Evaluation of Performance Requirements for Seismic Design of Piping System
The cost of damage to the non-structural systems in
critical facilities like nuclear power plants and hospitals can exceed
80% of the total cost of damage during an earthquake. The failure of
nonstructural components, especially, piping systems led to leakage of
water and subsequent shut-down of hospitals immediately after the
event. Consequently, the evaluation of performance of these types of
structural configurations has become necessary to mitigate the risk and
to achieve reliable designs.
This paper focuses on a methodology to evaluate the static and
dynamic characteristics of complex actual piping system based on
NFPA-13 and SMACNA guidelines. The result of this study revealed
that current piping system subjected to design lateral force and design
spectrum based on UBC-97 was failed in both cases and mode shapes
between piping system and building structure were very different
Nonstructural component, piping, hospital, seismic,
High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cr-containing Superplastic Iron Aluminide
Superplastic deformation and high temperature load
relaxation behavior of coarse-grained iron aluminides with the
composition of Fe-28 at.% Al have been investigated. A series of load
relaxation and tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging
from 600 to 850oC. The flow curves obtained from load relaxation
tests were found to have a sigmoidal shape and to exhibit stress vs.
strain rate data in a very wide strain rate range from 10-7/s to 10-2/s.
Tensile tests have been conducted at various initial strain rates ranging
from 3×10-5/s to 1×10-2/s. Maximum elongation of ~500 % was
obtained at the initial strain rate of 3×10-5/s and the maximum strain
rate sensitivity was found to be 0.68 at 850oC in binary Fe-28Al alloy.
Microstructure observation through the optical microscopy (OM) and
the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique has been
carried out on the deformed specimens and it has revealed the
evidences for grain boundary migration and grain refinement to occur
during superplastic deformation, suggesting the dynamic
recrystallization mechanism. The addition of Cr by the amount of 5
at.% appeared to deteriorate the superplasticity of the binary iron
aluminide. By applying the internal variable theory of structural
superplasticity, the addition of Cr has been revealed to lower the
contribution of the frictional resistance to dislocation glide during high
temperature deformation of the Fe3Al alloy.
Iron aluminide (Fe3Al), large grain size, structural
superplasticity, dynamic recrystallization, chromium (Cr).
The Flexural Improvement of RC Beams Using an Inserted Plate between Concrete and FRP Bonding Surface
The primary objective of this research is to improve the flexural capacity of FRP strengthened RC Beam structures with Aluminum and Titanium laminates. FRP rupture of flexural strengthened RC beams using FRP plates generally occurs at the interface between FRP plate and the beam. Therefore, in order to prevent brittle rupture and improve the ductility of the system, this research was performed by using Aluminum and Titanium materials between the two different structural systems. The research also aims to provide various strengthening/retrofitting methods for RC beam structures and to conduct a preliminary analysis of the demands on the structural systems. This was achieved by estimation using the experimental data from this research to identify a flexural capacity for the systems. Ultimately, the preliminary analysis of current study showed that the flexural capacity and system demand ductility was significantly improved by the systems inserted with Aluminum and Titanium anchor plates. Further verification of the experimental research is currently on its way to develop a new or reliable design guideline to retrofit/strengthen the concrete-FRP structural system can be evaluated.
Reinforced Concrete, FRP Laminate, Flexural Capacity, Ductility.
Hot Workability of High Strength Low Alloy Steels
The hot deformation behavior of high strength low
alloy (HSLA) steels with different chemical compositions under hot
working conditions in the temperature range of 900 to 1100℃ and
strain rate range from 0.1 to 10 s-1 has been studied by performing a
series of hot compression tests. The dynamic materials model has been
employed for developing the processing maps, which show variation
of the efficiency of power dissipation with temperature and strain rate.
Also the Kumar-s model has been used for developing the instability
map, which shows variation of the instability for plastic deformation
with temperature and strain rate. The efficiency of power dissipation
increased with decreasing strain rate and increasing temperature in the
steel with higher Cr and Ti content. High efficiency of power
dissipation over 20 % was obtained at a finite strain level of 0.1 under
the conditions of strain rate lower than 1 s-1 and temperature higher
than 1050 ℃ . Plastic instability was expected in the regime of
temperatures lower than 1000 ℃ and strain rate lower than 0.3 s-1. Steel
with lower Cr and Ti contents showed high efficiency of power
dissipation at higher strain rate and lower temperature conditions.
High strength low alloys steels, hot workability,
Dynamic materials model, Processing maps.
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless steel for Anchor Bolt Application
Most buildings have been using anchor bolts
commonly for installing outdoor advertising structures. Anchor bolts
of common carbon steel are widely used and often installed
indiscriminately by inadequate installation standards. In the area
where strong winds frequently blow, falling accidents of outdoor
advertising structures can occur and cause a serious disaster, which is
very dangerous and to be prevented. In this regard, the development of
high-performance anchor bolts is urgently required. In the present
study, 25Cr-8Ni-1.5Si-1Mn-0.4C alloy was produced by traditional
vacuum induction melting (VIM) for the application of anchor bolt.
The alloy composition is revealed as a duplex microstructure from
thermodynamic phase analysis by FactSage® and confirmed by
metallographic experiment. Addition of Nitrogen to the alloy was
found to reduce the ferritic phase domain and significantly increase the
hardness and the tensile strength. Microstructure observation revealed
mixed structure of austenite and ferrite with fine carbide distributed
along the grain and phase boundaries.
Anchor bolt, Duplex stainless steel, FactSage®,
Hardness, Thermodynamic phase analysis.
Dissipation of Higher Mode using Numerical Integration Algorithm in Dynamic Analysis
In general dynamic analyses, lower mode response is
of interest, however the higher modes of spatially discretized
equations generally do not represent the real behavior and not affects
to global response much. Some implicit algorithms, therefore, are
introduced to filter out the high-frequency modes using intended
numerical error. The objective of this study is to introduce the
P-method and PC α-method to compare that with dissipation method
and Newmark method through the stability analysis and numerical
example. PC α-method gives more accuracy than other methods
because it based on the α-method inherits the superior properties of the
implicit α-method. In finite element analysis, the PC α-method is more
useful than other methods because it is the explicit scheme and it
achieves the second order accuracy and numerical damping
Dynamic, α-Method, P-Method, PC α-Method,Newmark method.
Evaluation of Structural Behavior of Wide Sleepers on Asphalt Trackbed Due to Embedded Shear Keys
Korea Train eXpress (KTX) is now being operated,
which allows Korea being one of the countries that operates the
high-speed rail system. The high-speed rail has its advantage of short
time transportation of population and materials, which lead to many
researches performed in this matter. In the case of high speed classical
trackbed system, the maintenance and usability of gravel ballast
system is costly. Recently, the concrete trackbed structure has been
introduced as a replacement of classical trackbed system. In this case,
the sleeper plays a critical role. Current study investigated to develop
the track sleepers readily applicable to the top of the asphalt trackbed,
as part of the trcakbed study utilizing the asphalt material. Among
many possible shapes and design of sleepers, current study proposed
two types of wide-sleepers according to the shear-key installation
method. The structural behavior analysis and safety evaluation on each
case was conducted using Korean design standard.
Wide Sleepers, Asphalt, High-Speed Railway,
Structural Safety Evaluation of Zip-Line Due to Dynamic Impact Load
In recent year, with recent increase of interest towards leisure sports, increased number of Zip-Line or Zip-Wire facilities has built. Many researches have been actively conducted on the emphasis of the cable and the wire at the bridge. However, very limited researches have been conducted on the safety of the Zip-Line structure. In fact, fall accidents from Zip-Line have been reported frequently. Therefore, in this study, the structural safety of Zip-Line under dynamic impact loading condition were evaluated on the previously installed steel cable for leisure (Zip-Line), using 3-dimensional nonlinear Finite Element (FE) model. The result from current study would assist assurance of systematic stability of Zip-Line.
Zip-Line, Wire, Cable, 3D FE Model, Safety.
Behavior of Concrete Slab Track on Asphalt Trackbed Subjected to Thermal Load
Concrete track slab and asphalt trackbed are being introduced in Korea for providing good bearing capacity, durability to the track and comfortable rideness to passengers. Such a railway system has been designed by the train load so as to ensure stability. But there is lack of research and design for temperature changes which influence the behavior characteristics of concrete and asphalt. Therefore, in this study, the behavior characteristics of concrete track slab subjected to varying temperatures were analyzed through structural analysis using the finite element analysis program. The structural analysis was performed by considering the friction condition on the boundary surfaces in order to analyze the interaction between concrete slab and asphalt trackbed. As a result, the design of the railway system should be designed by considering the interaction and temperature changes between concrete track slab and asphalt trackbed.
Con’c Track Slab, Asphalt Trackbed, Thermal Load, Friction Condition.
Seismic Excitation of Steel Frame Retrofitted by a Multi-Panel PMC Infill Wall
A multi-panel PMC infilled system, using polymer matrix composite (PMC) material, was introduced as new conceptual design for seismic retrofitting. A proposed multi panel PMC infilled system was composed of two basic structural components: inner PMC sandwich infills and outer FRP damping panels. The PMC material had high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios. Therefore, the addition of PMC infill panels into existing structures would not significantly alter the weight of the structure, while providing substantial structural enhancement.
In this study, an equivalent linearized dynamic analysis for a proposed multi-panel PMC infilled frame was performed, in order to assess their effectiveness and their responses under the simulated earthquake loading. Upon comparing undamped (without PMC panel) and damped (with PMC panel) structures, numerical results showed that structural damping with passive interface damping layer could significantly enhance the seismic response.
Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC), Panel, Piece-wise linear, Earthquake, FRP.
Piping Fragility Composed of Different Materials by Using OpenSees Software
A failure of the non-structural component can cause significant damages in critical facilities such as nuclear power plants and hospitals. Historically, it was reported that the damage from the leakage of sprinkler systems, resulted in the shutdown of hospitals for several weeks by the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 North Ridge earthquakes. In most cases, water leakages were observed at the cross joints, sprinkler heads, and T-joint connections in piping systems during and after the seismic events. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to understand the seismic performance of T-joint connections and to develop an analytical Finite Element (FE) model for the T-joint systems of 2-inch fire protection piping system in hospitals subjected to seismic ground motions. In order to evaluate the FE models of the piping systems using OpenSees, two types of materials were used: 1) Steel02 materials and 2) Pinching4 materials. Results of the current study revealed that the nonlinear moment-rotation FE models for the threaded T-joint reconciled well with the experimental results in both FE material models. However, the system-level fragility determined from multiple nonlinear time history analyses at the threaded T-joint was slightly different. The system-level fragility at the T-joint, determined by Pinching4 material was more conservative than that of using Steel02 material in the piping system.
Fragility, T-joint, Piping, Leakage, Sprinkler.
The Flexural Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Cement Mortars Using UM Resin
A polymer cement mortar (PCM) has been widely used as the material of repair and restoration work for concrete structure; however a PCM usually induces an environmental pollutant. Therefore, there is a need to develop PCM which is less impact to
environments. Usually, UM resin is known to be harmless to the environment. Accordingly, in this paper, the properties of the PCM using UM resin were studied. The general cement mortar and UM resin were mixed in the specified ratio. A certain percentage of PVA fibers, steel fibers and mixed fibers (PVA fiber and steel fiber) were added to enhance the flexural strength. The flexural tests were performed in order to investigate the flexural strength of each PCM. Experimental results showed that the strength of proposed PCM using UM resin is improved when they are compared with general cement mortar.
Polymer cement mortar (PCM), UM resin,
Compressive strength, PVA fiber, Steel fiber.
Prediction of Nonlinear Torsional Behavior of High Strength RC Beams
Seismic design criteria based on performance of
structures have recently been adopted by practicing engineers in
response to destructive earthquakes. A simple but efficient
structural-analysis tool capable of predicting both the strength and
ductility is needed to analyze reinforced concrete (RC) structures
under such event. A three-dimensional lattice model is developed in
this study to analyze torsions in high-strength RC members.
Optimization techniques for determining optimal variables in each
lattice model are introduced. Pure torsion tests of RC members are
performed to validate the proposed model. Correlation studies
between the numerical and experimental results confirm that the
proposed model is well capable of representing salient features of the
Torsion, non-linear analysis, three-dimensional
lattice, high-strength concrete.
Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures
This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of
buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the
influence of increased temperature on the foam core. Failure mode
under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis
with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are
contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of
its module elastic under the thermal influence. Increment of
temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core.
Indeed, it is proven that the effect of temperature alters the mechanical
properties of the entire panel system. Moreover, the rises of
temperature result in a decrease in strength of the panel. This is due to
the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length
also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their
significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Therefore,
by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be
Buckling, contact length, foam core, temperature
Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea
This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.
Bridge, Finite Element, 3D model, Earthquake, Spectrum.
Seismic Safety Evaluation of Weir Structures Using the Finite and Infinite Element Method
This study presents the seismic safety evaluation of weir structure subjected to strong earthquake ground motions, as a flood defense structure in civil engineering structures. The seismic safety analysis procedure was illustrated through development of Finite Element (FE) and InFinite Element (IFE) method in ABAQUS platform. The IFE model was generated by CINPS4, 4-node linear one-way infinite model as a sold continuum infinite element in foundation areas of the weir structure and then nonlinear FE model using friction model for soil-structure interactions was applied in this study. In order to understand the complex behavior of weir structures, nonlinear time history analysis was carried out. Consequently, it was interesting to note that the compressive stress gave more vulnerability to the weir structure, in comparison to the tensile stress, during an earthquake. The stress concentration of the weir structure was shown at the connection area between the weir body and stilling basin area. The stress both tension and compression was reduced in IFE model rather than FE model of weir structures.
Weir, Finite Element, Infinite Element, Nonlinear, Earthquake.
Seismic Fragility for Sliding Failure of Weir Structure Considering the Process of Concrete Aging
This study investigated the change of weir structure performances when durability of concrete, which is the main material of weir structure, decreased due to their aging by mean of seismic fragility analysis. In the analysis, it was assumed that the elastic modulus of concrete was reduced by 10% in order to account for their aged deterioration. Additionally, the analysis of seismic fragility was based on Monte Carlo Simulation method combined with a 2D nonlinear finite element in ABAQUS platform with the consideration of deterioration of concrete. Finally, the comparison of seismic fragility of model pre- and post-deterioration was made to study the performance of weir. Results show that the probability of failure in moderate damage for deteriorated model was found to be larger than pre-deterioration model when peak ground acceleration (PGA) passed 0.4 g.
Weir, FEM, concrete, fragility, aging.
Wind Fragility for Honeycomb Roof Cladding Panels Using Screw Pull-Out Capacity
The failure of roof cladding mostly occurs due to the failing of the connection between claddings and purlins, which is the pull-out of the screw connecting the two parts when the pull-out load, i.e. typhoon, is higher than the resistance of the connection screw. As typhoon disasters in Korea are constantly on the rise, probability risk assessment (PRA) has become a vital tool to evaluate the performance of civil structures. In this study, we attempted to determine the fragility of roof cladding with the screw connection. Experimental study was performed to evaluate the pull-out resistance of screw joints between honeycomb panels and back frames. Subsequently, by means of Monte Carlo Simulation method, probability of failure for these types of roof cladding was determined. The results that the failure of roof cladding was depends on their location on the roof, for example, the edge most panel has the highest probability of failure.
Monte Carlo Simulation, roof cladding, screw pull-out strength, wind fragility
Buckling Resistance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Infill Panel Subjected to Elevated Temperatures
Performance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panel system under diagonal compression was studied by means of numerical analysis. Furthermore, the variation of temperature was considered to affect the mechanical properties of BFRP, since their composition was based on polymeric material. Moreover, commercial finite element analysis platform ABAQUS was used to model and analyze this infill panel system. Consequently, results of the analyses show that the overall performance of BFRP panel had a 15% increase compared to that of GFRP infill panel system. However, the variation of buckling load in terms of temperature for the BFRP system showed a more sensitive nature compared to those of GFRP system.
Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer, Buckling performance, numerical simulation, temperature dependent materials.
Wind Fragility for Soundproof Wall with the Variation of Section Shape of Frame
Recently, damages due to typhoons and strong wind are on the rise. Considering this issue, we evaluated the performance of soundproofing walls based on the strong wind fragility by means of numerical analysis. Among the components of the soundproof wall, aluminum frame was the most vulnerable member, thus we have considered different section of aluminum frame in the determination of wind fragility. Wind load was randomly generated using Monte Carlo Simulation method. Moreover, limit state was based on the test standard of road construction soundproofing wall. In this study, the strong wind fragility was determined by considering the influence factors of wind exposure category, soundproof wall’s installation position, and shape of aluminum frame section. Results of this study could be used to determine the section shape of the frame that has high resistance to the wind during construction of the soundproofing wall.
Aluminum frame soundproofing wall, Monte Carlo Simulation, numerical simulation, wind fragility.
Numerical Study for Compressive Strength of Basalt Composite Sandwich Infill Panel
In this study, we investigated the buckling performance of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panels. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material of frame structure, a basic Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) infill wall system consists of two FRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. Furthermore, this type of component is for retrofitting and strengthening frame structure to withstand the seismic disaster. In-plane compression was considered in the numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform to determine the buckling failure load of BFRP infill panel system. The present result shows that the sandwich BFRP infill panel system has higher resistance to buckling failure than those of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) infill panel system, i.e. 16% increase in buckling resistance capacity.
Basalt fiber reinforced polymer, buckling performance, FEM analysis, sandwich infill panel.
Development of Numerical Model to Compute Water Hammer Transients in Pipe Flow
Water hammer is a hydraulic transient problem which is commonly encountered in the penstocks of hydropower plants. The numerical model was developed to estimate the transient behavior of pressure waves in pipe systems. The computational algorithm was proposed to model the water hammer phenomenon in a pipe system with pump shutdown at midstream and sudden valve closure at downstream. To predict the pressure head and flow velocity as a function of time as a result of rapidly closing a valve and pump shutdown, two boundary conditions at the ends considering pump operation and valve control can be implemented as specified equations of the pressure head and flow velocity based on the characteristics method. It was shown that the effects of transient flow make it determine the needs for protection devices, such as surge tanks, surge relief valves, or air valves, at various points in the system against overpressure and low pressure. It produced reasonably good performance with the results of the proposed transient model for pipeline systems. The proposed numerical model can be used as an efficient tool for the safety assessment of hydropower plants due to water hammer.
Water hammer, hydraulic transient, pipe systems, characteristics method.