography, using numerical simulation method, the influence extent and scope of the scarp terrain on scarp's upside and downside ground motion are discussed in case of different vertical incident SV waves. The results show that: (1) The amplification factor of scarp's upside region is greater than that of the free surface, while the amplification factor of scarp's downside part is less than that of the free surface; (2) When the slope angle increases, for x component, amplification factors of the scarp upside also increase, while the downside part decrease with it. For z component, both of the upside and downside amplification factors will increase; (3) When the slope angle changes, the influence scope of scarp's downside part is almost unchanged, but for the upside part, it slightly becomes greater with the increase of slope angle; (4) Due to the existence of the scarp, the z component ground motion appears at the surface. Its amplification factor increases for larger slope angle, and the peaks of the surface responses are related with incident waves. However, the input wave has little effects on the x component amplification factors.
Scarp topography, ground motion, amplification factor, vertical incident wave.
Discrete Element Modeling of the Effect of Particle Shape on Creep Behavior of Rockfills
Rockfills are widely used in civil engineering, such as dams, railways, and airport foundations in mountain areas. A significant long-term post-construction settlement may affect the serviceability or even the safety of rockfill infrastructures. The creep behavior of rockfills is influenced by a number of factors, such as particle size, strength and shape, water condition and stress level. However, the effect of particle shape on rockfill creep still remains poorly understood, which deserves a careful investigation. Particle-based discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the creep behavior of rockfills under different boundary conditions. Both angular and rounded particles were considered in this numerical study, in order to investigate the influence of particle shape. The preliminary results showed that angular particles experience more breakages and larger creep strains under one-dimensional compression than rounded particles. On the contrary, larger creep strains were observed in he rounded specimens in the direct shear test. The mechanism responsible for this difference is that the possibility of the existence of key particle in rounded particles is higher than that in angular particles. The above simulations demonstrate that the influence of particle shape on the creep behavior of rockfills can be simulated by DEM properly. The method of DEM simulation may facilitate our understanding of deformation properties of rockfill materials.
Rockfills, creep behavior, particle crushing, discrete element method, boundary conditions.
An Exploratory Study of Reliability of Ranking vs. Rating in Peer Assessment
Fifty years of research has found great potential for peer assessment as a pedagogical approach. With peer assessment, not only do students receive more copious assessments; they also learn to become assessors. In recent decades, more educational peer assessments have been facilitated by online systems. Those online systems are designed differently to suit different class settings and student groups, but they basically fall into two categories: rating-based and ranking-based. The rating-based systems ask assessors to rate the artifacts one by one following some review rubrics. The ranking-based systems allow assessors to review a set of artifacts and give a rank for each of them. Though there are different systems and a large number of users of each category, there is no comprehensive comparison on which design leads to higher reliability. In this paper, we designed algorithms to evaluate assessors' reliabilities based on their rating/ranking against the global ranks of the artifacts they have reviewed. These algorithms are suitable for data from both rating-based and ranking-based peer assessment systems. The experiments were done based on more than 15,000 peer assessments from multiple peer assessment systems. We found that the assessors in ranking-based peer assessments are at least 10% more reliable than the assessors in rating-based peer assessments. Further analysis also demonstrated that the assessors in ranking-based assessments tend to assess the more differentiable artifacts correctly, but there is no such pattern for rating-based assessors.
Peer assessment, peer rating, peer ranking, reliability.
Effect of Cooling Approaches on Chemical Compositions, Phases, and Acidolysis of Panzhihua Titania Slag
Titania slag is a high quality raw material containing titanium in the subsequent process of titanium pigment. The effects of cooling approaches of granulating, water cooling, and air cooling on chemical, phases, and acidolysis of Panzhihua titania slag were investigated. Compared to the original slag which was prepared by the conventional processing route, the results show that the titania slag undergoes oxidation of Ti3+during different cooling ways. The Ti2O3 content is 17.50% in the original slag, but it is 16.55% and 16.84% in water cooled and air-cooled slag, respectively. Especially, the Ti2O3 content in granulated slag is decreased about 27.6%. The content of Fe2O3 in granulated slag is approximately 2.86% also obviously higher than water (<0.5%) or air-cooled slag (<0.5%). Rutile in cooled titania slag was formed because of the oxidation of Ti3+. The rutile phase without a noticeable change in water cooled and air-cooled slag after the titania slag was cooled, but increased significantly in the granulated slag. The rate of sulfuric acid acidolysis of cooled slag is less than the original slag. The rate of acidolysis is 90.61% and 92.46% to the water-cooled slag and air-cooled slag, respectively. However, the rate of acidolysis of the granulated slag is less than that of industry slag about 20%, only 74.72%.
Cooling approaches, titania slag, granulating, sulfuric acid acidolysis,
A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage
In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.
ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage.
Implementation of an IoT Sensor Data Collection and Analysis Library
Due to the development of information technology and wireless Internet technology, various data are being generated in various fields. These data are advantageous in that they provide real-time information to the users themselves. However, when the data are accumulated and analyzed, more various information can be extracted. In addition, development and dissemination of boards such as Arduino and Raspberry Pie have made it possible to easily test various sensors, and it is possible to collect sensor data directly by using database application tools such as MySQL. These directly collected data can be used for various research and can be useful as data for data mining. However, there are many difficulties in using the board to collect data, and there are many difficulties in using it when the user is not a computer programmer, or when using it for the first time. Even if data are collected, lack of expert knowledge or experience may cause difficulties in data analysis and visualization. In this paper, we aim to construct a library for sensor data collection and analysis to overcome these problems.
Clustering, data mining, DBSCAN, k-means, k-medoids, sensor data.
Modeling and Dynamics Analysis for Intelligent Skid-Steering Vehicle Based on Trucksim-Simulink
Aiming at the verification of control algorithms for skid-steering vehicles, a vehicle simulation model of 6×6 electric skid-steering unmanned vehicle was established based on Trucksim and Simulink. The original transmission and steering mechanism of Trucksim are removed, and the electric skid-steering model and a closed-loop controller for the vehicle speed and yaw rate are built in Simulink. The simulation results are compared with the ones got by theoretical formulas. The results show that the predicted tire mechanics and vehicle kinematics of Trucksim-Simulink simulation model are closed to the theoretical results. Therefore, it can be used as an effective approach to study the dynamic performance and control algorithm of skid-steering vehicle. In this paper, a method of motion control based on feed forward control is also designed. The simulation results show that the feed forward control strategy can make the vehicle follow the target yaw rate more quickly and accurately, which makes the vehicle have more maneuverability.
Skid-steering, Trucksim-Simulink, feedforward control, dynamics.
Effects of Injection Conditions on Flame Structures in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector
The objective of this paper is to observe the effects of injection conditions on flame structures in gas-centered swirl coaxial injector. Gaseous oxygen and liquid kerosene were used as propellants. For different injection conditions, two types of injector, which only differ in the diameter of the tangential inlet, were used in this study. In addition, oxidizer injection pressure was varied to control the combustion chamber pressure in different types of injector. In order to analyze the combustion instability intensity, the dynamic pressure was measured in both the combustion chamber and propellants lines. With the increase in differential pressure between the propellant injection pressure and the combustion chamber pressure, the combustion instability intensity increased. In addition, the flame structure was recorded using a high-speed camera to detect CH* chemiluminescence intensity. With the change in the injection conditions in the gas-centered swirl coaxial injector, the flame structure changed.
Liquid rocket engine, flame structure, combustion instability, dynamic pressure.