A Mobile Multihop Relay Dynamic TDD Scheme for Cellular Networks
In this paper, we present an analytical framework for the evaluation of the uplink performance of multihop cellular networks based on dynamic time division duplex (TDD). New wireless broadband protocols, such as WiMAX, WiBro, and 3G-LTE apply TDD, and mobile communication protocols under standardization (e.g., IEEE802.16j) are investigating mobile multihop relay (MMR) as a future technology. In this paper a novel MMR TDD scheme is presented, where the dynamic range of the frame is shared to traffic resources of asymmetric nature and multihop relaying. The mobile communication channel interference model comprises of inner and co-channel interference (CCI). The performance analysis focuses on the uplink due to the fact that the effects of dynamic resource allocation show significant performance degradation only in the uplink compared to time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes due to CCI [1-3], where the downlink results to be the same or better.The analysis was based on the signal to interference power ratio (SIR) outage probability of dynamic TDD (D-TDD) and TDMA systems,which are the most widespread mobile communication multi-user control techniques. This paper presents the uplink SIR outage probability with multihop results and shows that the dynamic TDD scheme applying MMR can provide a performance improvement compared to single hop applications if executed properly.
Location Management in Cellular Networks
Cellular networks provide voice and data services to the users with mobility. To deliver services to the mobile users, the cellular network is capable of tracking the locations of the users, and allowing user movement during the conversations. These capabilities are achieved by the location management. Location management in mobile communication systems is concerned with those network functions necessary to allow the users to be reached wherever they are in the network coverage area. In a cellular network, a service coverage area is divided into smaller areas of hexagonal shape, referred to as cells. The cellular concept was introduced to reuse the radio frequency. Continued expansion of cellular networks, coupled with an increasingly restricted mobile spectrum, has established the reduction of communication overhead as a highly important issue. Much of this traffic is used in determining the precise location of individual users when relaying calls, with the field of location management aiming to reduce this overhead through prediction of user location. This paper describes and compares various location management schemes in the cellular networks.
Synthesis of Logic Circuits Using Fractional-Order Dynamic Fitness Functions
This paper analyses the performance of a genetic algorithm using a new concept, namely a fractional-order dynamic fitness function, for the synthesis of combinational logic circuits. The experiments reveal superior results in terms of speed and convergence to achieve a solution.
Mobile Multicast Support using Old Foreign Agent (MMOFA)
IP multicasting is a key technology for many existing and emerging applications on the Internet. Furthermore, with increasing popularity of wireless devices and mobile equipment, it is necessary to determine the best way to provide this service in a wireless environment. IETF Mobile IP, that provides mobility for hosts in IP networks, proposes two approaches for mobile multicasting, namely, remote subscription (MIP-RS) and bi-directional tunneling (MIP-BT). In MIP-RS, a mobile host re-subscribes to the multicast groups each time it moves to a new foreign network. MIP-RS suffers from serious packet losses while mobile host handoff occurs. In MIP-BT, mobile hosts send and receive multicast packets by way of their home agents (HAs), using Mobile IP tunnels. Therefore, it suffers from inefficient routing and wastage of system resources. In this paper, we propose a protocol called Mobile Multicast support using Old Foreign Agent (MMOFA) for Mobile Hosts. MMOFA is derived from MIP-RS and with the assistance of Mobile host's Old foreign agent, routes the missing datagrams due to handoff in adjacent network via tunneling. Also, we studied the performance of the proposed protocol by simulation under ns-2.27. The results demonstrate that MMOFA has optimal routing efficiency and low delivery cost, as compared to other approaches.
Multiresolution Approach to Subpixel Registration by Linear Approximation of PSF
Linear approximation of point spread function (PSF) is a new method for determining subpixel translations between images. The problem with the actual algorithm is the inability of determining translations larger than 1 pixel. In this paper a multiresolution technique is proposed to deal with the problem. Its performance is evaluated by comparison with two other well known registration method. In the proposed technique the images are downsampled in order to have a wider view. Progressively decreasing the downsampling rate up to the initial resolution and using linear approximation technique at each step, the algorithm is able to determine translations of several pixels in subpixel levels.
Control of Chaotic Dynamical Systems using RBF Networks
This paper presents a novel control method based on radial basis function networks (RBFNs) for chaotic dynamical systems. The proposed method first identifies the nonlinear part of the chaotic system off-line and then constructs a model-following controller using only the estimated system parameters. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
A Fast Directionally Constrained Minimization of Power Algorithm for Extracting a Speech Signal Perpendicular to a Microphone Array
In this paper, an extended method of the directionally constrained minimization of power (DCMP) algorithm for broadband signals is proposed. The DCMP algorithm is one of the useful techniques of extracting a target signal from observed signals of a microphone array system. In the DCMP algorithm, output power of the microphone array is minimized under a constraint of constant responses to directions of arrival (DOAs) of specific signals. In our algorithm, by limiting the directional constraint to the perpendicular direction to the sensor array system, the calculating time is reduced.
Fuzzy Control of a Three Phase ThyristorizedInduction Motor
Nowadays the control of stator voltage at a constant frequency is one of the traditional and low expense methods in order to control the speed of induction motors near its nominal speed. The torque of induction motor is a nonlinear function of the firing angle, phase angle and speed. In this paper the speed control of induction motor regarding various load torque and under different conditions will be investigated based on a fuzzy controller with inverse training.
Optoelectronic Automated System for Length and Profile Measurements
In this work the design and characterization of an optoelectronic automated measurement system it is presented. The optoelectronic devices of this system are an optical transmitter, the optical components and the optical receiver, which were selected for a great precision of the system. The mechanical system allows free displacement of the components as well as the devices that generate the movement. The results, length and profile of the objects are display in Lab View.
Application of Pattern Search Method to Power System Security Constrained Economic Dispatch
Direct search methods are evolutionary algorithms used to solve optimization problems. (DS) methods do not require any information about the gradient of the objective function at hand while searching for an optimum solution. One of such methods is Pattern Search (PS) algorithm. This paper presents a new approach based on a constrained pattern search algorithm to solve a security constrained power system economic dispatch problem (SCED). Operation of power systems demands a high degree of security to keep the system satisfactorily operating when subjected to disturbances, while and at the same time it is required to pay attention to the economic aspects. Pattern recognition technique is used first to assess dynamic security. Linear classifiers that determine the stability of electric power system are presented and added to other system stability and operational constraints. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in a way that insures a secure-economic system operation. Pattern search method is then applied to solve the constrained optimization formulation. In particular, the method is tested using one system. Simulation results of the proposed approach are compared with those reported in literature. The outcome is very encouraging and proves that pattern search (PS) is very applicable for solving security constrained power system economic dispatch problem (SCED).
Path Planning of a Robot Manipulator using Retrieval RRT Strategy
This paper presents an algorithm which extends the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT) framework to deal with change of the task environments. This algorithm called the Retrieval RRT Strategy (RRS) combines a support vector machine (SVM) and RRT and plans the robot motion in the presence of the change of the surrounding environment. This algorithm consists of two levels. At the first level, the SVM is built and selects a proper path from the bank of RRTs for a given environment. At the second level, a real path is planned by the RRT planners for the given environment. The suggested method is applied to the control of KUKA™,, a commercial 6 DOF robot manipulator, and its feasibility and efficiency are demonstrated via the cosimulatation of MatLab™, and RecurDyn™,.
Asymptotic Stability of Input-saturated System with Linear-growth-bound Disturbances via Variable Structure Control: An LMI Approach
Variable Structure Control (VSC) is one of the most useful tools handling the practical system with uncertainties and disturbances. Up to now, unfortunately, not enough studies on the input-saturated system with linear-growth-bound disturbances via VSC have been presented. Therefore, this paper proposes an asymp¬totic stability condition for the system via VSC. The designed VSC controller consists of two control parts. The linear control part plays a role in stabilizing the system, and simultaneously, the nonlinear control part in rejecting the linear-growth-bound disturbances perfectly. All conditions derived in this paper are expressed with Linear Matrices Inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily solved with an LMI toolbox in MATLAB.
Emerging Wireless Standards - WiFi, ZigBee and WiMAX
The world of wireless telecommunications is rapidly evolving. Technologies under research and development promise to deliver more services to more users in less time. This paper presents the emerging technologies helping wireless systems grow from where we are today into our visions of the future. This paper will cover the applications and characteristics of emerging wireless technologies: Wireless Local Area Networks (WiFi-802.11n), Wireless Personal Area Networks (ZigBee) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WiMAX). The purpose of this paper is to explain the impending 802.11n standard and how it will enable WLANs to support emerging media-rich applications. The paper will also detail how 802.11n compares with existing WLAN standards and offer strategies for users considering higher-bandwidth alternatives. The emerging IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) standard aims to provide low data rate wireless communications with high-precision ranging and localization, by employing UWB technologies for a low-power and low cost solution. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a standard for wireless data transmission covering a range similar to cellular phone towers. With high performance in both distance and throughput, WiMAX technology could be a boon to current Internet providers seeking to become the leader of next generation wireless Internet access. This paper also explores how these emerging technologies differ from one another.
Output Regulation of Perturbed Nonlinear Systems by Nested Sliding Mode Control
In this paper, we consider nested sliding mode control of SISO nonlinear systems, perturbed by bounded matched and unmatched uncertainties. The systems are assumed to be in strict-feedback form. A step wise procedure is introduced to obtain the controller. In each step, a continuous sliding mode controller is designed as virtual control law. Then the next step sliding surface is defined by using this virtual controller. These sliding surfaces are selected as nonlinear static functions of the system states. Finally in the last step, smooth static state feedback control law is determined such that the output reaches the desired set-point while the system is forced arbitrary close to the intersection of sliding surfaces and the states remain bounded.
An Approach for Blind Source Separation using the Sliding DFT and Time Domain Independent Component Analysis
''Cocktail party problem'' is well known as one of the human auditory abilities. We can recognize the specific sound that we want to listen by this ability even if a lot of undesirable sounds or noises are mixed. Blind source separation (BSS) based on independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the methods by which we can separate only a special signal from their mixed signals with simple hypothesis. In this paper, we propose an online approach for blind source separation using the sliding DFT and the time domain independent component analysis. The proposed method can reduce calculation complexity in comparison with conventional methods, and can be applied to parallel processing by using digital signal processors (DSPs) and so on. We evaluate this method and show its availability.
Sensorless Commutation Control of Switched Reluctance Motor
This paper addresses control of commutation of switched reluctance (SR) motor without the use of a physical position detector. Rotor position detection schemes for SR motor based on magnetisation characteristics of the motor use normal excitation or applied current /voltage pulses. The resulting schemes are referred to as passive or active methods respectively. The research effort is in realizing an economical sensorless SR rotor position detector that is accurate, reliable and robust to suit a particular application. An effective and reliable means of generating commutation signals of an SR motor based on inductance profile of its stator windings determined using active probing technique is presented. The scheme has been validated online using a 4-phase 8/6 SR motor and an 8-bit processor.
Reducing Power in Error Correcting Code using Genetic Algorithm
This paper proposes a method which reduces power consumption in single-error correcting, double error-detecting checker circuits that perform memory error correction code. Power is minimized with little or no impact on area and delay, using the degrees of freedom in selecting the parity check matrix of the error correcting codes. The genetic algorithm is employed to solve the non linear power optimization problem. The method is applied to two commonly used SEC-DED codes: standard Hamming and odd column weight Hsiao codes. Experiments were performed to show the performance of the proposed method.
Robust Image Transmission Over Time-varying Channels using Hierarchical Joint Source Channel Coding
In this paper, a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme for time-varying channels is presented. The proposed scheme uses hierarchical framework for both source encoder and transmission via QAM modulation. Hierarchical joint source channel codes with hierarchical QAM constellations are designed to track the channel variations which yields to a higher throughput by adapting certain parameters of the receiver to the channel variation. We consider the problem of still image transmission over time-varying channels with channel state information (CSI) available at 1) receiver only and 2) both transmitter and receiver being informed about the state of the channel. We describe an algorithm that optimizes hierarchical source codebooks by minimizing the distortion due to source quantizer and channel impairments. Simulation results, based on image representation, show that, the proposed hierarchical system outperforms the conventional schemes based on a single-modulator and channel optimized source coding.
Learning of Class Membership Values by Ellipsoidal Decision Regions
A novel method of learning complex fuzzy decision regions in the n-dimensional feature space is proposed. Through the fuzzy decision regions, a given pattern's class membership value of every class is determined instead of the conventional crisp class the pattern belongs to. The n-dimensional fuzzy decision region is approximated by union of hyperellipsoids. By explicitly parameterizing these hyperellipsoids, the decision regions are determined by estimating the parameters of each hyperellipsoid.Genetic Algorithm is applied to estimate the parameters of each region component. With the global optimization ability of GA, the learned decision region can be arbitrarily complex.
Design of Gain Scheduled Fuzzy PID Controller
An adaptive fuzzy PID controller with gain scheduling is proposed in this paper. The structure of the proposed gain scheduled fuzzy PID (GS_FPID) controller consists of both fuzzy PI-like controller and fuzzy PD-like controller. Both of fuzzy PI-like and PD-like controllers are weighted through adaptive gain scheduling, which are also determined by fuzzy logic inference. A modified genetic algorithm called accumulated genetic algorithm is designed to learn the parameters of fuzzy inference system. In order to learn the number of fuzzy rules required for the TSK model, the fuzzy rules are learned in an accumulated way. In other words, the parameters learned in the previous rules are accumulated and updated along with the parameters in the current rule. It will be shown that the proposed GS_FPID controllers learned by the accumulated GA perform well for not only the regular linear systems but also the higher order and time-delayed systems.
Reduced Order Modelling of Linear Dynamic Systems using Particle Swarm Optimized Eigen Spectrum Analysis
The authors present an algorithm for order reduction of linear time invariant dynamic systems using the combined advantages of the eigen spectrum analysis and the error minimization by particle swarm optimization technique. Pole centroid and system stiffness of both original and reduced order systems remain same in this method to determine the poles, whereas zeros are synthesized by minimizing the integral square error in between the transient responses of original and reduced order models using particle swarm optimization technique, pertaining to a unit step input. It is shown that the algorithm has several advantages, e.g. the reduced order models retain the steady-state value and stability of the original system. The algorithm is illustrated with the help of two numerical examples and the results are compared with the other existing techniques.
Adaptive Algorithm to Predict the QoS of Web Processes and Workflows
Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) alloworganizations to streamline and automate business processes and reengineer their structure. One important requirement for this type of system is the management and computation of the Quality of Service(QoS) of processes and workflows. Currently, a range of Web processes and workflow languages exist. Each language can be characterized by the set of patterns they support. Developing andimplementing a suitable and generic algorithm to compute the QoSof processes that have been designed using different languages is a difficult task. This is because some patterns are specific to particular process languages and new patterns may be introduced in future versions of a language. In this paper, we describe an adaptive algorithm implemented to cope with these two problems. The algorithm is called adaptive since it can be dynamically changed as the patterns of a process language also change.
Trajectory Planning Design Equations and Control of a 4 - axes Stationary Robotic Arm
This paper features the trajectory planning design of a indigenously developed 4-Axis SCARA robot which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in the laboratory. Once, a trajectory is being designed and given as input to the robot, the robot's gripper tip moves along that specified trajectory. Trajectories have to be designed in the work space only. The main idea of this paper is to design a continuous path trajectory model for the indigenously developed SCARA robot arm during its maneuvering from one point to another point (during pick and place operations) in a workspace avoiding all the obstacles in its path of motion.
Fuzzy Logic Control for a Speed Control of Induction Motor using Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation
This paper presents design and implements a voltage
source inverter type space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM)
for control a speed of induction motor. This scheme leads to be able
to adjust the speed of the motor by control the frequency and
amplitude of the stator voltage, the ratio of stator voltage to
frequency should be kept constant. The fuzzy logic controller is also
introduced to the system for keeping the motor speed to be constant
when the load varies. The experimental results in testing the 0.22 kW
induction motor from no-load condition to rated condition show the
effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Robust Coordinated Design of Multiple Power System Stabilizers Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique
Power system stabilizers (PSS) are now routinely used
in the industry to damp out power system oscillations. In this paper,
particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is applied to
coordinately design multiple power system stabilizers (PSS) in a
multi-machine power system. The design problem of the proposed
controllers is formulated as an optimization problem and PSO is
employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing
the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in
the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability
performance of the system is improved. The non-linear simulation
results are presented for various severe disturbances and small
disturbance at different locations as well as for various fault clearing
sequences to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed
controller and their ability to provide efficient damping of low