Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29761

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Microalbuminuria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a global pandemic with cases reporting from virtually every country and continues to be a common infection in developing country like India. Microalbuminuria is a manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy. Therefore, microalbuminuria may be an early marker of human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy, and screening for its presence may be beneficial. A strikingly high prevalence of microalbuminuria among human immunodeficiency virus infected patients has been described in various studies. Risk factors for clinically significant proteinuria include African - American race, higher human immunodeficiency virus ribonucleic acid level and lower CD4 lymphocyte count. The cardiovascular risk factors of increased systolic blood pressure and increase fasting blood sugar level are strongly associated with microalbuminuria in human immunodeficiency virus patient. These results suggest that microalbuminuria may be a sign of current endothelial dysfunction and micro-vascular disease and there is substantial risk of future cardiovascular disease events. Positive contributing factors include early kidney disease such as human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy, a marker of end organ damage related to co morbidities of diabetes or hypertension, or more diffuse endothelial cells dysfunction. Nevertheless after adjustment for non human immunodeficiency virus factors, human immunodeficiency virus itself is a major risk factor. The presence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is independent risk to develop microalbuminuria in human immunodeficiency virus patient. Cardiovascular risk factors appeared to be stronger predictors of microalbuminuria than markers of human immunodeficiency virus severity person with human immunodeficiency virus infection and microalbuminuria therefore appear to potentially bear the burden of two separate damage related to known vascular end organ damage related to know vascular risk factors, and human immunodeficiency virus specific processes such as the direct viral infection of kidney cells.The higher prevalence of microalbuminuria among the human immunodeficiency virus infected could be harbinger of future increased risks of both kidney and cardiovascular disease. Further study defining the prognostic significance of microalbuminuria among human immunodeficiency virus infected persons will be essential. Microalbuminuria seems to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease in diabetic and non diabetic subjects, hence it can also be used for early detection of micro vascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, thus can help to diagnose the disease at the earliest.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] Sepkowitz KA . "AIDS the first 20 years". N. Engl. J. Med. June 2001; 344 (23): 1764-72.
[2] Weiss RA "How does HIV cause AIDS?" Science (journal). May 1993; 260 (5112): 1273-9.
[3] Cecil, Russell Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders.1988; 1523, 1799.
[4] Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention "HIV and Its Transmission". Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Archived from the original on February 4, 2005.
[5] San Francisco AIDS Foundation "How HIV is spread". Retrieved 2006- 05-23.
[6] Kallings LO "The first postmodern pandemic: 25 years of HIV/AIDS". J Intern Med 2008; 263 (3): 218-43.
[7] "Worldwide AIDS & HIV Statistics". AVERT. 31 December 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
[8] UNAIDS, WHO (December 2007). "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-03-12.
[10] Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson DL, et al. "Origin of HIV-1 in the Chimpanzee Pan Troglodytes troglodytes". 1999; Nature 397 (6718): 436-441.
[11] Worobey M, Gemmel M, Teuwen DE, et al. "Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960". 2008; Nature 455 (7213): 661-4.
[12] Gallo RC "A reflection on HIV/AIDS research after 25 years".2006; Retro virology 3: 72.
[13] Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. "Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators". 1998; N. Engl. J. Med 338 (13): 853-860...
[14] Gottlieb MS "Pneumocystitis pneumonia--Los Angeles. 1981". 2006; Am J Public Health 96 (6): 980-1; discussion 982-3.
[15] Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1982). "Persistent, generalized lymphadenopathy among homosexual males."
[16] Barré-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, et al. "Isolation of a T-lymph tropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)".1983; Science 220 (4599): 868-871.
[17] Centers for Disease Control (CDC) "Opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma among Haitians in the United States". 1982; MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 31 (26): 353-354; 360-361.
[18] Altman LK "New homosexual disorder worries officials". 1982; The New York Times.
[19] "Making Headway Under Hellacious Circumstances" (PDF). American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2006-07-28.
[20] Kher U (1982-07-27). "A Name for the Plague". Time. Retrieved 2008- 03-10.
[21] Centers for Disease Control (CDC) "Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)ÔÇöUnited States. 1982; MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 31 (37): 507-508; 513-514.
[22] Gilbert MT, Rambaut A, Wlasiuk G, Spira TJ, Pitchenik AE, Worobey M "The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond". 2007; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (47): 18566-70.
[23] Kalish ML, Wolfe ND, Ndongmo CD, McNicholl J, Robbins KE, et al. "Central African hunters exposed to simian immunodeficiency virus". 2005; Emerg Infect Dis 11 (12): 1928-30.
[24] Sharp, P. M.; Bailes, E.; Chaudhuri, R. R.; Rodenburg, C. M.; Santiago, M. O.; Hahn, B. H. ("The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when? 2001; Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 356: 867-76.
[25] Marx PA, Alcabes PG, Drucker E "Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus in Africa". 2001; Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356: 911-20.
[26] Chitnis, Amit; Rawls, Diana; Moore, Jim "Origin of HIV Type 1 in Colonial French Equatorial Africa?" 2000; AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 16 (1): 5-8.
[27] Sousa, João Dinis de; Müller, Viktor; Lemey, Philippe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke (2010). "High GUD Incidence in the Early 20th Century Created a Particularly Permissive Time Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of Epidemic HIV Strains". PLoS ONE 5 (4): e9936.
[28] Donald G. McNeil, Jr. "Precursor to H.I.V. Was in Monkeys for Millennia". 2010; New York Times.
[29] Curtis T "The origin of AIDS". 1992; Rolling Stone (626): pp. 54-59, 61, 106, 108. Archived from the original on February 17, 2008.
[30] Hooper E The River: A Journey to the Source of HIV and AIDS (1st Ed.). 1999; Boston, MA: Little Brown & Co. pp. 1-1070.
[31] Worobey M, Santiago ML, Keele BF, et al. "Origin of AIDS: contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted".2004; Nature 428 (6985): 820.
[32] Berry N, Jenkins A, Martin J, et al. "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque nuclear sequences confirms substrate identity". 2005; Vaccine 23 (14): 1639-1648.
[33] "Oral Polio Vaccine and HIV / AIDS: Questions and Answers". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004-03-23.
[34] Holmes CB, Losina E, Walensky RP, Yazdanpanah Y, Freedberg KA "Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". 2003; Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5): 656- 662.
[35] Szczech LA etal, Microalbuminuria in HIV infection. AIDS 21:1003- 1009, 2007.
[36] Flanc Rs, Robert MA, Strippoli GF, Chadban SJ, Kerr PG, Atkins RC Treatment of diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis: A-meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J kindly Dis. 2004; 43: 197-208.
[37] Bernard Rosner (2000), Fundamentals of Bio statistics, 5th Edition, Duxhury.
[38] M.Venkataswamy Reddy (2002), Statistics for Mental Health Care Research. NIMHANS publication. INDIA.
[39] Chakravarthy B, Taneja V, Sircar S. Kansra U: Microalbuminuria: Association with dyslipidemia in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. .IAPI .1997; 45(8): 608-611.
[40] Patel KL, Mehta SB. Varthakavi PK, Merchant PC. Nihalani KD: "Microalbuminuria in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus". JAPI. 1990: 47(5»: 596-601.
[41] Taneja V. Sircar S, Kansra U, and Lamba IMS: "Microalbuminuria in normotensive non-insulin dependent diabetic subject- associations and predictions" J ournal Assoc Physicians India - 1997: 37(2): 30-36
[42] Jadhav UM, Kadam NN: Association of microalbuminuria with carotid Intima-Media thickness and coronary artery disease - A cross sectional study in Western Indi. JAPl.2002, 50:1124-1129.
[43] Durnitty P, Dia J. Zanetti L, De La Varas MA, Garcia dc los Rios. M: Microalbuminuria, lipid changes and coronary heart disease in noninsulin dependent diabetics. Revista Medica de Chile. ! 998; 126(12): 1425-33.
[44] Bahia L. Gomes MB. De Cruz P D M. Guncalves: Coronary artery disease. Microalbuminuria and lipid profile in patients with non-insulin (Impendent diabetes mellitus. Arquivos Brasileiros de cardiologia. 1999: 73(1): 11-22
[45] American Diabetes Association. Nephropathy in diabetes (Position statement) Diabetes Care- 2004; 27 (1): 79-83
[46] Rush University Hypertension Center. Microalbuminuria: What is it Why is it important? What should be done about if J Clin Hypertension? 2001: 3(2):99-100.
[47] Parving HH. Uremia detection of patients at risk of developing diabetic nephropathy: a longitudinal study of urinary albumin excretion. Acta Endocrin.n (Copenti) 1982: 100: 550-555.
[48] Viberti GC, Jeannie Messent W C. Thomas Elliolt G. Ronald Hill 13, John Jarrett R.Ham. Keen- Microalbuminuria as a predictor of clinical nephropathy in Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. l.ancet .1982:1:1430-1432.
[49] MogcnsenCE. Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity unset diabetes. NEJM 1984; 310: 356-60.
[50] Allawi .1, Jarrett RJ. Microalbuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Med .1989: 7: 115-118.
[51] Jorge L Gross. JL Camargo, MJ Ue Azevedo. Diabetic Nephropathy: Diagnosis prevention and treatment. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28: 176-188.
[52] Consensus development conference on the diagnosis of coronary heart disease in people with Diabetes. Diabetes care 1998:21: 1551-68.
[53] Agarwal B, Berger A. Wolf K. Microalbuminuria screening by reagent strip predicts cardiovascular risk in' hypertension. J. Hypertension. 1996: 14(2): 223-228.
[54] Dansgaard EM. Microalbuminuria as predictor of increased mortality in elderly people.BMJ 1990: 300:297-300.
[55] Gosling P. Hughes KA- Reynolds TM. Fox JP- Microalbuminuria is an early response following acute myocardial infarction. Heart J. 1991: 12; 508-513.
[56] Spyridon Koulouris. Loaiinis Lekatsas. Ilias Karabinos, Georgios loanmdis-Theofanis Kakislaras, Athanasios Kranidis et al. Microalbuminuria: A strong predictor of 3- year adverse prognosis in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2005; 149(5): 840-845.
[57] Roine 1. Microalbuminuria: an index of severity in childhood meningitis. Pcdiatr Infect Dis J. 1993:12:584-588.
[58] Shearman CP. Gosling P. Walker K.I. Is low-level protein urea a predictor of severity in acute pancreatitis, J Clin Pathol .1989, 42: 1132- 1135.
[59] Pallister I- Gosling P. Alpar K. Gradley S. Prediction of post traumatic adult respiratory distress syndrome by albumin excretion rate eight hours after admission J Trauma. 1997:42: 1056-61.
[60] Mahmood N. Microalbuminuria: a disease activity marker of inflammatory bowel disease. GUT 1993; 34: 524
[61] Ilickey NC. Effect of surgery on the systemic inflammatory response to intermittent claudicating. Br J Surg 1990; 77: 121-1 126.
[62] Leena Mykkanen. Daniel Zaccaro J, Daniel H- O'Leary- George Howard, David Robbins C. Sloven Haftner M. Microalbuminuria and carotid artery intima-media thickness in non-diabetic and NIDDM subjects. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclcmsi1-Study (IRAS), Stroke.1997: 28: 1710-1716.
[63] Radrigo Tagle, Monica Acevedo, and Donald Vidt G. Microalbuminuria: Is it a valid predictor of cardiovascular risk. Cleveland. Clin J Med. 2003; 70(3): 255-261.
Vol:13 No:06 2019Vol:13 No:05 2019Vol:13 No:04 2019Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007