Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 13

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 13
    10008348
    An 8-Bit, 100-MSPS Fully Dynamic SAR ADC for Ultra-High Speed Image Sensor
    Abstract:

    In this paper, a dynamic and power efficient 8-bit and 100-MSPS Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. The circuit uses a non-differential capacitive Digital-to-Analog (DAC) architecture segmented by 2. The prototype is produced in a commercial 65-nm 1P7M CMOS technology with 1.2-V supply voltage. The size of the core ADC is 208.6 x 103.6 µm2. The post-layout noise simulation results feature a SNR of 46.9 dB at Nyquist frequency, which means an effective number of bit (ENOB) of 7.5-b. The total power consumption of this SAR ADC is only 1.55 mW at 100-MSPS. It achieves then a figure of merit of 85.6 fJ/step.

    12
    10008350
    Extended Constraint Mask Based One-Bit Transform for Low-Complexity Fast Motion Estimation
    Abstract:

    In this paper, an improved motion estimation (ME) approach based on weighted constrained one-bit transform is proposed for block-based ME employed in video encoders. Binary ME approaches utilize low bit-depth representation of the original image frames with a Boolean exclusive-OR based hardware efficient matching criterion to decrease computational burden of the ME stage. Weighted constrained one-bit transform (WC‑1BT) based approach improves the performance of conventional C-1BT based ME employing 2-bit depth constraint mask instead of a 1-bit depth mask. In this work, the range of constraint mask is further extended to increase ME performance of WC-1BT approach. Experiments reveal that the proposed method provides better ME accuracy compared existing similar ME methods in the literature.

    11
    10008361
    FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Clock Recovery for TDMoIP Systems
    Abstract:

    Circuit switched networks widely used until the end of the 20th century have been transformed into packages switched networks. Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol (TDMoIP) is a system that enables Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) traffic to be carried over packet switched networks (PSN). In TDMoIP systems, devices that send TDM data to the PSN and receive it from the network must operate with the same clock frequency. In this study, it was aimed to implement clock synchronization process in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips using time information attached to the packages received from PSN. The designed hardware is verified using the datasets obtained for the different carrier types and comparing the results with the software model. Field tests are also performed by using the real time TDMoIP system.

    10
    10008376
    Conditions for Fault Recovery of Interconnected Asynchronous Sequential Machines with State Feedback
    Abstract:
    In this paper, fault recovery for parallel interconnected asynchronous sequential machines is studied. An adversarial input can infiltrate into one of two submachines comprising parallel composition of the considered asynchronous sequential machine, causing an unauthorized state transition. The control objective is to elucidate the condition for the existence of a corrective controller that makes the closed-loop system immune against any occurrence of adversarial inputs. In particular, an efficient existence condition is presented that does not need the complete modeling of the interconnected asynchronous sequential machine.
    9
    10008399
    Improvement of GVPI Insulation System Characteristics by Curing Process Modification
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    The curing process of insulation system for electrical machines plays a determinative role for its durability and reliability. Polar structure of insulating resin molecules and used filler of insulation system can be taken as an occasion to leverage it to enhance overall characteristics of insulation system, mechanically and electrically. The curing process regime for insulating system plays an important role for its mechanical and electrical characteristics by arranging the polymerization of chain structure for resin. In this research, the effect of electrical field application on in-curing insulating system for Global Vacuum Pressurized Impregnation (GVPI) system for traction motor was considered by performing the dissipation factor, polarization and de-polarization current (PDC) and voltage endurance (aging) measurements on sample test objects. Outcome results depicted obvious improvement in mechanical strength of the insulation system as well as higher electrical characteristics with routing and long-time (aging) electrical tests. Coming together, polarization of insulation system during curing process would enhance the machine life time. 
    8
    10008400
    A Low Profile Dual Polarized Slot Coupled Patch Antenna
    Abstract:

    A low profile, dual polarized, slot coupled patch antenna is designed and developed in this paper. The antenna has a measured bandwidth of 17.2% for return loss > 15 dB and pair ports isolation >23 dB. The gain of the antenna is over 10 dBi and the half power beam widths (HPBW) of the antenna are 80±3o in the horizontal plane and 39±2o in the vertical plane. The cross polarization discrimination (XPD) is less than 20 dB in HPBW. Within the operating band, the performances of good impedance match, high ports isolation, low cross polarization, and stable radiation patterns are achieved.

    7
    10008411
    Batteryless DCM Boost Converter for Kinetic Energy Harvesting Applications
    Abstract:
    In this paper, a bidirectional boost converter operated in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) is presented as a suitable power conditioning circuit for tuning of kinetic energy harvesters without the need of a battery. A nonlinear control scheme, composed by two linear controllers, is used to control the average value of the input current, enabling the synthesization of complex loads. The converter, along with the control system, is validated through SPICE simulations using the LTspice tool. The converter model and the controller transfer functions are derived. From the simulation results, it was found that the input current distortion increases with the introduced phase shift and that, such distortion, is almost entirely present at the zero-crossing point of the input voltage.
    6
    10008422
    A 3Y/3Y Pole-Changing Winding of High-Power Asynchronous Motors
    Abstract:

    Requirement for pole-changing motors emerged at the very early times of asynchronous motor design. Different solutions have been elaborated and some of them are generally used. An alternative is the so called 3 Y/3 Y pole-changing winding. This paper deals with high power application of this solution. A complete and comprehensive study is introduced, including features and design guidelines. The method presented in this paper is especially suitable for pole numbers being close to each other. The study also reveals that the method is more advantageous then the existing solutions for high power motors with 1:3 pole ratio. Using this motor, a new and complete drive supply system has been proposed as most appropriate arrangement of high power main naval propulsion drive. Further, the method makes possible to extend the pole ratio to 1:6, 1:9, 1:12, etc. At the end, the proposal is further extended to the here so far missing 1:4, 1:5, 1:7 etc. pole ratios. A complete proposal for the theoretically infinite range has been given in this way.

    5
    10008429
    Development and Range Testing of a LoRaWAN System in an Urban Environment
    Abstract:
    This paper describes the construction and operation of an experimental LoRaWAN network surrounding the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom. Following successful installation, an experimental node design is built and characterised, with particular emphasis on radio range. Several configurations are investigated, including different data rates, and varying heights of node. It is concluded that although range can be great (over 8 km in this case), environmental topology is critical. However, shorter range implementations, up to about 2 km in an urban environment, are relatively insensitive although care is still needed. The example node and the relatively simple base station reported demonstrate that LoraWan can be a very low cost and practical solution to Internet of Things type applications for distributed monitoring systems with sensors spread over distances of several km.
    4
    10008451
    The Security Trade-Offs in Resource Constrained Nodes for IoT Application
    Abstract:
    The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) has received much attention over the last five years. It is predicted that the IoT will influence every aspect of our lifestyles in the near future. Wireless Sensor Networks are one of the key enablers of the operation of IoTs, allowing data to be collected from the surrounding environment. However, due to limited resources, nature of deployment and unattended operation, a WSN is vulnerable to various types of attack. Security is paramount for reliable and safe communication between IoT embedded devices, but it does, however, come at a cost to resources. Nodes are usually equipped with small batteries, which makes energy conservation crucial to IoT devices. Nevertheless, security cost in terms of energy consumption has not been studied sufficiently. Previous research has used a security specification of 802.15.4 for IoT applications, but the energy cost of each security level and the impact on quality of services (QoS) parameters remain unknown. This research focuses on the cost of security at the IoT media access control (MAC) layer. It begins by studying the energy consumption of IEEE 802.15.4 security levels, which is followed by an evaluation for the impact of security on data latency and throughput, and then presents the impact of transmission power on security overhead, and finally shows the effects of security on memory footprint. The results show that security overhead in terms of energy consumption with a payload of 24 bytes fluctuates between 31.5% at minimum level over non-secure packets and 60.4% at the top security level of 802.15.4 security specification. Also, it shows that security cost has less impact at longer packet lengths, and more with smaller packet size. In addition, the results depicts a significant impact on data latency and throughput. Overall, maximum authentication length decreases throughput by almost 53%, and encryption and authentication together by almost 62%.
    3
    10008471
    Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications
    Abstract:

    This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.

    2
    10008472
    The Excess Loop Delay Calibration in a Bandpass Continuous-Time Delta Sigma Modulators Based on Q-Enhanced LC Filter
    Abstract:
    The Q-enhanced LC filters are the most used architecture in the Bandpass (BP) Continuous-Time (CT) Delta-Sigma (ΣΔ) modulators, due to their: high frequencies operation, high linearity than the active filters and a high quality factor obtained by Q-enhanced technique. This technique consists of the use of a negative resistance that compensate the ohmic losses in the on-chip inductor. However, this technique introduces a zero in the filter transfer function which will affect the modulator performances in term of Dynamic Range (DR), stability and in-band noise (Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)). In this paper, we study the effect of this zero and we demonstrate that a calibration of the excess loop delay (ELD) is required to ensure the best performances of the modulator. System level simulations are done for a 2ndorder BP CT (ΣΔ) modulator at a center frequency of 300MHz. Simulation results indicate that the optimal ELD should be reduced by 13% to achieve the maximum SNR and DR compared to the ideal LC-based ΣΔ modulator.
    1
    10008476
    Performance Evaluation of Thermosiphon Based Solar Water Heater in India
    Abstract:

    This paper aims to study performance of a thermosiphon solar water heating system with the help of the proposed analytical model. This proposed model predicts the temperature and mass flow rate in a thermosiphon solar water heating system depending on radiation intensity and ambient temperature. The performance of the thermosiphon solar water heating system is evaluated in the Indian context. For this, eight cities in India are selected considering radiation intensity and geographical positions. Predicted performance at various cities reveals the potential for thermosiphon solar water in India.