Improved Back Propagation Algorithm to Avoid Local Minima in Multiplicative Neuron Model
The back propagation algorithm calculates the weight
changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to
use a training algorithm consisting of a learning rate and a
momentum factor. The major drawbacks of above learning algorithm
are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds. The
addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor reduces the
convergence of the back propagation algorithm. We have applied the
three term back propagation to multiplicative neural network
learning. The algorithm is tested on XOR and parity problem and
compared with the standard back propagation training algorithm.
Design of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank by New Cosh Window Based FIR Filters
In this paper newly reported Cosh window function is
used in the design of prototype filter for M-channel Near Perfect
Reconstruction (NPR) Cosine Modulated Filter Bank (CMFB). Local
search optimization algorithm is used for minimization of distortion
parameters by optimizing the filter coefficients of prototype filter.
Design examples are presented and comparison has been made with
Kaiser window based filterbank design of recently reported work.
The result shows that the proposed design approach provides lower
distortion parameters and improved far-end suppression than the
Kaiser window based design of recent reported work.
Resistive RAM Based on Hfox and its Temperature Instability Study
High performance Resistive Random Access Memory
(RRAM) based on HfOx has been prepared and its temperature
instability has been investigated in this work. With increasing
temperature, it is found that: leakage current at high resistance state
increases, which can be explained by the higher density of traps
inside dielectrics (related to trap-assistant tunneling), leading to a
smaller On/Off ratio; set and reset voltages decrease, which may be
attributed to the higher oxygen ion mobility, in addition to the
reduced potential barrier to create / recover oxygen ions (or oxygen
vacancies); temperature impact on the RRAM retention degradation
is more serious than electrical bias.
Demonstration of a Low-Cost Monocycle Pulse for UWB Radio Transceiver
This paper presents a simple and original method for
the generation of short monocycle pulses based on the transient
response of a passive band-pass filter. The recorded sub-nanosecond
pulses show a good symmetry and a small ringing (13 % of the peak
amplitude). Their spectral density covers the range 3.1 GHz to
10.6 GHz. The possibility to adapt the pulse spectral density to the
indoor FCC frequency mask is demonstrated with a prototype
working at a reduced frequency (FCC/1000). A detection technique is
The Study on the Wireless Power Transfer System for Mobile Robots
A wireless power transfer system can attribute to the
fields in robot, aviation and space in which lightening the weight of
device and improving the movement play an important role. A
wireless power transfer system was investigated to overcome the
inconvenience of using power cable. Especially a wireless power
transfer technology is important element for mobile robots. We
proposed the wireless power transfer system of the half-bridge
resonant converter with the frequency tracking and optimized
power transfer control unit. And the possibility of the application
and development system was verified through the experiment with
Dynamic Data Partition Algorithm for a Parallel H.264 Encoder
The H.264/AVC standard is a highly efficient video
codec providing high-quality videos at low bit-rates. As employing
advanced techniques, the computational complexity has been
increased. The complexity brings about the major problem in the
implementation of a real-time encoder and decoder. Parallelism is the
one of approaches which can be implemented by multi-core system.
We analyze macroblock-level parallelism which ensures the same bit
rate with high concurrency of processors. In order to reduce the
encoding time, dynamic data partition based on macroblock region is
proposed. The data partition has the advantages in load balancing and
data communication overhead. Using the data partition, the encoder
obtains more than 3.59x speed-up on a four-processor system. This
work can be applied to other multimedia processing applications.
New Gate Stack Double Diffusion MOSFET Design to Improve the Electrical Performances for Power Applications
In this paper, we have developed an explicit analytical
drain current model comprising surface channel potential and
threshold voltage in order to explain the advantages of the proposed
Gate Stack Double Diffusion (GSDD) MOSFET design over the
conventional MOSFET with the same geometric specifications that
allow us to use the benefits of the incorporation of the high-k layer
between the oxide layer and gate metal aspect on the immunity of the
proposed design against the self-heating effects. In order to show the
efficiency of our proposed structure, we propose the simulation of the
power chopper circuit. The use of the proposed structure to design a
power chopper circuit has showed that the (GSDD) MOSFET can
improve the working of the circuit in terms of power dissipation and
self-heating effect immunity. The results so obtained are in close
proximity with the 2D simulated results thus confirming the validity
of the proposed model.
Design of High Gain, High Bandwidth Op-Amp for Reduction of Mismatch Currents in Charge Pump PLL in 180 nm CMOS Technology
The designing of charge pump with high gain Op-
Amp is a challenging task for getting faithful response .Design of
high performance phase locked loop require ,a design of high
performance charge pump .We have designed a operational amplifier
for reducing the error caused by high speed glitch in a transistor and
mismatch currents . A separate Op-Amp has designed in 180 nm
CMOS technology by CADENCE VIRTUOSO tool. This paper
describes the design of high performance charge pump for GHz
CMOS PLL targeting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM) application. A high speed low power consumption Op-Amp
with more than 500 MHz bandwidth has designed for increasing the
speed of charge pump in Phase locked loop.
Security Architecture for At-Home Medical Care Using Sensor Network
This paper proposes a novel architecture for At-
Home medical care which enables senior citizens, patients
with chronic ailments and patients requiring post- operative
care to be remotely monitored in the comfort of their homes.
This architecture is implemented using sensors and wireless
networking for transmitting patient data to the hospitals,
health- care centers for monitoring by medical professionals.
Patients are equipped with sensors to measure their
physiological parameters, like blood pressure, pulse rate etc.
and a Wearable Data Acquisition Unit is used to transmit the
patient sensor data. Medical professionals can be alerted to
any abnormal variations in these values for diagnosis and
suitable treatment. Security threats and challenges inherent to
wireless communication and sensor network have been
discussed and a security mechanism to ensure data
confidentiality and source authentication has been proposed.
Symmetric key algorithm AES has been used for encrypting
the data and a patent-free, two-pass block cipher mode CCFB
has been used for implementing semantic security.
Modeling and Analysis of SVPWM Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer
In this paper the modeling and analysis of Space
Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) based Dynamic Voltage
Restorer (DVR) using PSCAD/EMTDC software will be presented in
details. The simulation includes full modeling of the SVPWM
technique used to control the DVR inverter. A test power system
composed of three phase voltage source, sag generator, DVR and
three phase resistive load is used to demonstrate restoration capability
of the DVR. The simulation results of the presented DVR proved
excellent voltage sag mitigation to protect sensitive loads.
Application of Life Data Analysis for the Reliability Assessment of Numerical Overcurrent Relays
Protective relays are components of a protection system
in a power system domain that provides decision making element for
correct protection and fault clearing operations. Failure of the
protection devices may reduce the integrity and reliability of the power
system protection that will impact the overall performance of the
power system. Hence it is imperative for power utilities to assess the
reliability of protective relays to assure it will perform its intended
function without failure. This paper will discuss the application of
reliability analysis using statistical method called Life Data Analysis
in Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), a government linked power utility
company in Malaysia, namely Transmission Division, to assess and
evaluate the reliability of numerical overcurrent protective relays from
two different manufacturers.
Neural Network Optimal Power Flow(NN-OPF) based on IPSO with Developed Load Cluster Method
An Optimal Power Flow based on Improved Particle
Swarm Optimization (OPF-IPSO) with Generator Capability Curve
Constraint is used by NN-OPF as a reference to get pattern of
generator scheduling. There are three stages in Designing NN-OPF.
The first stage is design of OPF-IPSO with generator capability curve
constraint. The second stage is clustering load to specific range and
calculating its index. The third stage is training NN-OPF using
constructive back propagation method. In training process total load
and load index used as input, and pattern of generator scheduling
used as output. Data used in this paper is power system of Java-Bali.
Software used in this simulation is MATLAB.
Performance Analysis of HSDPA Systems using Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)Coding as Compared to Turbo Coding
HSDPA is a new feature which is introduced in
Release-5 specifications of the 3GPP WCDMA/UTRA standard to
realize higher speed data rate together with lower round-trip times.
Moreover, the HSDPA concept offers outstanding improvement of
packet throughput and also significantly reduces the packet call
transfer delay as compared to Release -99 DSCH. Till now the
HSDPA system uses turbo coding which is the best coding technique
to achieve the Shannon limit. However, the main drawbacks of turbo
coding are high decoding complexity and high latency which makes
it unsuitable for some applications like satellite communications,
since the transmission distance itself introduces latency due to
limited speed of light. Hence in this paper it is proposed to use LDPC
coding in place of Turbo coding for HSDPA system which decreases
the latency and decoding complexity. But LDPC coding increases the
Encoding complexity. Though the complexity of transmitter
increases at NodeB, the End user is at an advantage in terms of
receiver complexity and Bit- error rate. In this paper LDPC Encoder
is implemented using “sparse parity check matrix" H to generate a
codeword at Encoder and “Belief Propagation algorithm "for LDPC
decoding .Simulation results shows that in LDPC coding the BER
suddenly drops as the number of iterations increase with a small
increase in Eb/No. Which is not possible in Turbo coding. Also same
BER was achieved using less number of iterations and hence the
latency and receiver complexity has decreased for LDPC coding.
HSDPA increases the downlink data rate within a cell to a theoretical
maximum of 14Mbps, with 2Mbps on the uplink. The changes that
HSDPA enables includes better quality, more reliable and more
robust data services. In other words, while realistic data rates are
only a few Mbps, the actual quality and number of users achieved
will improve significantly.
Analysis of Resistance Characteristics of Conductive Concrete Using Press-Electrode Method
This paper aims to discuss the influence of resistance
characteristic on the high conductive concrete considering the changes
of voltage and environment. The high conductive concrete with
appropriate proportion is produced to the press-electrode method. The
curve of resistivity with the changes of voltage and environment is
plotted and the changes of resistivity are explored.
Analysis of Vibration Signal of DC Motor Based on Hilbert-Huang Transform
This paper presents a signal analysis process for
improving energy completeness based on the Hilbert-Huang
Transform (HHT). Firstly, the vibration signal of a DC Motor obtained
by employing an accelerometer is the model used to analyze the
signal. Secondly, the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and Hilbert
spectrum of the decomposed signal are obtained by applying HHT.
The results of the IMFs constituent and the original signal are
compared and the process of energy loss is discussed. Finally, the
differences between Wavelet Transform (WT) and HHT in analyzing
the signal are compared. The simulated results reveal the analysis
process based on HHT is advantageous for the enhancement of energy
A Novel VLSI Architecture for Image Compression Model Using Low power Discrete Cosine Transform
In Image processing the Image compression can improve
the performance of the digital systems by reducing the cost and
time in image storage and transmission without significant reduction
of the Image quality. This paper describes hardware architecture of
low complexity Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) architecture for
image compression. In this DCT architecture, common computations
are identified and shared to remove redundant computations
in DCT matrix operation. Vector processing is a method used for
implementation of DCT. This reduction in computational complexity
of 2D DCT reduces power consumption. The 2D DCT is performed
on 8x8 matrix using two 1-Dimensional Discrete cosine transform
blocks and a transposition memory . Inverse discrete cosine
transform (IDCT) is performed to obtain the image matrix and
reconstruct the original image. The proposed image compression
algorithm is comprehended using MATLAB code. The VLSI design
of the architecture is implemented Using Verilog HDL. The proposed
hardware architecture for image compression employing DCT was
synthesized using RTL complier and it was mapped using 180nm
standard cells. . The Simulation is done using Modelsim. The
simulation results from MATLAB and Verilog HDL are compared.
Detailed analysis for power and area was done using RTL compiler
from CADENCE. Power consumption of DCT core is reduced to
1.027mW with minimum area.
Weaknesses and Strengths Analysis over Wireless Network Security Standards
Several wireless networks security standards have been proposed and widely implemented in both business and home environments in order to protect the network from unauthorized access. However, the implementation of such standards is usually achieved by network administrators without even knowing the standards- weaknesses and strengths. The intention of this paper is to evaluate and analyze the impact over the network-s security due to the implementation of the wireless networks security standards WEP, WPA and WLAN 802.1X.
Improvement in Silicon on Insulator Devices using Strained Si/SiGe Technology for High Performance in RF Integrated Circuits
RF performance of SOI CMOS device has attracted
significant amount of interest recently. In order to improve RF
parameters, Strained Si/Relaxed Si0.8Ge0.2 investigated as a
replacement for Si technology .Enhancement of carrier mobility
associated with strain engineering makes Strained Si a promising
candidate for improving RF performance of CMOS technology.
From the simulation, the cut-off frequency is estimated to be 224
GHZ, whereas in SOI at similar bias is about 188 GHZ. Therefore,
Strained Si exhibits 19% improvement in cut-off frequency over
similar Si counterpart. In this paper, Ion/Ioff ratio is studied as one of
the key parameters in logic and digital application. Strained Si/SiGe
demonstrates better Ion/Ioff characteristic than SOI, in similar channel
length of 100 nm.Another important key analog figures of merit such
as Early Voltage (VEA) ,transconductance vs drain current (gm /Ids)
are studied. They introduce the efficiency of the devices to convert
dc power into ac frequency.
Performance and Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System in Northern China
A hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) solar system integrates photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies into one single solar energy device, with dual generation of electricity and heat energy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential for introduction of the PV/T technology into Northern China. For this purpose, outdoor experiments were conducted on a prototype of a PV/T water-heating system. The annual thermal and electrical performances were investigated under the climatic conditions of Beijing. An economic analysis of the system was then carried out, followed by a sensitivity study. The analysis revealed that the hybrid system is not economically attractive with the current market and energy prices. However, considering the continuous commitment of the Chinese government towards policy development in the renewable energy sector, and technological improvements like the increasing cost-effectiveness of PV cells, PV/Thermal technology may become economically viable in the near future.
Supercompression for Full-HD and 4k-3D (8k)Digital TV Systems
In this work, we developed the concept of
supercompression, i.e., compression above the compression standard
used. In this context, both compression rates are multiplied. In fact,
supercompression is based on super-resolution. That is to say,
supercompression is a data compression technique that superpose
spatial image compression on top of bit-per-pixel compression to
achieve very high compression ratios. If the compression ratio is very
high, then we use a convolutive mask inside decoder that restores the
edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the
complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation
on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. Specifically, the
mentio-ned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.
Protocol Modifications for Improved Co-Channel Wireless LAN Goodput in Partitioned Spaces
Partitions can play a significant role in minimising cochannel
interference of Wireless LANs by attenuating signals across
room boundaries. This could pave the way towards higher density
deployments in home and office environments through spatial
channel reuse. Yet, due to protocol limitations, the latest incantation
of IEEE 802.11 standard is still unable to take advantage of this fact:
Despite having clearly adequate Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR)
over co-channel neighbouring networks in other rooms, its goodput
falls significantly lower than its maximum in the absence of cochannel
interferers. In this paper, we describe how this situation can
be remedied via modest modifications to the standard.
Real Power Generation Scheduling to Improve Steady State Stability Limit in the Java-Bali 500kV Interconnection Power System
This paper will discuss about an active power generator scheduling method in order to increase the limit level of steady state systems. Some power generator optimization methods such as Langrange, PLN (Indonesian electricity company) Operation, and the proposed Z-Thevenin-based method will be studied and compared in respect of their steady state aspects. A method proposed in this paper is built upon the thevenin equivalent impedance values between each load respected to each generator. The steady state stability index obtained with the REI DIMO method. This research will review the 500kV-Jawa-Bali interconnection system. The simulation results show that the proposed method has the highest limit level of steady state stability compared to other optimization techniques such as Lagrange, and PLN operation. Thus, the proposed method can be used to create the steady state stability limit of the system especially in the peak load condition.
Vertical GAA Silicon Nanowire Transistor with Impact of Temperature on Device Parameters
In this paper, we present a vertical wire NMOS
device fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. The
impact of temperature on various device parameters is
investigated in view of usual increase in surrounding
temperature with device density.
Image Segmentation Using Suprathreshold Stochastic Resonance
In this paper a new concept of partial complement of a graph G is introduced and using the same a new graph parameter, called completion number of a graph G, denoted by c(G) is defined. Some basic properties of graph parameter, completion number, are studied and upperbounds for completion number of classes of graphs are obtained , the paper includes the characterization also.
Backplane Serial Signaling and Protocol for Telecom Systems
In this paper, we implement a modern serial backplane
platform for telecommunication inter-rack systems. For combination
high reliability and low cost protocol property, we applied high level
data link control (HDLC) protocol with low voltage differential
signaling (LVDS) bus for card to card communicated over backplane.
HDLC protocol is a high performance with several operation modes
and is famous in telecommunication systems. LVDS bus is a high
reliability with high immunity against electromagnetic interference
(EMI) and noise.
Applications of Support Vector Machines on Smart Phone Systems for Emotional Speech Recognition
An emotional speech recognition system for the
applications on smart phones was proposed in this study to combine
with 3G mobile communications and social networks to provide users
and their groups with more interaction and care. This study developed
a mechanism using the support vector machines (SVM) to recognize
the emotions of speech such as happiness, anger, sadness and normal.
The mechanism uses a hierarchical classifier to adjust the weights of
acoustic features and divides various parameters into the categories of
energy and frequency for training. In this study, 28 commonly used
acoustic features including pitch and volume were proposed for
training. In addition, a time-frequency parameter obtained by
continuous wavelet transforms was also used to identify the accent and
intonation in a sentence during the recognition process. The Berlin
Database of Emotional Speech was used by dividing the speech into
male and female data sets for training. According to the experimental
results, the accuracies of male and female test sets were increased by
4.6% and 5.2% respectively after using the time-frequency parameter
for classifying happy and angry emotions. For the classification of all
emotions, the average accuracy, including male and female data, was
63.5% for the test set and 90.9% for the whole data set.
Application of Four-electrode Method to Analysis Resistance Characteristics of Conductive Concrete
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of
resistance characteristic on the high conductive concrete considering
the various voltage and environment. The four-electrode method is
applied to the tailor-made high conductive concrete with appropriate
proportion. The curve of resistivity with the changes of voltage and
environment is plotted and the changes of resistivity are explored. The
result based on the methods reveals that resistivity is less affected by
the temperature factor, and the four-electrode method would be an
applicable measurement method on a site inspection.
BPNN Based Processing for End Effects of HHT
This paper describes a method of signal process applied
on an end effects of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to provide an
improvement in the reality of spectrum. The method is based on
back-propagation network (BPN). To improve the effect, the end
extension of the original signal is obtained by back-propagation
network. A full waveform including origin and its extension is
decomposed by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to obtain
intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the waveform. Then, the Hilbert
transform (HT) is applied to the IMFs to obtain the Hilbert spectrum of
the waveform. As a result, the method is superiority of the processing
of end effect of HHT to obtain the real frequency spectrum of signals.
UDCA: An Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network
In the past few years, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) potentially increased in applications such as intrusion detection, forest fire detection, disaster management and battle field. Sensor nodes are generally battery operated low cost devices. The key challenge in the design and operation of WSNs is to prolong the network life time by reducing the energy consumption among sensor nodes. Node clustering is one of the most promising techniques for energy conservation. This paper presents a novel clustering algorithm which maximizes the network lifetime by reducing the number of communication among sensor nodes. This approach also includes new distributed cluster formation technique that enables self-organization of large number of nodes, algorithm for maintaining constant number of clusters by prior selection of cluster head and rotating the role of cluster head to evenly distribute the energy load among all sensor nodes.
Histogram Slicing to Better Reveal Special Thermal Objects
In this paper, an experimentation to enhance the
visibility of hot objects in a thermal image acquired with ordinary
digital camera is reported, after the applications of lowpass and
median filters to suppress the distracting granular noises. The
common thresholding and slicing techniques were used on the
histogram at different gray levels, followed by a subjective
comparative evaluation. The best result came out with the threshold
level 115 and the number of slices 3.
Simulation of the Airflow Characteristic inside a Hard Disk Drive by Applying a Computational Fluid Dynamics Software
Now-a-days, numbers of simulation software are
being used all over the world to solve Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) related problems. In this present study, a
commercial CFD simulation software namely STAR-CCM+ is
applied to analyze the airflow characteristics inside a 2.5" hard
disk drive. Each step of the software is described adequately to
obtain the output and the data are verified with the theories to
justify the robustness of the simulation outcome. This study
gives an insight about the accuracy level of the CFD
simulation software to compute CFD related problems
although it largely depends upon the computer speed. Also
this study will open avenues for further research.
Performance Evaluation of ROI Extraction Models from Stationary Images
In this paper three basic approaches and different
methods under each of them for extracting region of interest (ROI)
from stationary images are explored. The results obtained for each of
the proposed methods are shown, and it is demonstrated where each
method outperforms the other. Two main problems in ROI
extraction: the channel selection problem and the saliency reversal
problem are discussed and how best these two are addressed by
various methods is also seen. The basic approaches are 1) Saliency
based approach 2) Wavelet based approach 3) Clustering based
approach. The saliency approach performs well on images containing
objects of high saturation and brightness. The wavelet based
approach performs well on natural scene images that contain regions
of distinct textures. The mean shift clustering approach partitions the
image into regions according to the density distribution of pixel
intensities. The experimental results of various methodologies show
that each technique performs at different acceptable levels for
various types of images.
Non-negative Principal Component Analysis for Face Recognition
Principle component analysis is often combined with
the state-of-art classification algorithms to recognize human faces.
However, principle component analysis can only capture these
features contributing to the global characteristics of data because it is a
global feature selection algorithm. It misses those features
contributing to the local characteristics of data because each principal
component only contains some levels of global characteristics of data.
In this study, we present a novel face recognition approach using
non-negative principal component analysis which is added with the
constraint of non-negative to improve data locality and contribute to
elucidating latent data structures. Experiments are performed on the
Cambridge ORL face database. We demonstrate the strong
performances of the algorithm in recognizing human faces in
comparison with PCA and NREMF approaches.
Integrated Drunken Driving Prevention System
As is needless to say; a majority of accidents, which occur, are due to drunk driving. As such, there is no effective mechanism to prevent this. Here we have designed an integrated system for the same purpose. Alcohol content in the driver-s body is detected by means of an infrared breath analyzer placed at the steering wheel. An infrared cell directs infrared energy through the sample and any unabsorbed energy at the other side is detected. The higher the concentration of ethanol, the more infrared absorption occurs (in much the same way that a sunglass lens absorbs visible light, alcohol absorbs infrared light). Thus the alcohol level of the driver is continuously monitored and calibrated on a scale. When it exceeds a particular limit the fuel supply is cutoff. If the device is removed also, the fuel supply will be automatically cut off or an alarm is sounded depending upon the requirement. This does not happen abruptly and special indicators are fixed at the back to avoid inconvenience to other drivers using the highway signals. Frame work for integration of sensors and control module in a scalable multi-agent system is provided .A SMS which contains the current GPS location of the vehicle is sent via a GSM module to the police control room to alert the police. The system is foolproof and the driver cannot tamper with it easily. Thus it provides an effective and cost effective solution for the problem of drunk driving in vehicles.
Wireless Communicated Smart Wind Sensor
Development of microprocessor controlled sensor for measurement of wind speed and direction is the aim of this study. Electrical circuits and software were developed to the existing electromechanical part of the sensor TM-W2 becoming the properties of so-called smart sensor. The measured data about wind speed (sensitivity 0.01 m/s) and direction (0-360° by step 10°) are transmitted as 16-bit information. The connection between sensor and control unit is realized by radio communication (FM 433 MHz). Transition range is 220 m if used Quad type antenna. This concept provides substitution of actual cable systems by wireless ones.