High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cr-containing Superplastic Iron Aluminide
Superplastic deformation and high temperature load
relaxation behavior of coarse-grained iron aluminides with the
composition of Fe-28 at.% Al have been investigated. A series of load
relaxation and tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging
from 600 to 850oC. The flow curves obtained from load relaxation
tests were found to have a sigmoidal shape and to exhibit stress vs.
strain rate data in a very wide strain rate range from 10-7/s to 10-2/s.
Tensile tests have been conducted at various initial strain rates ranging
from 3×10-5/s to 1×10-2/s. Maximum elongation of ~500 % was
obtained at the initial strain rate of 3×10-5/s and the maximum strain
rate sensitivity was found to be 0.68 at 850oC in binary Fe-28Al alloy.
Microstructure observation through the optical microscopy (OM) and
the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique has been
carried out on the deformed specimens and it has revealed the
evidences for grain boundary migration and grain refinement to occur
during superplastic deformation, suggesting the dynamic
recrystallization mechanism. The addition of Cr by the amount of 5
at.% appeared to deteriorate the superplasticity of the binary iron
aluminide. By applying the internal variable theory of structural
superplasticity, the addition of Cr has been revealed to lower the
contribution of the frictional resistance to dislocation glide during high
temperature deformation of the Fe3Al alloy.
Iron aluminide (Fe3Al), large grain size, structural
superplasticity, dynamic recrystallization, chromium (Cr).
Hot Workability of High Strength Low Alloy Steels
The hot deformation behavior of high strength low
alloy (HSLA) steels with different chemical compositions under hot
working conditions in the temperature range of 900 to 1100℃ and
strain rate range from 0.1 to 10 s-1 has been studied by performing a
series of hot compression tests. The dynamic materials model has been
employed for developing the processing maps, which show variation
of the efficiency of power dissipation with temperature and strain rate.
Also the Kumar-s model has been used for developing the instability
map, which shows variation of the instability for plastic deformation
with temperature and strain rate. The efficiency of power dissipation
increased with decreasing strain rate and increasing temperature in the
steel with higher Cr and Ti content. High efficiency of power
dissipation over 20 % was obtained at a finite strain level of 0.1 under
the conditions of strain rate lower than 1 s-1 and temperature higher
than 1050 ℃ . Plastic instability was expected in the regime of
temperatures lower than 1000 ℃ and strain rate lower than 0.3 s-1. Steel
with lower Cr and Ti contents showed high efficiency of power
dissipation at higher strain rate and lower temperature conditions.
High strength low alloys steels, hot workability,
Dynamic materials model, Processing maps.
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless steel for Anchor Bolt Application
Most buildings have been using anchor bolts
commonly for installing outdoor advertising structures. Anchor bolts
of common carbon steel are widely used and often installed
indiscriminately by inadequate installation standards. In the area
where strong winds frequently blow, falling accidents of outdoor
advertising structures can occur and cause a serious disaster, which is
very dangerous and to be prevented. In this regard, the development of
high-performance anchor bolts is urgently required. In the present
study, 25Cr-8Ni-1.5Si-1Mn-0.4C alloy was produced by traditional
vacuum induction melting (VIM) for the application of anchor bolt.
The alloy composition is revealed as a duplex microstructure from
thermodynamic phase analysis by FactSage® and confirmed by
metallographic experiment. Addition of Nitrogen to the alloy was
found to reduce the ferritic phase domain and significantly increase the
hardness and the tensile strength. Microstructure observation revealed
mixed structure of austenite and ferrite with fine carbide distributed
along the grain and phase boundaries.
Anchor bolt, Duplex stainless steel, FactSage®,
Hardness, Thermodynamic phase analysis.
Fabrication of Single Crystal of Mg Alloys Containing Rare Earth Elements
Single crystals of Magnesium alloys such as Mg-1Al,
Mg-1Zn-0.5Y, Mg-3Li, and AZ31 alloys were successfully fabricated in this study by employing the modified Bridgman method. Single
crystals of pure Mg were also made in this study. To determine the exact orientation of crystals, Laue back-reflection method and pole figure measurement were carried out on each single crystal. Dimensions of single crystals were 10 mm in diameter and 120 mm in
length. Hardness and compression tests were conducted and the results
revealed that hardness and the strength strongly depended on the
orientation. The closer to basal one the orientation was, the higher hardness and compressive strength were. The effect of alloying was
not higher than that of orientation. After compressive deformation of single crystals, the orientation of the crystals was found to rotate and to be parallel to the basal orientation.
Compressive strength, Hardness, Mg alloys, Modified Bridgman method, Orientation, Pole figure, Single crystal.
Fabrication of Al/Cu Clad Sheet by Shear Extrusion
Aluminum/Copper clad sheet has been fabricated using
asymmetric extrusion method, which caused severe shear deformation
between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Interfacial
microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were studied
by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive
X-ray detector, micro-hardness, and tension tests. The asymmetric
extrusion bonding was very effective to provide a good interface for
atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding
was higher with the increasing extrusion ratio.
Aluminum/Copper clad sheet, Asymmetric extrusion,
Interfacial microstructure, Annealing, Tensile test.
Static Recrystallization Behavior of Mg Alloy Single Crystals
Single crystals of Magnesium alloys such as pure Mg,
Mg-1Zn-0.5Y, Mg-0.1Y, and Mg-0.1Ce alloys were successfully
fabricated in this study by employing the modified Bridgman method.
To determine the exact orientation of crystals, pole figure
measurement using X-ray diffraction were carried out on each single
crystal. Hardness and compression tests were conducted followed by
subsequent recrysatllization annealing. Recrystallization kinetics of
Mg alloy single crystals has been investigated. Fabricated single
crystals were cut into rectangular shaped specimen and solution
treated at 400oC for 24 hrs, and then deformed in compression mode
by 30% reduction. Annealing treatment for recrystallization has been
conducted on these cold-rolled plates at temperatures of 300oC for
various times from 1 to 20 mins. The microstructure observation and
hardness measurement conducted on the recrystallized specimens
revealed that static recrystallization of ternary alloy single crystal was
very slow, while recrystallization behavior of binary alloy single
crystals appeared to be very fast.
Magnesium, Mg-rare earth alloys, compression test,
static recrystallization, hardness.
Effect of Processing Methods on Texture Evolution in AZ31 Mg Alloy Sheet
Textures of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets were evaluated by using neutron diffraction method in this study. The AZ31 sheets were fabricated either by conventional casting and subsequent hot rolling or strip casting. The effect of warm rolling was investigated using the AZ31 Mg alloy sheet produced by conventional casting. Warm rolling of 30% thickness reduction per pass was possible without any side-crack at temperatures as low as 200oC under the roll speed of 30 m/min. The initial microstructure of conventionally cast specimen was found to be partially recrystallized structures. Grain refinement was found to occur actively during the warm rolling. The (0002),(10-10) (10-11),and (10-12) complete pole figures were measured using the HANARO FCD (Neutron Four Circle Diffractometer) and ODF were calculated. The major texture of all specimens can be expressed by ND//(0001) fiber texture. Texture of hot rolled specimen showed the strongest fiber component, while that of strip cast sheet seemed to be similar to random distribution.
Mg alloy, texture, pole figure, ODF, neutron diffraction, warm rolling.
A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.
Car parking monitoring, magnetometer, sensor node, wireless sensor network.
Mechanical Equation of State in an Al-Li Alloy
Existence of plastic equation of state has been investigated by performing a series of load relaxation tests at various temperatures using an Al-Li alloy. A plastic equation of state is first developed from a simple kinetics consideration for a mechanical activation process of a leading dislocation piled up against grain boundaries. A series of load relaxation test has been conducted at temperatures ranging from 200 to 530oC to obtain the stress-strain rate curves. A plastic equation of state has been derived from a simple consideration of dislocation kinetics and confirmed by experimental results.
Plastic equation of state, Dislocation kinetics, Load relaxation test, Al-Li alloy, Microstructure.
Cladding of Al and Cu by Differential Speed Rolling
Al/Cu clad sheet has been fabricated by using differential speed rolling (DSR) process, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100 and 150oC with speed ratios from 1.4 to 2.2, in which the total thickness reduction was in the range between 14 and 46%. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were investigated by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, and tension tests. The DSR process was very effective to provide a good interface for atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding was higher with the increasing speed ratio. Post heat treatment enhanced the mechanical properties of clad sheet by forming intermetallic compounds in the interface area.
Aluminum/Copper clad sheet, Differential speed
rolling, Interface microstructure, Annealing, Tensile test.
Tensile Behavior of Spheroidizing Heat Treated High Carbon Steel
Spheroidization heat treatment was conducted on the SK85 high carbon steel sheets with various initial microstructures obtained after cold rolling by various reduction ratios at a couple of annealing temperatures. On the high carbon steel sheet with fine pearlite microstructure, obtained by soaking at 800oC for 2hr in a box furnace and then annealing at 570oC for 5min in a salt bath furnace followed by water quenching, cold rolling was conducted by reduction ratios of 20, 30, and 40%. Heat treatment for spheroidization was carried out at 600 and 720oC for the various time intervals from 0.1 to 32 hrs. Area fraction of spheroidized cementite was measured with an image analyzer as a function of cold reduction ratios and duration times. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature on the spheoidized high carbon steel.
High carbon steel, SK85, pearlite, cementite,
shperoidization, tensile behavior.
Alloying Effect on Hot Workability of M42 High Speed Steel
In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0C, 0.2Mn, 3.8Cr, 1.5W, 8.5Co, 9.2Mo, and 1.0V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12wt.%, Ti of 0.3wt.%, Zr of 0.3wt.%, and Nb of 0.3wt.% were cast into ingots of 140mm ´ 140mm ´ 330mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150oC for 1.5hr followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180oC was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminum and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.
High speed steels, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, microstructure, hot workability.
Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet
Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by differential speed rolling (DSR) process were studied by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100oC with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400oC for 30 to 120min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.
Aluminum/Copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, microstructure, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction.
Effect of Y Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy
The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25wt.%Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic a phase have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.
Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, Yttrium, FactSage®, microstructure, mechanical properties.
Effect of Al Addition on Microstructure and Physical Properties of Fe-36Ni Invar Alloy
High strength Fe-36Ni-base Invar alloys containing Al contents up to 0.3 weight percent were cast into ingots and thermodynamic equilibrium during solidification has been investigated in this study. From the thermodynamic simulation using Thermo-Calc®, it has been revealed that equilibrium phases which can be formed are two kinds of MC-type precipitates, MoC, and M2C carbides. The mu phase was also expected to form by addition of aluminum. Microstructure observation revealed the coarse precipitates in the as-cast ingots, which was non-equilibrium phase and could be resolved by the successive heat treatment. With increasing Al contents up to 0.3 wt.%, tensile strength of Invar alloy increased as 1400MPa after cold rolling and thermal expansion coefficient increased significantly. Cold rolling appeared to dramatically decrease thermal expansion coefficient.
Invar alloy, Aluminum, Phase equilibrium, thermal expansion coefficient, microstructure, tensile properties.
Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels
Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require systematic investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 300 series austenitic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.
Austenitic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.
Robust Stabilization against Unknown Consensus Network
This paper studies a robust stabilization problem of a
single agent in a multi-agent consensus system composed of identical
agents, when the network topology of the system is completely
unknown. It is shown that the transfer function of an agent in a
consensus system can be described as a multiplicative perturbation
of the isolated agent transfer function in frequency domain. From an
existing robust stabilization result, we present sufficient conditions for
a robust stabilization of an agent against unknown network topology.
Multi-agent System, Robust Stabilization, Transfer Function.
Microstructure and High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cast 310S Alloy
High temperature deformation behavior of cast 310S stainless steel has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 900 to 1200oC. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 350×350×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Thermal expansion coefficient was also measured on the ingot in the temperature range from room temperature to 1200oC. Tensile strength of cast 310S stainless steel was 9 MPa at 1200oC, which is a little higher than that of a wrought 310S. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 72 MPa at 900oC. Elongation also increased with temperature decreased. Microstructure observation revealed that s phase was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix over 1200oC, which is detrimental to high temperature elongation.
Stainless steel, STS 310S, high temperature deformation, microstructure, mechanical properties.
Mechanical Properties of Die-Cast Nonflammable Mg Alloy
Tensile specimens of nonflammable AZ91D Mg alloy were fabricated in this study via cold chamber die-casting process. Dimensions of tensile specimens were 25mm in length, 4mm in width, and 0.8 or 3.0mm in thickness. Microstructure observation was conducted before and after tensile tests at room temperature. In the die casting process, various injection distances from 150 to 260mm were employed to obtain optimum process conditions. Distribution of Al12Mg17 phase was the key factor to determine the mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy. Specimens with 3mm of thickness showed superior mechanical properties to those with 0.8mm of thickness. Closed networking of Al12Mg17 phase along grain boundary was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy.
Non-flammable magnesium alloy, AZ91D, die-casting, microstructure, mechanical properties.
A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System
This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.
Car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol.
Broadcasting Stabilization for Dynamical Multi-Agent Systems
This paper deals with a stabilization problem for
multi-agent systems, when all agents in a multi-agent system receive
the same broadcasting control signal and the controller can measure
not each agent output but the sum of all agent outputs. It is
analytically shown that when the sum of all agent outputs is bounded
with a certain broadcasting controller for a given reference, each agent
output is separately bounded: stabilization of the sum of agent outputs
always results in the stability of every agent output. A numerical
example is presented to illustrate our theoretic findings in this paper.
Broadcasting Control, Multi-agent System, Transfer
Microstructure and Hot Deformation Behavior of Fe-20Cr-5Al Alloy
High temperature deformation behavior of cast
Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy has been investigated in this study by performing
tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 1100 to 1200oC.
Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 300×300×100 in
millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase
equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic
software and database. Tensile strength of cast Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy was
4 MPa at 1200oC. With temperature decreased, tensile strength
increased rapidly and reached up to 13 MPa at 1100oC. Elongation
also increased from 18 to 80% with temperature decreased from
1200oC to 1100oC. Microstructure observation revealed that M23C6
carbide was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the
Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy, high temperature deformation,
aging treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties.
Microstructure and Aging Behavior of Nonflammable AZ91D Mg Alloy
Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for
nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using
FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution
treatment could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450oC.
Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was
successfully conducted at 420oC and supersaturated microstructure
with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of
AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y; however, a little amount of
intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment.
After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures
of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness
of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging
conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs.
Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase
equilibrium, peak aging.
Carbide Structure and Fracture Toughness of High Speed Tool Steels
In the present study, M2 high speed steels were
fabricated by using electro-slag rapid remelting process. Carbide
structure was analysed and the fracture toughness and hardness were
also measured after austenitization treatment at 1190 and 1210oC
followed by tempering treatment at 535oC for billets with various
diameters from 16 to 60 mm. Electro-slag rapid remelting (ESRR)
process is an advanced ESR process combined by continuous casting
and successfully employed in this study to fabricate a sound M2 high
speed ingot. Three other kinds of commercial M2 high speed steels,
produced by traditional method, were also analysed for comparison.
Distribution and structure of eutectic carbides of the ESRR billet were
found to be comparable to those of commercial alloy and so was the
High speed tool steel, eutectic carbide,
microstructure, hardness, fracture toughness.
Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Duplex Satinless Steel
Effect of alloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties of heat-resisting duplex stainless steel (DSS) for Mg production was investigated in this study. 25Cr-8Ni based DSS’s were cast into rectangular ingots of which the dimension was 350×350×100 mm3 . Nitrogen and Yttrium were added in the range within 0.3 in weight percent. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software. Hot exposure, high temperature tensile and compression tests were conducted on the ingots at 1230oC, which is operation temperature employed for Mg production by Silico-thermic reduction. The steel with N and Y showed much higher strength than 310S alloy in both tensile and compression tests. By thermal exposition at 1230oC for 200 hrs, hardness of DSS containing N and Y was found to increase. Hot workability of the heat-resisting DSS was evaluated by employing hot rolling at 1230 oC. Hot shortness was observed in the ingot with N and found to disappear after addition of Y.
Duplex Stainless Steel, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, microstructure, aging treatment.
Effect of Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Non-Flammable AZ91D Mg Alloy
Microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D
Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were
investigated in this study. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy
with Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420oC and
supersaturated microstructure with almost all beta phases resolved into
matrix was obtained. After solid solution treatment, the alloy was
annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1
min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by
micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced from the
results as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. Hot rolling was also
carried out at 400oC by the reduction ratio of 0.6 through 5 passes
followed by recrystallization treatment. Tensile and compressive
properties were measured at room temperature on the specimens of
each process, i.e. as-cast, solution treatment, hot rolling, and
Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, hot rolling,
peak aging, tensile test.
Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels
In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series
ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges
of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of
temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load
applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal
cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted
under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were
completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at
the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal
fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel
is found to be superior to the other steels.
Ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal
fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Zn Alloys
Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and
mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys with Zn contents from 6 to 10
weight percent was investigated in this study. Through calculation of
phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, carried out by using FactSage® and
FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as
temperatures from 300 to 400oC, where supersaturated solid solution
can be obtained. Solid solution treatment of Mg-Zn alloys was
successfully conducted at 380oC and supersaturated microstructure
with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. After solution
treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of
60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room
temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and
recrystallized after rolling. After solid solution treatment, each alloy
was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from
1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by
micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the
temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. By addition of Zn by 10 weight
percent, hardness and strength were enhanced.
Mg-Zn alloy, Heat treatment, Microstructure,
Mechanical properties, Hardness.
Energy Strategy and Economic Growth of Russia
This article considers the problems of economic growth
and Russian energy strategy. Also in this paper, the issues related to
the economic growth prospects of Russian were discussed. Russian
energy strategy without standing Russia`s stature in global energy
markets, at the current production and extraction rates, will not be able
to sustain its own production as well as fulfil its energy strategy.
Indeed, Russia’s energy sector suffers from a chronic lack of
investments which are necessary to modernize its energy supply
system. In recent years, especially since the international financial
crisis, Russia-EU energy cooperation has made substantive progress.
Recently the break-through progress has been made, resulting mainly
from long-term contributing factors between the countries and recent
international economic and political situation changes. Analytical
material presented in the article is intended for a more detailed or
substantive analysis related to foreign economic relations of the
countries and Russia as well.
Russia, Energy strategy, Economic growth,
Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2
With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.
Rutile, titanium, chlorination process, impurities, thermodynamic calculation, FactSage.