|Commenced in January 1999 || Frequency: Monthly || Edition: International|| Paper Count: 2 |
Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering
Detailed Mapping of Pyroclastic Flow Deposits by SAR Data Processing for an Active Volcano in the Torrid Zone
Field mapping activity for an active volcano mainly in
the Torrid Zone is usually hampered by several problems such as steep
terrain and bad atmosphere conditions. In this paper we present a
simple solution for such problem by a combination Synthetic Aperture
Radar (SAR) and geostatistical methods. By this combination, we
could reduce the speckle effect from the SAR data and then estimate
roughness distribution of the pyroclastic flow deposits. The main
purpose of this study is to detect spatial distribution of new pyroclastic
flow deposits termed as P-zone accurately using the β°data from two
RADARSAT-1 SAR level-0 data. Single scene of Hyperion data and
field observation were used for cross-validation of the SAR results.
Mt. Merapi in central Java, Indonesia, was chosen as a study site and
the eruptions in May-June 2006 were examined. The P-zones were
found in the western and southern flanks. The area size and the longest
flow distance were calculated as 2.3 km2 and 6.8 km, respectively. The
grain size variation of the P-zone was mapped in detail from fine to
coarse deposits regarding the C-band wavelength of 5.6 cm.
Photovoltaic Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Project for Rural and New-Cultivated Areas in Egypt
The problem of wastewater treatment in Egypt is a two-fold problem; the first part concerning the existing rural areas, the second one dealing with new industrial/domestic areas. In Egypt several agricultural projects have been initiated by the government and the private sector as well, in order to change its infrastructure. As a reliable energy source, photovoltaic pumping systems have contributed to supply water for local rural communities worldwide; they can also be implemented to solve the problem “wastewater environment pollution". The solution of this problem can be categorised as recycle process. In addition, because of regional conditions past technologies are being reexamined to select a smallscale treatment system requiring low construction and maintenance costs. This paper gives the design guidelines of a Photovoltaic Small- Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant (PVSSWTP) based on technologies that can be transferred.