|Commenced in January 1999 || Frequency: Monthly || Edition: International|| Paper Count: 15 |
Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering
Investigation of Economic and Social Effects of the Dairy Cattle Support Project to Regional Economy via Cooperatives: Example of Isparta Province
Milk is a very important nutrient. Low productivity is
a problem of Turkish dairy farming. During recent years, Turkish government has supported cooperatives that assist milk producers and
encouraged farmers to become cooperative members. Turkish
government established several ways to support specially smallholders. For example Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
(MARA) provided two to four cows to villagers on a grant or loan basis with a long repayment period at low interest rates by
cooperatives. Social Support Project in Rural Areas (SSPRA) is
another support program targeting only disadvantaged people,
especially poor villager. Both programs have a very strong social
support component and similar objectives. But there are minor
differences between them in terms of target people, terms and conditions of the credit supplied Isparta province in Mediterranean region of Turkey is one of the
supported regions. MARA distributed dairy cows to 1072 farmers through 16 agricultural cooperatives in Isparta province in the context
of SSPRA. In this study, economic-social impacts on dairy cattle project
implemented through cooperatives were examined in Isparta. Primary data were collected from 12 cooperatives- president. The
data were obtained by personal interview through a questionnaire and
to cooperatives and given to farms benefiting from the project in
order to reveal the economic and social developments.
Finding of the study revealed that project provided new job
opportunities and improved quality of livestock. It was found that producers who benefited from the project were more willing to
participate in cooperative or other producer organizations.
The Impacts of Food Safety Standards on China Export of Vegetables and Fruits
Participation in global trade means that Chinas vegetables and fruits industry faces international food safety standards and increased scrutiny worldwide. The objectives of this paper were to investigate how existing food safety standards and regulations in the importing countries impact the export of vegetables and fruits from China. This paper discussed the current and historical situations of Chinas vegetables and fruits export from 1996 to 2010, analyzed the Maximum Residual Limit (MRL) standards of pesticides imposed by importing countries, quantitatively estimated the impacts of food safety standards on Chinas vegetables and fruits export based on a gravity model. The results showed that although transportation distance between trade partners and tariff rates on vegetables and fruits were still the importantly resistant factors for China export, vegetables and fruits export was sensitive to the number of regulated pesticides, the strictness, and the level of food safety standards imposed by importing countries, which showed a significant trade flow effect, stricter food safety standards, increased number of regulated pesticides significantly inhibit China export of vegetables and fruits. Moreover, Chinas food safety standards also showed a significantly effect on vegetables and fruits export, which inhibited export to some extent. KeywordsFood safety standards, MRL, Vegetables, Fruits, Export.
Surviving Abiotic Stress: The Relationship between High Light and High Salt Tolerance
The mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance is crucial
for plants to survive in harsh condition and the knowledge of this
mechanism can be use to solve the problem of declining productivity
of plants or crops around the world. However in-depth description is
still unclear and it is argued, in particular that there is a relationship
between high salinity tolerance and the ability to tolerate high light
condition. In this study, Dunaliella salina, which can withstand high
salt was used as a model. Chlorophyll fluorometer for nonphotochemical
quenching (NPQ) measurement and high-performance
liquid chromatography for pigment determination was used. The
results show that NPQ value and the amount of pigment were
increased along with the levels of salinity. However, it establish a
clear relationship between high salt and high light but the further
study to optimized the solutions mentioned above is still required.
Study on Phytochemical Properties, Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera L.
The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical
properties, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Aloe vera. The
phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of A. vera revealed
the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins,
flavonoids phenolic compounds, and etc. with absence of cyanogenic
glycosides. Three different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and
Di-Methyl sulfoxide were used to screen the antimicrobial activity of
A. vera leaves against four human clinical pathogens by agar well
diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were
observed in methanol extract followed by ethanol and Di-Methyl
sulfoxide. It was also found that remarkable antibacterial activities
with methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. vera compared with the
standard antibiotic, tetracycline that was not active against E. coli
and S. boydii and supported the view that A. vera is a potent
antimicrobial agent compared with the conventional antibiotic.
Moreover, the brine shrimps (Artemia salina) toxicity test exhibited
LC50 value was 569.52 ppm. The resulting data indicated that the A.
vera plant have less toxic effects on brine shrimp. Hence, it is
signified that Aloe vera plant extract is safe to be used as an
Economic Assessment of Green House for Cultivation of Float Based Seedling Production in India
In conventional seedling production, the seedlings are
being grown in the open field under natural conditions. Here they are
susceptible to sudden changes in climate were their quality and yield
is affected. Quality seedlings are essential for good growth and
performance of crops in main field; they serve as a foundation for the
economic returns to the farmer. Producing quality seedling demands
usage of hybrid seeds as they have the ability to result in better yield,
greater uniformity, improved color, disease resistance, and so forth.
Hybrid seed production poses major operational challenge and its
seed use efficiency plays an important role. Thus in order to
overcome the difficulties currently present in conventional seedling
production and to efficiently use hybrid seeds, ITC Limited Agri
Business Divisions - Sustainability Cell as conceptualized a novel
method of seedling production unit for farmers in West Godavari
District of Andhra Pradesh. The “Green House based Float Seedling"
methodology aims at a protected cultivation technique wherein the
micro climate surrounding the plant/seedling body is controlled
partially or fully as per the requirement of the species. This paper
reports on the techno economic evaluation of green house for
cultivation of float based seedling production with experimental
results that was attained from the pilot implementation in West
Godavari District, Rajahmundry region of India.
Effects of Irradiation to Morphological, Physicochemical and Biocompatibility Properties of Carrageenan
The characterization of κ-carrageenan could provide a
better understanding of its functions in biological, medical and
industrial applications. Chemical and physical analyses of
carrageenan from seaweeds, Euchema cottonii L., were done to offer
information on its properties and the effects of Co-60 γ-irradiation on
its thermochemical characteristics. The structural and morphological
characteristics of κ-carrageenan were determined using scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) while the composition, molecular weight
and thermal properties were determined using attenuated total
reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), gel
permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis
(TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further chemical
analysis was done using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H
NMR) and functional characteristics in terms of biocompatibility
were evaluated using cytotoxicity test.
Molecular Docking Studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA Polymerase β Subunit (rpoB) Receptor
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infectious disease caused by the obligate human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global reality that threatens tuberculosis control. Resistance to antibiotic Rifampicin, occurs in 95% of cases through nucleotide substitutions in an 81-bp core region of the rpoB i.e; beta subunit of DNA dependant RNA polymerase. In this paper, we studied the Rifampicin-rpoB receptor interactions In silico. First, homology modeling was performed to obtain the three dimensional structure of Mycobacterium rpoB. Sixty analogs of Rifampicin were prepared using Marvin sketch software. Both original Rifampicin and the analogs were docked with rpoB and energy values were obtained. Out of sixty analogs, 43 analogs had lesser energy values than conventional Rifampicin and hence are predicted to have greater binding affinity to rpoB. Thus, this study offers a route for the development of Rifampicin analogs against multi drug resistant Mycobacterium rpoB.
Effect of Gibberellic Acid and 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of
gibberellic acid and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on flower
number, fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. GA3 and 2,4-D
were applied at small bud and petal fall stage. Number of flower,
fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, fruit growth and fruit quality were
recorded. Results indicated that spraying with 10 ppm GA3 had the
best results in number of flower. GA3 spray at 30 ppm gave the
faster rate of fruit growth than the other treatments. Fruit set, fruit
size as well as fruit weight markedly improved by spraying 30 ppm
GA3, followed by 10 ppm GA3 compared to untreated control.
Moreover, spray GA3 at 30 ppm was the most effective and
increased total soluble solids, reduced titratable acidity and fruit
drop. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 10 ppm 2,4-D
application also enhanced the fruit growth rate, improved
physiological and biochemical characters of fruit compared to
untreated control. It was concluded that both GA3 and 2,4-D spray
have positive effects on fruit development, reduced fruit drop, fruit
crack and improved fruit quality of wax apple under field conditions.
Characterization, Classification and Agricultural Potentials of Soils on a Toposequence in Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria
This work assessed some properties of three pedons on a toposequence in Ijah-Gbagyi district in Niger State, Nigeria. The pedons were designated as JG1, JG2 and JG3 representing the upper, middle and lower slopes respectively. The surface soil was characterized by dark yellowish brown (10YR3/4) color at the JG1 and JG2 and very dark grayish brown (10YR3/2) color at JG3. Sand dominated the mineral fraction and its content in the surface horizon decreased down the slope, whereas silt content increased down the slope due to sorting by geological and pedogenic processes. Although organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (P) were rated high, TN and available P decreased down the slope. High cation exchange capacity (CEC) was an indication that the soils have high potential for plant nutrients retention. The pedons were classified as Typic Haplustepts/ Haplic Cambisols (Eutric), Plinthic Petraquepts/ Petric Plinthosols (Abruptic) and Typic Endoaquepts/ Endogleyic Cambisols (Endoclayic).
The Growth of the Watermelons with Geometric Shapes and Comparing Retention between Cubic and Hexagonal Forms
Shape and form of the watermelon fruits are important factors to save spaces and reducing damage during storing of the fruits. In order to save spaces and prevent fruit damage in watermelon the following experiment was carried out in the farm. The fruits were boxed when they were approximately one cm less than the box diameter. The cubic, hexagonal forms were compared in this research. To do this, different boxes were designed with different holes on the sides to holes the watermelons fruits for shaping. The shapes of the boxes were hexagonal and cubic. The boxes holes sizes were the same with 10mm diameter each. Each side of the boxes had different holes including: without holes to 75 holes. The result showed that the best shape for watermelon storing to save space and prevent fruit damage was hexagonal form. The percentages of the fruit damage were 33 to 80 respectively.
The Potency of Sandfish (Holothuria scraba) as a Source of Natural Aphrodisiacs
Sandfish is one of marine biota that has a biomedicine (bioactive compound) potency. People in Gorontalo Province, Indonesia, have been sandfish as an aphrodisiac for men as it is believed that sandfish has a steroid hormone potency. This research aims at studying using the steroid hormone potency from every fraction of sandfish (meat and innards) and its activity of male reproduction (rooster) as an aphrodisiac. Steroid extraction was done using Touchstone and Kasparow method, and then it was utilized to study the effectiveness of bioassay of rooster. This research had five treatments and was done in complete randomized design. Based on Lieberman-Burchard and bioassay test, the author found that sandfish extract contains steroid hormone. Sandfish extract was able to enrich testosterone and cholesterol concentration in blood serum; fastening secondary reproduction characteristics of the rooster, and increasing growth as well as improving rooster’s comb. Therefore, sandfish steroid is potential to be used as an aphrodisiac for men.
Survival Model for Partly Interval-Censored Data with Application to Anti D in Rhesus D Negative Studies
This paper discusses regression analysis of partly interval-censored failure time data, which is occur in many fields including demographical, epidemiological, financial, medical and sociological studies. For the problem, we focus on the situation where the survival time of interest can be described by the additive hazards model in the present of partly interval-censored. A major advantage of the approach is its simplicity and it can be easily implemented by using R software. Simulation studies are conducted which indicate that the approach performs well for practical situations and comparable to the existing methods. The methodology is applied to a set of partly interval-censored failure time data arising from anti D in Rhesus D negative studies.
Solvent Effect on Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Betula alba and Convolvulus arvensi
The potential of using herbal Betula alba (BA) and Convolvulus arvensis (CA) as a natural antioxidant for food applications were investigated. Each plant extract was prepared by using pure ethanol, different concentration of ethanol aqueous solutions, including 50% and 75%, 50% methanol aqueous and water. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin–Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity were analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) respectively. Ethanol extract of CA exhibited the highest TPC and antioxidant activity; however BA showed varies of antioxidant activity value in each assay. The BA and CA exhibit the potential sources of natural antioxidant for food commodities.
Studies on Various Parameters Involved in Conjugation of Starch with Lysine for Excellent Emulsification Properties Using Response Surface Methodology
The process parameters, starch-water ratio (A, (w/v) %), pH of suspension (B), Temperature(C, °C) and Time (D, hrs.)., were optimized for the preparation of starch-lysine conjugate and studying their effect on stability of emulsions by calculating emulsion stability index using response surface methodology. The optimized conditions are pH 9.0, temperature 60oC, reaction time 6 hrs, starch:water ratio 1:2.5, having emulsion stability index was 0.72.
Leaf Pigments Help Almond Explants Tolerating Osmotic Stress
This study was conducted to evaluate the response of almond genotypes to osmotic stress in vitro in order to screen drought tolerance. Explants subjected to polyethyleneglycol osmotic stress (0, 3.5, and 7.0% WV) on the MS medium. Concentrations of photosynthesis pigments, anthocyanins, and carothenoids were significantly reduced under osmotic stress. Under osmotic stress, leaf water content, cellular membrane stability and pigments concentrations were significantly higher in the leaves of drought tolerant genotypes. The results revealed that carotenoids and anthocyanins may act as photoprotectant compounds in almond leaves and involved in drought tolerance system of the plant.