On the Application of Meta-Design Techniques in Hardware Design Domain
System-level design based on high-level abstractions
is becoming increasingly important in hardware and embedded
system design. This paper analyzes meta-design techniques oriented
at developing meta-programs and meta-models for well-understood
domains. Meta-design techniques include meta-programming and
meta-modeling. At the programming level of design process, metadesign
means developing generic components that are usable in a
wider context of application than original domain components. At the
modeling level, meta-design means developing design patterns that
describe general solutions to the common recurring design problems,
and meta-models that describe the relationship between different
types of design models and abstractions. The paper describes and
evaluates the implementation of meta-design in hardware design
domain using object-oriented and meta-programming techniques.
The presented ideas are illustrated with a case study.
Capturing an Unknown Moving Target in Unknown Territory using Vision and Coordination
In this paper we present an extension to Vision Based
LRTA* (VLRTA*) known as Vision Based Moving Target Search
(VMTS) for capturing unknown moving target in unknown territory
with randomly generated obstacles. Target position is unknown to the
agents and they cannot predict its position using any probability
method. Agents have omni directional vision but can see in one
direction at some point in time. Agent-s vision will be blocked by the
obstacles in the search space so agent can not see through the
obstacles. Proposed algorithm is evaluated on large number of
scenarios. Scenarios include grids of sizes from 10x10 to 100x100.
Grids had obstacles randomly placed, occupying 0% to 50%, in
increments of 10%, of the search space. Experiments used 2 to 9
agents for each randomly generated maze with same obstacle ratio.
Observed results suggests that VMTS is effective in locate target
time, solution quality and virtual target. In addition, VMTS becomes
more efficient if the number of agents is increased with proportion to
Mechanical Modeling Issues in Optimization of Dynamic Behavior of RF MEMS Switches
This paper details few mechanical modeling and
design issues of RF MEMS switches. We concentrate on an
electrostatically actuated broad side series switch; surface
micromachined with a crab leg membrane. The same results are
extended to any complex structure. With available experimental data
and fabrication results, we present the variation in dynamic
performance and compliance of the switch with reference to few
design issues, which we find are critical in deciding the dynamic
behavior of the switch, without compromise on the RF
characteristics. The optimization of pull in voltage, transient time and
resonant frequency with regard to these critical design parameters are
Baseline Performance of Notebook Computer under Various Environmental and Usage Conditions for Prognostics
A study was conducted to formally characterize
notebook computer performance under various environmental and
usage conditions. Software was developed to collect data from the
operating system of the computer. An experiment was conducted to
evaluate the performance parameters- variations, trends, and
correlations, as well as the extreme value they can attain in various
usage and environmental conditions. An automated software script
was written to simulate user activity. The variability of each
performance parameter was addressed by establishing the empirical
relationship between performance parameters. These equations were
presented as baseline estimates for performance parameters, which
can be used to detect system deviations from normal operation and
for prognostic assessment. The effect of environmental factors,
including different power sources, ambient temperatures, humidity,
and usage, on performance parameters of notebooks was studied.
Variable Step-Size Affine Projection Algorithm With a Weighted and Regularized Projection Matrix
This paper presents a forgetting factor scheme for variable step-size affine projection algorithms (APA). The proposed scheme uses a forgetting processed input matrix as the projection matrix of pseudo-inverse to estimate system deviation. This method introduces temporal weights into the projection matrix, which is typically a better model of the real error's behavior than homogeneous temporal weights. The regularization overcomes the ill-conditioning introduced by both the forgetting process and the increasing size of the input matrix. This algorithm is tested by independent trials with coloured input signals and various parameter combinations. Results show that the proposed algorithm is superior in terms of convergence rate and misadjustment compared to existing algorithms. As a special case, a variable step size NLMS with forgetting factor is also presented in this paper.
A Low Voltage High Linearity CMOS Gilbert Cell Using Charge Injection Method
A 2.4GHz (RF) down conversion Gilbert Cell mixer,
implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology with a 1.8V supply, is
presented. Current bleeding (charge injection) technique has been
used to increase the conversion gain and the linearity of the mixer.
The proposed mixer provides 10.75 dB conversion gain ( C G ) with
14.3mw total power consumption. The IIP3 and 1-dB compression
point of the mixer are 8dbm and -4.6dbm respectively, at 300 MHz
IF frequencies. Comparing the current design against the
conventional mixer design, demonstrates better performance in the
conversion gain, linearity, noise figure and port-to-port isolation.
Fast and Efficient On-Chip Interconnection Modeling for High Speed VLSI Systems
Timing driven physical design, synthesis, and
optimization tools need efficient closed-form delay models for
estimating the delay associated with each net in an integrated circuit
(IC) design. The total number of nets in a modern IC design has
increased dramatically and exceeded millions. Therefore efficient
modeling of interconnection is needed for high speed IC-s. This
paper presents closed–form expressions for RC and RLC
interconnection trees in current mode signaling, which can be
implemented in VLSI design tool. These analytical model
expressions can be used for accurate calculation of delay after the
design clock tree has been laid out and the design is fully routed.
Evaluation of these analytical models is several orders of magnitude
faster than simulation using SPICE.
EPR Hiding in Medical Images for Telemedicine
Medical image data hiding has strict constrains such
as high imperceptibility, high capacity and high robustness.
Achieving these three requirements simultaneously is highly
cumbersome. Some works have been reported in the literature on
data hiding, watermarking and stegnography which are suitable for
telemedicine applications. None is reliable in all aspects. Electronic
Patient Report (EPR) data hiding for telemedicine demand it blind
and reversible. This paper proposes a novel approach to blind
reversible data hiding based on integer wavelet transform.
Experimental results shows that this scheme outperforms the prior
arts in terms of zero BER (Bit Error Rate), higher PSNR (Peak Signal
to Noise Ratio), and large EPR data embedding capacity with
WPSNR (Weighted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) around 53 dB,
compared with the existing reversible data hiding schemes.
Fuzzy based Security Threshold Determining for the Statistical En-Route Filtering in Sensor Networks
In many sensor network applications, sensor nodes are deployed in open environments, and hence are vulnerable to physical attacks, potentially compromising the node's cryptographic keys. False sensing report can be injected through compromised nodes, which can lead to not only false alarms but also the depletion of limited energy resource in battery powered networks. Ye et al. proposed a statistical en-route filtering scheme (SEF) to detect such false reports during the forwarding process. In this scheme, the choice of a security threshold value is important since it trades off detection power and overhead. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy logic for determining a security threshold value in the SEF based sensor networks. The fuzzy logic determines a security threshold by considering the number of partitions in a global key pool, the number of compromised partitions, and the energy level of nodes. The fuzzy based threshold value can conserve energy, while it provides sufficient detection power.
Inverse Problem Methodology for the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Parameters Using MLP Neural Network
This paper presents an approach which is based on the
use of supervised feed forward neural network, namely multilayer
perceptron (MLP) neural network and finite element method (FEM)
to solve the inverse problem of parameters identification. The
approach is used to identify unknown parameters of ferromagnetic
materials. The methodology used in this study consists in the
simulation of a large number of parameters in a material under test,
using the finite element method (FEM). Both variations in relative
magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity of the material
under test are considered. Then, the obtained results are used to
generate a set of vectors for the training of MLP neural network.
Finally, the obtained neural network is used to evaluate a group of
new materials, simulated by the FEM, but not belonging to the
original dataset. Noisy data, added to the probe measurements is used
to enhance the robustness of the method. The reached results
demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, and encourage
future works on this subject.
Adaptive Hierarchical Key Structure Generation for Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks using A*
Wireless Sensor networks have a wide spectrum of civil and military applications that call for secure communication such as the terrorist tracking, target surveillance in hostile environments. For the secure communication in these application areas, we propose a method for generating a hierarchical key structure for the efficient group key management. In this paper, we apply A* algorithm in generating a hierarchical key structure by considering the history data of the ratio of addition and eviction of sensor nodes in a location where sensor nodes are deployed. Thus generated key tree structure provides an efficient way of managing the group key in terms of energy consumption when addition and eviction event occurs. A* algorithm tries to minimize the number of messages needed for group key management by the history data. The experimentation with the tree shows efficiency of the proposed method.
Optimal Placement of Processors based on Effective Communication Load
This paper presents a new technique for the optimum
placement of processors to minimize the total effective
communication load under multi-processor communication
dominated environment. This is achieved by placing heavily loaded
processors near each other and lightly loaded ones far away from
one another in the physical grid locations. The results are
mathematically proved for the Algorithms are described.
Speech Recognition Using Scaly Neural Networks
This research work is aimed at speech recognition
using scaly neural networks. A small vocabulary of 11 words were
established first, these words are “word, file, open, print, exit, edit,
cut, copy, paste, doc1, doc2". These chosen words involved with
executing some computer functions such as opening a file, print
certain text document, cutting, copying, pasting, editing and exit.
It introduced to the computer then subjected to feature extraction
process using LPC (linear prediction coefficients). These features are
used as input to an artificial neural network in speaker dependent
mode. Half of the words are used for training the artificial neural
network and the other half are used for testing the system; those are
used for information retrieval.
The system components are consist of three parts, speech
processing and feature extraction, training and testing by using neural
networks and information retrieval.
The retrieve process proved to be 79.5-88% successful, which is
quite acceptable, considering the variation to surrounding, state of
the person, and the microphone type.
FPGA Based Parallel Architecture for the Computation of Third-Order Cross Moments
Higher-order Statistics (HOS), also known as
cumulants, cross moments and their frequency domain counterparts,
known as poly spectra have emerged as a powerful signal processing
tool for the synthesis and analysis of signals and systems. Algorithms
used for the computation of cross moments are computationally
intensive and require high computational speed for real-time
applications. For efficiency and high speed, it is often advantageous
to realize computation intensive algorithms in hardware. A promising
solution that combines high flexibility together with the speed of a
traditional hardware is Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In
this paper, we present FPGA-based parallel architecture for the
computation of third-order cross moments. The proposed design is
coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware
Description Language (VHDL) and functionally verified by
implementing it on Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S2000FG900-4 FPGA.
Implementation results are presented and it shows that the proposed
design can operate at a maximum frequency of 86.618 MHz.
Noise Removal from Surface Respiratory EMG Signal
The aim of this study was to remove the two principal
noises which disturb the surface electromyography signal
(Diaphragm). These signals are the electrocardiogram ECG artefact
and the power line interference artefact. The algorithm proposed
focuses on a new Lean Mean Square (LMS) Widrow adaptive
structure. These structures require a reference signal that is correlated
with the noise contaminating the signal. The noise references are
then extracted : first with a noise reference mathematically
constructed using two different cosine functions; 50Hz (the
fundamental) function and 150Hz (the first harmonic) function for
the power line interference and second with a matching pursuit
technique combined to an LMS structure for the ECG artefact
estimation. The two removal procedures are attained without the use
of supplementary electrodes. These techniques of filtering are
validated on real records of surface diaphragm electromyography
signal. The performance of the proposed methods was compared with
already conducted research results.
Noise Analysis of Single-Ended Input Differential Amplifier using Stochastic Differential Equation
In this paper, we analyze the effect of noise in a single- ended input differential amplifier working at high frequencies. Both extrinsic and intrinsic noise are analyzed using time domain method employing techniques from stochastic calculus. Stochastic differential equations are used to obtain autocorrelation functions of the output noise voltage and other solution statistics like mean and variance. The analysis leads to important design implications and suggests changes in the device parameters for improved noise characteristics of the differential amplifier.
Health Assessment of Electronic Products using Mahalanobis Distance and Projection Pursuit Analysis
With increasing complexity in electronic systems
there is a need for system level anomaly detection and fault isolation.
Anomaly detection based on vector similarity to a training set is used
in this paper through two approaches, one the preserves the original
information, Mahalanobis Distance (MD), and the other that
compresses the data into its principal components, Projection Pursuit
Analysis. These methods have been used to detect deviations in
system performance from normal operation and for critical parameter
isolation in multivariate environments. The study evaluates the
detection capability of each approach on a set of test data with known
faults against a baseline set of data representative of such “healthy"
A Reversible CMOS AD / DA Converter Implemented with Pseudo Floating-Gate
Reversible logic is becoming more and more prominent
as the technology sets higher demands on heat, power, scaling
and stability. Reversible gates are able at any time to "undo" the
current step or function. Multiple-valued logic has the advantage of
transporting and evaluating higher bits each clock cycle than binary.
Moreover, we demonstrate in this paper, combining these disciplines
we can construct powerful multiple-valued reversible logic structures.
In this paper a reversible block implemented by pseudo floatinggate
can perform AD-function and a DA-function as its reverse
Integrated Energy-Aware Mechanism for MANETs using On-demand Routing
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multi-hop
wireless networks in which all nodes cooperatively maintain network
connectivity. In such a multi-hop wireless network, every node may
be required to perform routing in order to achieve end-to-end
communication among nodes. These networks are energy constrained
as most ad hoc mobile nodes today operate with limited battery
power. Hence, it is important to minimize the energy consumption of
the entire network in order to maximize the lifetime of ad hoc
networks. In this paper, a mechanism involving the integration of
load balancing approach and transmission power control approach is
introduced to maximize the life-span of MANETs. The mechanism is
applied on Ad hoc On-demand Vector (AODV) protocol to make it
as energy aware AODV (EA_AODV). The simulation is carried out
using GloMoSim2.03 simulator. The results show that the proposed
mechanism reduces the average required transmission energy per
packet compared to the standard AODV.
Optimized Detection in Multi-Antenna System using Particle Swarm Algorithm
In this paper we propose a Particle Swarm heuristic
optimized Multi-Antenna (MA) system. Efficient MA systems
detection is performed using a robust stochastic evolutionary
computation algorithm based on movement and intelligence of
swarms. This iterative particle swarm optimized (PSO) detector
significantly reduces the computational complexity of conventional
Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection technique. The simulation
results achieved with this proposed MA-PSO detection algorithm
show near optimal performance when compared with ML-MA
receiver. The performance of proposed detector is convincingly
better for higher order modulation schemes and large number of
antennas where conventional ML detector becomes non-practical.
An Improved Switching Median filter for Uniformly Distributed Impulse Noise Removal
The performance of an image filtering system depends
on its ability to detect the presence of noisy pixels in the image. Most
of the impulse detection schemes assume the presence of salt and
pepper noise in the images and do not work satisfactorily in case of
uniformly distributed impulse noise. In this paper, a new algorithm is
presented to improve the performance of switching median filter in
detection of uniformly distributed impulse noise. The performance of
the proposed scheme is demonstrated by the results obtained from
computer simulations on various images.
Real Time Approach for Data Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks
The issue of real-time and reliable report delivery is extremely important for taking effective decision in a real world mission critical Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based application. The sensor data behaves differently in many ways from the data in traditional databases. WSNs need a mechanism to register, process queries, and disseminate data. In this paper we propose an architectural framework for data placement and management. We propose a reliable and real time approach for data placement and achieving data integrity using self organized sensor clusters. Instead of storing information in individual cluster heads as suggested in some protocols, in our architecture we suggest storing of information of all clusters within a cell in the corresponding base station. For data dissemination and action in the wireless sensor network we propose to use Action and Relay Stations (ARS). To reduce average energy dissipation of sensor nodes, the data is sent to the nearest ARS rather than base station. We have designed our architecture in such a way so as to achieve greater energy savings, enhanced availability and reliability.
A System of Automatic Speech Recognition based on the Technique of Temporal Retiming
We report in this paper the procedure of a system of
automatic speech recognition based on techniques of the dynamic
programming. The technique of temporal retiming is a technique
used to synchronize between two forms to compare. We will see how
this technique is adapted to the field of the automatic speech
recognition. We will expose, in a first place, the theory of the
function of retiming which is used to compare and to adjust an
unknown form with a whole of forms of reference constituting the
vocabulary of the application. Then we will give, in the second place,
the various algorithms necessary to their implementation on machine.
The algorithms which we will present were tested on part of the
corpus of words in Arab language Arabdic-10  and gave whole
satisfaction. These algorithms are effective insofar as we apply them
to the small ones or average vocabularies.
Efficient Pipelined Hardware Implementation of RIPEMD-160 Hash Function
In this paper an efficient implementation of Ripemd-
160 hash function is presented. Hash functions are a special family
of cryptographic algorithms, which is used in technological
applications with requirements for security, confidentiality and
validity. Applications like PKI, IPSec, DSA, MAC-s incorporate
hash functions and are used widely today. The Ripemd-160 is
emanated from the necessity for existence of very strong algorithms
in cryptanalysis. The proposed hardware implementation can be
synthesized easily for a variety of FPGA and ASIC technologies.
Simulation results, using commercial tools, verified the efficiency of
the implementation in terms of performance and throughput. Special
care has been taken so that the proposed implementation doesn-t
introduce extra design complexity; while in parallel functionality was
kept to the required levels.
An Image Encryption Method with Magnitude and Phase Manipulation using Carrier Images
We describe an effective method for image encryption
which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using carrier
images. Although it involves traditional methods like magnitude and
phase encryptions, the novelty of this work lies in deploying the
concept of carrier images for encryption purpose. To this end, a
carrier image is randomly chosen from a set of stored images. One
dimensional (1-D) discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is then carried
out on the original image to be encrypted along with the carrier
image. Row wise spectral addition and scaling is performed between
the magnitude spectra of the original and carrier images by randomly
selecting the rows. Similarly, row wise phase addition and scaling is
performed between the original and carrier images phase spectra by
randomly selecting the rows. The encrypted image obtained by these
two operations is further subjected to one more level of magnitude
and phase manipulation using another randomly chosen carrier image
by 1-D DFT along the columns. The resulting encrypted image is
found to be fully distorted, resulting in increasing the robustness
of the proposed work. Further, applying the reverse process at the
receiver, the decrypted image is found to be distortionless.
Analog Circuit Design using Genetic Algorithm: Modified
Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to analog circuit design automation. These researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a modified Genetic Algorithm is applied for analog circuit design automation. The modifications are made to the topology of the circuit. These modifications will lead to a more computationally efficient algorithm.
Optimal Power Allocation for the Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code for 3G Systems
We proposed a new class of asymmetric turbo encoder for 3G systems that performs well in both “water fall" and “error floor" regions in . In this paper, a modified (optimal) power allocation scheme for the different bits of new class of asymmetric turbo encoder has been investigated to enhance the performance. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified Unequal Power Allocation (UPA) scheme for the frame length, N=400, code rate, r=1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are obtained and compared with the system with typical UPA and without UPA. The performance tests are extended over AWGN channel for different frame size to verify the possibility of implementation of the modified UPA scheme for the proposed asymmetric turbo code. From the performance results, it is observed that the proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified UPA performs better than the system without UPA and with typical UPA and it provides a coding gain of 0.4 to 0.52dB.
A Study of the Hand-Hold Impact on the EM Interaction of a Cellular Handset and a Human
This paper investigates the impact of the hand-hold
positions on both antenna performance and the specific absorption
rate (SAR) induced in the user-s head. A cellular handset with
external antenna operating at GSM-900 frequency is modeled and
simulated using a finite difference time-domain (FDTD)-based
platform SEMCAD-X. A specific anthropomorphic mannequin
(SAM) is adopted to simulate the user-s head, whereas a semirealistic
CAD-model of three-tissues is designed to simulate the
user-s hand. The results show that in case of the handset in hand close
to head at different positions; the antenna total efficiency gets
reduced to (14.5% - 5.9%) at cheek-position and to (27.5% to 11.8%)
at tilt-position. The peak averaged SAR1g values in head close to
handset without hand, are 4.67 W/Kg and 2.66 W/Kg at cheek and
tilt-position, respectively. Due to the presence of hand, the SAR1g in
head gets reduced to (3.67-3.31 W/Kg) at cheek-position and to
(1.84-1.64 W/Kg) at tilt-position, depending on the hand-hold
Flagging Critical Components to Prevent Transient Faults in Real-Time Systems
This paper proposes the use of metrics in design space exploration that highlight where in the structure of the model and at what point in the behaviour, prevention is needed against transient faults. Previous approaches to tackle transient faults focused on recovery after detection. Almost no research has been directed towards preventive measures. But in real-time systems, hard deadlines are performance requirements that absolutely must be met and a missed deadline constitutes an erroneous action and a possible system failure. This paper proposes the use of metrics to assess the system design to flag where transient faults may have significant impact. These tools then allow the design to be changed to minimize that impact, and they also flag where particular design techniques – such as coding of communications or memories – need to be applied in later stages of design.