Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos
In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking
scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits
into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero
level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain.
The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or
called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro
block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the
neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of
the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of
reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that
our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and
output bit-rate for most test videos.
Reversible data hiding, H.264/AVC standard,CAVLC, Histogram shifting