Technical and Economic Impacts of Distributed Generation on Distribution System
Distributed Generation (DG) in the form of renewable
power generation systems is currently preferred for clean power
generation. It has a significant impact on the distribution systems.
This impact may be either positively or negatively depending on the
distribution system, distributed generator and load characteristics. In
this works, an overview of DG is briefly introduced. The technology
of DG is also listed while the technical impacts and economic
impacts are explained.
Color Constancy using Superpixel
Color constancy algorithms are generally based on the
simplified assumption about the spectral distribution or the reflection
attributes of the scene surface. However, in reality, these assumptions
are too restrictive. The methodology is proposed to extend existing
algorithm to applying color constancy locally to image patches rather
than globally to the entire images.
In this paper, a method based on low-level image features using
superpixels is proposed. Superpixel segmentation partition an image
into regions that are approximately uniform in size and shape. Instead
of using entire pixel set for estimating the illuminant, only superpixels
with the most valuable information are used. Based on large scale
experiments on real-world scenes, it can be derived that the estimation
is more accurate using superpixels than when using the entire image.
SLM Using Riemann Sequence Combined with DCT Transform for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Communication Systems
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM) is an efficient method of data transmission for high speed
communication systems. However, the main drawback of OFDM
systems is that, it suffers from the problem of high Peak-to-Average
Power Ratio (PAPR) which causes inefficient use of the High Power
Amplifier and could limit transmission efficiency. OFDM consist of
large number of independent subcarriers, as a result of which the
amplitude of such a signal can have high peak values. In this paper,
we propose an effective reduction scheme that combines DCT and
SLM techniques. The scheme is composed of the DCT followed by
the SLM using the Riemann matrix to obtain phase sequences for the
SLM technique. The simulation results show PAPR can be greatly
reduced by applying the proposed scheme. In comparison with
OFDM, while OFDM had high values of PAPR –about 10.4dB our
proposed method achieved about 4.7dB reduction of the PAPR with
low complexities computation. This approach also avoids
randomness in phase sequence selection, which makes it simpler to
decode at the receiver. As an added benefit, the matrices can be
generated at the receiver end to obtain the data signal and hence it is
not required to transmit side information (SI).
Design of SiC Capacitive Pressure Sensor with LC-Based Oscillator Readout Circuit
This paper presents the characterization and design of a capacitive pressure sensor with LC-based 0.35 µm CMOS readout circuit. SPICE is employed to evaluate the characteristics of the readout circuit and COMSOL multiphysics structural analysis is used to simulate the behavior of the pressure sensor. The readout circuit converts the capacitance variation of the pressure sensor into the frequency output. Simulation results show that the proposed pressure sensor has output frequency from 2.50 to 2.28 GHz in a pressure range from 0.1 to 2 MPa almost linearly. The sensitivity of the frequency shift with respect to the applied pressure load is 0.11 GHz/MPa.
Enhancing the Connectedness in Ad–hoc Mesh Networks using the Terranet Technology
This paper simulates the ad-hoc mesh network in rural areas, where such networks receive great attention due to their cost, since installing the infrastructure for regular networks in these areas is not possible due to the high cost. The distance between the communicating nodes is the most obstacles that the ad-hoc mesh network will face. For example, in Terranet technology, two nodes can communicate if they are only one kilometer far from each other. However, if the distance between them is more than one kilometer, then each node in the ad-hoc mesh networks has to act as a router that forwards the data it receives to other nodes. In this paper, we try to find the critical number of nodes which makes the network fully connected in a particular area, and then propose a method to enhance the intermediate node to accept to be a router to forward the data from the sender to the receiver. Much work was done on technological changes on peer to peer networks, but the focus of this paper will be on another feature which is to find the minimum number of nodes needed for a particular area to be fully connected and then to enhance the users to switch on their phones and accept to work as a router for other nodes. Our method raises the successful calls to 81.5% out of 100% attempt calls.
Classification of Radio Communication Signals using Fuzzy Logic
Characterization of radio communication signals aims
at automatic recognition of different characteristics of radio signals in
order to detect their modulation type, the central frequency, and the
level. Our purpose is to apply techniques used in image processing in
order to extract pertinent characteristics. To the single analysis, we
add several rules for checking the consistency of hypotheses using
fuzzy logic. This allows taking into account ambiguity and
uncertainty that may remain after the extraction of individual
characteristics. The aim is to improve the process of radio
Evaluation of Coupling Factor in RF Inductively Coupled Systems
This work presents an approach for the measurement
of mutual inductance on near field inductive coupling. The mutual
inductance between inductive circuits allows the simulation of energy
transfer from reader to tag, that can be used in RFID and powerless
implantable devices. It also allows one to predict the maximum
voltage in the tag of the radio-frequency system.
Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Feeders
Optimal capacitor allocation in distribution systems
has been studied for a long times. It is an optimization problem
which has an objective to define the optimal sizes and locations of
capacitors to be installed. In this works, an overview of capacitor
placement problem in distribution systems is briefly introduced. The
objective functions and constraints of the problem are listed and the
methodologies for solving the problem are summarized.
Techniques for Reliability Evaluation in Distribution System Planning
This paper presents reliability evaluation techniques
which are applied in distribution system planning studies and
operation. Reliability of distribution systems is an important issue in
power engineering for both utilities and customers. Reliability is a
key issue in the design and operation of electric power distribution
systems and load. Reliability evaluation of distribution systems has
been the subject of many recent papers and the modeling and
evaluation techniques have improved considerably.
A Single-chip Proportional to Absolute Temperature Sensor Using CMOS Technology
Nowadays it is a trend for electronic circuit designers to
integrate all system components on a single-chip. This paper proposed
the design of a single-chip proportional to absolute temperature
(PTAT) sensor including a voltage reference circuit using CEDEC
0.18m CMOS Technology. It is a challenge to design asingle-chip
wide range linear response temperature sensor for many applications.
The channel widths between the compensation transistor and the
reference transistor are critical to design the PTAT temperature sensor
circuit. The designed temperature sensor shows excellent linearity
between -100°C to 200° and the sensitivity is about 0.05mV/°C.
The chip is designed to operate with a single voltage source of 1.6V.
Region Segmentation based on Gaussian Dirichlet Process Mixture Model and its Application to 3D Geometric Stricture Detection
In general, image-based 3D scenes can now be found in many popular vision systems, computer games and virtual reality tours. So, It is important to segment ROI (region of interest) from input scenes as a preprocessing step for geometric stricture detection in 3D scene. In this paper, we propose a method for segmenting ROI based on tensor voting and Dirichlet process mixture model. In particular, to estimate geometric structure information for 3D scene from a single outdoor image, we apply the tensor voting and Dirichlet process mixture model to a image segmentation. The tensor voting is used based on the fact that homogeneous region in an image are usually close together on a smooth region and therefore the tokens corresponding to centers of these regions have high saliency values. The proposed approach is a novel nonparametric Bayesian segmentation method using Gaussian Dirichlet process mixture model to automatically segment various natural scenes. Finally, our method can label regions of the input image into coarse categories: “ground", “sky", and “vertical" for 3D application. The experimental results show that our method successfully segments coarse regions in many complex natural scene images for 3D.
Automatic Generation Control of Interconnected Power System with Generation Rate Constraintsby Hybrid Neuro Fuzzy Approach
The design of Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system plays a vital role in automation of power system. This paper proposes Hybrid Neuro Fuzzy (HNF) approach for AGC of two-area interconnected reheat thermal power system with the consideration of Generation Rate Constraint (GRC). The advantage of proposed controller is that it can handle the system non-linearities and at the same time the proposed approach is faster than conventional controllers. The performance of HNF controller has been compared with that of both conventional Proportional Integral (PI) controller as well as Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) both in the absence and presence of Generation Rate Constraint (GRC). System performance is examined considering disturbance in each area of interconnected power system.
An Efficient VLSI Design Approach to Reduce Static Power using Variable Body Biasing
In CMOS integrated circuit design there is a trade-off between static power consumption and technology scaling. Recently, the power density has increased due to combination of higher clock speeds, greater functional integration, and smaller process geometries. As a result static power consumption is becoming more dominant. This is a challenge for the circuit designers. However, the designers do have a few methods which they can use to reduce this static power consumption. But all of these methods have some drawbacks. In order to achieve lower static power consumption, one has to sacrifice design area and circuit performance. In this paper, we propose a new method to reduce static power in the CMOS VLSI circuit using Variable Body Biasing technique without being penalized in area requirement and circuit performance.
The Possibility to Resolve the Security Problems through the LTE in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET) can provide
communications between vehicles or infrastructures. It provides the
convenience of driving and the secure driving to reduce accidents. In
VANET, the security is more important because it is closely related to
accidents. Additionally, VANET raises a privacy issue because it can
track the location of vehicles and users- identity when a security
mechanism is provided. In this paper, we analyze the problem of an
existing solution for security requirements required in VANET, and
resolve the problem of the existing method when a key management
mechanism is provided for the security operation in VANET.
Therefore, we show suitability of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) in
VANET for the solution of this problem.
Configuration and the Calculation of Link Budget for a Connection via a Geostationary Satellite for Multimedia Application in the Ka Band
In this article, we are going to do a study that consist in the configuration of a link between an earth station to broadcast multimedia service and a user of this service via a geostationary satellite in Ka- band and the set up of the different components of this link and then to make the calculation of the link budget for this system. The application carried out in this work, allows us to calculate the link budget in both directions: the uplink and downlink, as well as all parameters used in the calculation and the development of a link budget. Finally, we will try to verify using the application developed the feasibility of implementation of this system.
Network Reconfiguration for Load Balancing in Distribution System with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placement
This paper presents an efficient algorithm for
optimization of radial distribution systems by a network
reconfiguration to balance feeder loads and eliminate overload
conditions. The system load-balancing index is used to determine the
loading conditions of the system and maximum system loading
capacity. The index value has to be minimum in the optimal network
reconfiguration of load balancing. A method based on Tabu search
algorithm, The Tabu search algorithm is employed to search for the
optimal network reconfiguration. The basic idea behind the search is
a move from a current solution to its neighborhood by effectively
utilizing a memory to provide an efficient search for optimality. It
presents low computational effort and is able to find good quality
configurations. Simulation results for a radial 69-bus system with
distributed generations and capacitors placement. The study results
show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified
to give the best network reconfiguration involving balancing of
feeder loads while respecting all the constraints.
Color View Synthesis for Animated Depth Security X-ray Imaging
We demonstrate the synthesis of intermediary views
within a sequence of color encoded, materials discriminating, X-ray
images that exhibit animated depth in a visual display. During the
image acquisition process, the requirement for a linear X-ray detector
array is replaced by synthetic image. Scale Invariant Feature
Transform, SIFT, in combination with material segmented morphing
is employed to produce synthetic imagery. A quantitative analysis of
the feature matching performance of the SIFT is presented along with
a comparative study of the synthetic imagery. We show that the total
number of matches produced by SIFT reduces as the angular
separation between the generating views increases. This effect is
accompanied by an increase in the total number of synthetic pixel
errors. The trends observed are obtained from 15 different luggage
items. This programme of research is in collaboration with the UK
Home Office and the US Dept. of Homeland Security.
A Novel Approach for Tracking of a Mobile Node Based on Particle Filter and Trilateration
This paper evaluates the performance of a novel
algorithm for tracking of a mobile node, interms of execution time
and root mean square error (RMSE). Particle Filter algorithm is used
to track the mobile node, however a new technique in particle filter
algorithm is also proposed to reduce the execution time. The
stationary points were calculated through trilateration and finally by
averaging the number of points collected for a specific time, whereas
tracking is done through trilateration as well as particle filter
algorithm. Wi-Fi signal is used to get initial guess of the position of
mobile node in x-y coordinates system. Commercially available
software “Wireless Mon" was used to read the WiFi signal strength
from the WiFi card. Visual Cµ version 6 was used to interact with
this software to read only the required data from the log-file
generated by “Wireless Mon" software. Results are evaluated through
mathematical modeling and MATLAB simulation.
Heuristic Optimization Techniques for Network Reconfiguration in Distribution System
Network reconfiguration is an operation to modify the
network topology. The implementation of network reconfiguration
has many advantages such as loss minimization, increasing system
security and others. In this paper, two topics about the network
reconfiguration in distribution system are briefly described. The first
topic summarizes its impacts while the second explains some
heuristic optimization techniques for solving the network
High-Speed High-Gain CMOS OTA for SC Applications
A fast settling multipath CMOS OTA for high speed
switched capacitor applications is presented here. With the basic
topology similar to folded-cascode, bandwidth and DC gain of the
OTA are enhanced by adding extra paths for signal from input to
output. Designed circuit is simulated with HSPICE using level 49
parameters (BSIM 3v3) in 0.35mm standard CMOS technology. DC
gain achieved is 56.7dB and Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGB) obtained
is 1.15GHz. These results confirm that adding extra paths for signal
can improve DC gain and UGB of folded-cascode significantly.
A Performance Evaluation of Cellular Network Suitability for VANET
Recently, a vehicular ad-hoc networks(VANETs) for
Intelligent Transport System(ITS) have become able safety and convenience services surpassing the simple services such as
an electronic toll collection system. To provide the proper services,
VANET needs infrastructure over the country infrastructure. Thus, we have to spend a huge sum of
human resources. In this reason, several studies have been made on the
usage of cellular networks instead of new protocols
this study is to assess a performance evaluation of the
cellular network for VANET. In this paper, the result of a
for the suitability of cellular networks for VANET
experiment, The LTE(Long Term Evolution) of cellular networks found to be most suitable among the others cellular networks
WDM and OCDMA Systems under MAI Effects: A Comparison Analysis
This paper presents a comparison between Spectrum-
Sliced Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) and Spectrum
Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC
Optical CDMA) systems for different light sources. The performance
of the system is shown in the simulated results of the bit error rate
(BER) and the eye diagram of both systems. The comparison results
indicate that the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) effects have a
significant impact on SS-WDM over SAC Optical CDMA systems.
Finally, in terms of spectral efficiency at constant BER of 10-12, SSWDM
offers higher spectral efficiency than optical CDMA since no
bandwidth expansion in needed.
Object Tracking System Using Camshift, Meanshift and Kalman Filter
This paper presents a implementation of an object tracking system in a video sequence. This object tracking is an important task in many vision applications. The main steps in video analysis are two: detection of interesting moving objects and tracking of such objects from frame to frame. In a similar vein, most tracking algorithms use pre-specified methods for preprocessing. In our work, we have implemented several object tracking algorithms (Meanshift, Camshift, Kalman filter) with different preprocessing methods. Then, we have evaluated the performance of these algorithms for different video sequences. The obtained results have shown good performances according to the degree of applicability and evaluation criteria.
Clustering Multivariate Empiric Characteristic Functions for Multi-Class SVM Classification
A dissimilarity measure between the empiric
characteristic functions of the subsamples associated to the different
classes in a multivariate data set is proposed. This measure can be
efficiently computed, and it depends on all the cases of each class. It
may be used to find groups of similar classes, which could be joined
for further analysis, or it could be employed to perform an
agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis of the set of classes. The
final tree can serve to build a family of binary classification models,
offering an alternative approach to the multi-class SVM problem. We
have tested this dendrogram based SVM approach with the oneagainst-
one SVM approach over four publicly available data sets,
three of them being microarray data. Both performances have been
found equivalent, but the first solution requires a smaller number of
binary SVM models.