|Commenced in January 1999 || Frequency: Monthly || Edition: International|| Paper Count: 16 |
Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering
Landscape Data Transformation: Categorical Descriptions to Numerical Descriptors
Categorical data based on description of the
agricultural landscape imposed some mathematical and analytical
limitations. This problem however can be overcome by data
transformation through coding scheme and the use of non-parametric
multivariate approach. The present study describes data
transformation from qualitative to numerical descriptors. In a
collection of 103 random soil samples over a 60 hectare field,
categorical data were obtained from the following variables: levels of
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH, hue, chroma, value and data on
topography, vegetation type, and the presence of rocks. Categorical
data were coded, and Spearman-s rho correlation was then calculated
using PAST software ver. 1.78 in which Principal Component
Analysis was based. Results revealed successful data transformation,
generating 1030 quantitative descriptors. Visualization based on the
new set of descriptors showed clear differences among sites, and
amount of variation was successfully measured. Possible applications
of data transformation are discussed.
Nuts Composition and their Health Benefits
Nuts are part of a healthy diet such as Mediterranean diet. Benefits of nuts in reducing the risk of heart disease has been reasonably attributed to their composition of vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids, fiber and phytochemicals such as polyphenols, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. More than 75% of total fatty acids of nuts are unsaturated. α- tocopherol is the main tocopherol isomer present in most of the nuts. While walnuts, Brazil nut, cashew nut, peanut, pecan and pistachio nuts are rich in γ- tocopherol. β- sitosterol is dominant sterol in nuts. Pistachio and pine nut have the highest total phytosterol and Brazil nut and English walnut the lowest. Walnuts also contain large amount of phenolic compounds compared with other nuts. Nuts are rich in compounds with antioxidant properties and their consumption can offer preventing from incidence of many diseases including cardiovascular.
Oleate Induces Apoptosis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Oleic acid (C18:1) play an important role in
proliferation of fat cells. In this study, the effect of oleate on cells
viability in 3T3-L1 cells (fat cells) was investigated. The 3T3-L1
cells were treated with various concentrations of oleate in the
presence of 23 mM glucose. Oleate was added to adipogenic media
(day 0) to investigate the influence of oleate on proliferation of
postconfluent preadipocytes after 24 h induction. 0.1 mM oleate
promoted cell division by increasing 33.9% number of cells from
basal control in postconfluent preadipocytes. However, there were no
significantly different in cells viability with control cells when oleate
concentrations were increased up to 0.5 mM. When added to
differentiated adipocytes (day 12) for 48 h, the number of cells
decreased as oleate concentrations increased. 92.7% of cells lost
demonstrated apoptosis and necrosis after 48 h with 0.5 mM oleate.
The fluorochrome staining was examined under fluorescence
microscopy using acridine orange and ethidium bromide double
staining. Furthermore, the presence of high lactate (60.6% increased
from basal control) released into plasma has shown the direct
cytotoxicity of 0.5 mM oleate on adipocytes.
Determination of Penicillins Residues in Livestock and Marine Products by LC/MS/MS
Multi-residue analysis method for penicillins was
developed and validated in bovine muscle, chicken, milk, and flatfish.
Detection was based on liquid chromatography tandem mass
spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The developed method was validated for
specificity, precision, recovery, and linearity. The analytes were
extracted with 80% acetonitrile and clean-up by a single
reversed-phase solid-phase extraction step. Six penicillins presented
recoveries higher than 76% with the exception of Amoxicillin
(59.7%). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than
10%. LOQs values ranged from 0.1 and to 4.5 ug/kg. The method was
applied to 128 real samples. Benzylpenicillin was detected in 15
samples and Cloxacillin was detected in 7 samples. Oxacillin was
detected in 2 samples. But the detected levels were under the MRL
levels for penicillins in samples.
Physical Properties and Stability of Emulsions as Affected by Native and Modified Yam Starches
This study was conducted in order to determine the physical properties and stability of mayonnaise-like emulsions as affected by modified yam starches. Native yam starch was modified via pre-gelatinization and cross-linking phosphorylation procedures. The emulsions (50% oil dispersed phase) were prepared with 0.3% native potato, native yam, pre-gelatinized yam and cross-linking phosphorylation yam starches. The droplet size of surface weighted mean diameter was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the sample with cross-linking phosphorylation yam starch as compared to other samples. Moreover, the viscosity of the sample with pregelatinized yam starch was observed to be higher than that of other samples. The phase separation stability was low in the freshly prepared and stored (45 days, 5°C) emulsions containing native yam starch. This study thus generally suggested that modified yam starches were more suitable (i.e. better physical properties and stability) to be used as stabilizers in a similar system i.e. light mayonnaises, rather than a native yam starch.
Product Development and Derivatives Exploration by using Photosynthetic Bacteria
Lycopene, which can be extracted from plants and is
very popular for fruit intake, is restricted for healthy food development
due to its high price. On the other hand, it will get great safety
concerns, especially in the food or cosmetic application, if the raw
material of lycopene is produced by chemical synthesis. In this
project, we provide a key technology to bridge the limitation as
mentioned above. Based on the abundant bioresources of BCRC
(Bioresource Collection and Research Center, Taiwan), a promising
lycopene output will be anticipated by the introduction of fermentation
technology along with industry-related core energy. Our results
showed that addition of tween 80(0.2%) and span 20 produced higher
amount of lycopene. And piperidine, when was added at 48hr to the
cultivation medium, could promote lycopene excretion effectively
Microwave Pretreatment of Seeds to Extract High Quality Vegetable Oil
Microwave energy is a superior alternative to several other thermal treatments. Extraction techniques are widely employed for the isolation of bioactive compounds and vegetable oils from oil seeds. Among the different and new available techniques, microwave pretreatment of seeds is a simple and desirable method for production of high quality vegetable oils. Microwave pretreatment for oil extraction has many advantages as follow: improving oil extraction yield and quality, direct extraction capability, lower energy consumption, faster processing time and reduced solvent levels compared with conventional methods. It allows also for better retention and availability of desirable nutraceuticals, such as phytosterols and tocopherols, canolol and phenolic compounds in the extracted oil such as rapeseed oil. This can be a new step to produce nutritional vegetable oils with improved shelf life because of high antioxidant content.
Comparison of Physico-Chemical Properties And Fatty Acid Compostion of Elateriospermum Tapos (Buah Perah), Palm Oil And Soybean Oil
Elateriospermum tapos seed (buah perah) is the one
of the rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It contains high
percentage of oleic acid which is the important component to develop
nervous system and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) which is the
precursor of omega-3 fatty acids series to synthesize
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
However, there is less study about this valuable oilseed and exploit
its potential. Therefore, this paper is to assess the comparison of
physico-chemical properties and fatty composition of perah oil to
palm oil and soybean oil. From the comparison, perah oil shows low
peroxide value means it has good oxidative stability and also high
iodine values shows that it can be used in paint industry. The study
shown that perah oil is comparable to palm oil and soybean oil, so it
has high potential to be exploited in the oleochemical,
pharmaceutical, cosmetics and paint industries.
Optimization of Conditions for Xanthan Gum Production from Waste Date in Submerged Fermantation
Xanthan gum is one of the major commercial
biopolymers. Due to its excellent rheological properties xanthan gum
is used in many applications, mainly in food industry. Commercial
production of xanthan gum uses glucose as the carbon substrate;
consequently the price of xanthan production is high. One of the
ways to decrease xanthan price, is using cheaper substrate like
agricultural wastes. Iran is one of the biggest date producer countries.
However approximately 50% of date production is wasted annually.
The goal of this study is to produce xanthan gum from waste date
using Xanthomonas campestris PTCC1473 by submerged
fermentation. In this study the effect of three variables including
phosphor and nitrogen amount and agitation rate in three levels using
response surface methodology (RSM) has been studied. Results
achieved from statistical analysis Design Expert 7.0.0 software
showed that xanthan increased with increasing level of phosphor.
Low level of nitrogen leaded to higher xanthan production. Xanthan
amount, increasing agitation had positive influence. The statistical
model identified the optimum conditions nitrogen amount=3.15g/l,
phosphor amount=5.03 g/l and agitation=394.8 rpm for xanthan. To
model validation, experiments in optimum conditions for xanthan
gum were carried out. The mean of result for xanthan was 6.72±0.26.
The result was closed to the predicted value by using RSM.
Investigation Corn and Soybean Intercropping Advantages in Competition with Redroot Pigweed and Jimsonweed
The spatial variation in plant species associated with intercropping is intended to reduce resource competition between species and increase yield potential. A field experiment was carried out on corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping in a replacement series experiment with weed contamination consist of: weed free, infestation of redroot pigweed, infestation of jimsonweed and simultaneous infestation of redroot pigweed and jimsonweed in Karaj, Iran during 2007 growing season. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial experiment with replicated thrice. Significant (P≤0.05) differences were observed in yield in intercropping. Corn yield was higher in intercropping, but soybean yield was significantly reduced by corn when intercropped. However, total productivity and land use efficiency were high under the intercropping system even in contamination of either species of weeds. Aggressivity of corn relative to soybean revealed the greater competitive ability of corn than soybean. Land equivalent ratio (LER) more than 1 in all treatments attributed to intercropping advantages and was highest in 50: 50 (corn/soybean) in weed free. These findings suggest that intercropping corn and soybean increase total productivity per unit area and improve land use efficiency. Considering the experimental findings, corn-soybean intercropping (50:50) may be recommended for yield advantage, more efficient utilization of resources, and weed suppression as a biological control.
Ultrasonic Evaluation of Bone Callus Growth in a Rabbit Tibial Distraction Model
Ultrasound is useful in demonstrating bone mineral
density of regenerating osseous tissue as well as structural alterations.
A proposed ultrasound method, which included ultrasonography and
acoustic parameters measurement, was employed to evaluate its
efficacy in monitoring the bone callus changes in a rabbit tibial
distraction osteogenesis (DO) model.
The findings demonstrated that ultrasonographic images depicted
characteristic changes of the bone callus, typical of histology findings,
during the distraction phase. Follow-up acoustic parameters
measurement of the bone callus, including speed of sound, reflection
and attenuation, showed significant linear changes over time during
the distraction phase. The acoustic parameters obtained during the
distraction phase also showed moderate to strong correlation with
consolidated bone callus density and micro-architecture measured by
micro-computed tomography at the end of the consolidation phase.
The results support the preferred use of ultrasound imaging in the
early monitoring of bone callus changes during DO treatment.
The Effect of Sodium Chloride and pH on the Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Essential Oils Against Pathogenic and Food Spoilage Bacteria:Implications in Food Safety
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the factors affecting antimicrobial effectiveness of essential oils against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of the essential oils, were determined by turbidimetric technique using Biocreen C, analyzer. The effects of pH ranging from 7.3 to 5.5 in absence and presence of essential oils and/or NaCl on the lag time and mean generation time of the bacteria at 370C, were carried out and results were determined showed that, combination of low pH and essential oil at 370C had additive effects against the test micro-organisms. The combination of 1.2 % (w/v) of NaCl and clove essential oil at 0.0325% (v/v) was effective against E. coli. The use of concentrations less than MIC in combination with low pH and or NaCl has the potential of being used as an alternative to “traditional food preservatives".
Chemical Compositions and Physico-Chemical Properties of Malted Sorghum Flour and Characteristics of Gluten Free Bread
This study investigated the effect of germination on chemical compositions, physio-chemical properties of malted (germinated) red sorghum flours and evaluated characteristics of gluten free breads from sorghum flour. Results showed that germinated sorghum flour had higher amylase activity, swelling power and solubility at 95°C, but lower in the peak, break down, final and set back viscosities than ungerminated sample (p≤0.05). Five gluten free breads made from sorghum flour blends, with different ratios of ungerminated and germinated sorghum flour, were compared for the physical properties with those made from wheat flour. Crumb hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of sorghum breads were found significantly higher than those of wheat bread. With increasing of ungerminated flour proportion, the bread hardness increased while the cohesiveness declined. Sorghum breads appeared red to human eyes with a*values of 10.41-15.77.Their crust and crumb colors differed significantly from those of wheat bread.
Comparison of Proximate Compositions, Resistant Starch Content, and Pasting Properties of Different Colored Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Four different colors of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)
(black, white, red and black/white speckled) and red kidney bean
(Phaseolus vulgaris) were used to evaluate proximate compositions,
starch content, and pasting properties. There were no significant
differences of moisture, protein, ash, fat, and carbohydrate contents
of all bean types. The kidney bean had significantly lower amounts of
total starch and solubilized starch compared to those of other
cowpeas (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the red cowpea and red kidney bean had
highest content of resistant starch (9-10%). Decortication indicated
no significant effect on the proximate compositions of all samples,
but it significantly decreased the resistant starch content in cowpeas
and increased the solubilized starch and total starch content in all
types of cowpeas. The highest values of pasting properties, generally
observed in flours obtained from black and black/white speckled
Plant Varieties Selection System
In the end of the day, meteorological data and environmental data becomes widely used such as plant varieties selection system. Variety plant selection for planted area is of almost importance for all crops, including varieties of sugarcane. Since sugarcane have many varieties. Variety plant non selection for planting may not be adapted to the climate or soil conditions for planted area. Poor growth, bloom drop, poor fruit, and low price are to be from varieties which were not recommended for those planted area. This paper presents plant varieties selection system for planted areas in Thailand from meteorological data and environmental data by the use of decision tree techniques. With this software developed as an environmental data analysis tool, it can analyze resulting easier and faster. Our software is a front end of WEKA that provides fundamental data mining functions such as classify, clustering, and analysis functions. It also supports pre-processing, analysis, and decision tree output with exporting result. After that, our software can export and display data result to Google maps API in order to display result and plot plant icons effectively.
Effect of Replacement of Unripe Banana Flour for Rice Flour on Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Noodle
This work was conducted to improve the level of
resistant starch (RS) in a rice noodle using unripe banana flour and to
investigate the effect of substitution of unripe banana flour for rice
flour on the physical properties of rice noodle. In order to prepare
rice noodles, the unripe banana flour were replaced the rice flour
with different degrees of substitutions including 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and
100%. The results indicated that substitution of unripe banana flour
was significantly affected the viscosity properties of noodle flour,
color, cooking loss, RS and total starch content of noodle. It was
found that the noodle prepared from 100% unripe banana indicated
the greatest changes on the viscosity properties and color profiles. It
also showed the highest values of cooking loss (2.53%), tensile
strength (129.03%), and RS content (13.15%).