Multiphase Flow Regime Detection Algorithm for Gas-Liquid Interface Using Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Technique
Efficiency of the cooling process for cryogenic
propellant boiling in engine cooling channels on space applications is
relentlessly affected by the phase change occurs during the boiling.
The effectiveness of the cooling process strongly pertains to the
type of the boiling regime such as nucleate and film. Geometric
constraints like a non-transparent cooling channel unable to use
any of visualization methods. The ultrasonic (US) technique as a
non-destructive method (NDT) has therefore been applied almost
in every engineering field for different purposes. Basically, the
discontinuities emerge between mediums like boundaries among
different phases. The sound wave emitted by the US transducer is
both transmitted and reflected through a gas-liquid interface which
makes able to detect different phases. Due to the thermal and
structural concerns, it is impractical to sustain a direct contact
between the US transducer and working fluid. Hence the transducer
should be located outside of the cooling channel which results in
additional interfaces and creates ambiguities on the applicability
of the present method. In this work, an exploratory research is
prompted so as to determine detection ability and applicability of
the US technique on the cryogenic boiling process for a cooling
cycle where the US transducer is taken place outside of the channel.
Boiling of the cryogenics is a complex phenomenon which mainly
brings several hindrances for experimental protocol because of
thermal properties. Thus substitute materials are purposefully selected
based on such parameters to simplify experiments. Aside from
that, nucleate and film boiling regimes emerging during the boiling
process are simply simulated using non-deformable stainless steel
balls, air-bubble injection apparatuses and air clearances instead
of conducting a real-time boiling process. A versatile detection
algorithm is perennially developed concerning exploratory studies
afterward. According to the algorithm developed, the phases can be
distinguished 99% as no-phase, air-bubble, and air-film presences.
The results show the detection ability and applicability of the US
technique for an exploratory purpose.
Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality
In the field of quantum secure communication, there
is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication
(QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper
addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation
for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which
is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC
protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency
evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which
incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits)
utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a
secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain
criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is
presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical
realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks
(Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and
entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for
a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over
the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of
clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality
Stability of Property (gm) under Perturbation and Spectral Properties Type Weyl Theorems
A Banach space operator T obeys property (gm) if the
isolated points of the spectrum σ(T) of T which are eigenvalues
are exactly those points λ of the spectrum for which T − λI is
a left Drazin invertible. In this article, we study the stability of
property (gm), for a bounded operator acting on a Banach space,
under perturbation by finite rank operators, by nilpotent operators,
by quasi-nilpotent operators, or more generally by algebraic operators
commuting with T.
Approximate Solution to Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation with Harmonic Oscillator by Elzaki Decomposition Method
Nonlinear Schrödinger equations are regularly experienced in numerous parts of science and designing. Varieties of analytical methods have been proposed for solving these equations. In this work, we construct an approximate solution for the nonlinear Schrodinger equations, with harmonic oscillator potential, by Elzaki Decomposition Method (EDM). To illustrate the effects of harmonic oscillator on the behavior wave function, nonlinear Schrodinger equation in one and two dimensions is provided. The results show that, it is more perfectly convenient and easy to apply the EDM in one- and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation.
Radiation Effects and Defects in InAs, InP Compounds and Their Solid Solutions InPxAs1-x
On the basis of InAs, InP and their InPxAs1-x solid solutions, the technologies were developed and materials were created where the electron concentration and optical and thermoelectric properties do not change under the irradiation with Ф = 2∙1018 n/cm2 fluences of fast neutrons high-energy electrons (50 MeV, Ф = 6·1017 e/cm2) and 3 MeV electrons with fluence Ф = 3∙1018 e/cm2. The problem of obtaining such material has been solved, in which under hard irradiation the mobility of the electrons does not decrease, but increases. This material is characterized by high thermal stability up to T = 700 °C. The complex process of defects formation has been analyzed and shown that, despite of hard irradiation, the essential properties of investigated materials are mainly determined by point type defects.
All-Optical Function Based on Self-Similar Spectral Broadening for 2R Regeneration in High-Bit-Rate Optical Transmission Systems
In this paper, we demonstrate basic all-optical functions for 2R regeneration (Re-amplification and Re-shaping) based on self-similar spectral broadening in low normal dispersion and highly nonlinear fiber (ND-HNLF) to regenerate the signal through optical filtering including the transfer function characteristics, and output extinction ratio. Our approach of all-optical 2R regeneration is based on those of Mamyshev. The numerical study reveals the self-similar spectral broadening very effective for 2R all-optical regeneration; the proposed design presents high stability compared to a conventional regenerator using SPM broadening with reduction of the intensity fluctuations and improvement of the extinction ratio.
Newtonian Mechanics Descriptions for General Relativity Experimental Tests, Dark Matter and Dark Energy
As the continuation to the previous studies of gravitational frequency shift, gravitational time dilation, gravitational light bending, gravitational waves, dark matter, and dark energy are explained in the context of Newtonian mechanics. The photon is treated as the particle with mass of hν/C2 under the gravitational field of much larger mass of M. Hence the quantum mechanics theory could be applied to gravitational field on cosmology scale. The obtained results are the same as those obtained by general relativity considering weak gravitational field approximation; however, the results are different when the gravitational field is substantially strong.
Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter
In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.
Specific Frequency of Globular Clusters in Different Galaxy Types
Globular clusters (GC) are important objects for tracing
the early evolution of a galaxy. We study the correlation between the
cluster population and the global properties of the host galaxy. We
found that the correlation between cluster population (NGC) and
the baryonic mass (Mb) of the host galaxy are best described as
−5.6038Mb. In order to understand the origin of the U -shape
relation between the GC specific frequency (SN) and Mb (caused
by the high value of SN for dwarfs galaxies and giant ellipticals
and a minimum SN for intermediate mass galaxies≈ 1010M), we
derive a theoretical model for the specific frequency (SNth). The
theoretical model for SNth is based on the slope of the power-law
embedded cluster mass function (β) and different time scale (Δt) of
the forming galaxy. Our results show a good agreement between the
observation and the model at a certain β and Δt. The model seems
able to reproduce higher value of SNth of β = 1.5 at the midst
formation time scale.
Surface and Bulk Magnetization Behavior of Isolated Ferromagnetic NiFe Nanowires
The surface and bulk magnetization behavior of template released isolated ferromagnetic Ni60Fe40 nanowires of relatively thick diameters (~200 nm), deposited from a dilute suspension onto pre-patterned insulating chips have been investigated experimentally, using a highly sensitive Magneto-Optical Ker Effect (MOKE) magnetometry and Magneto-Resistance (MR) measurements, respectively. The MR data were consistent with the theoretical predictions of the anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR) effect. The MR measurements, in all the angles of investigations, showed large features and a series of nonmonotonic "continuous small features" in the resistance profiles. The extracted switching fields from these features and from MOKE loops were compared with each other and with the switching fields reported in the literature that adopted the same analytical techniques on the similar compositions and dimensions of nanowires. A large difference between MOKE and MR measurments was noticed. The disparate between MOKE and MR results is attributed to the variance in the micro-magnetic structure of the surface and the bulk of such ferromagnetic nanowires. This result was ascertained using micro-magnetic simulations on an individual: cylindrical and rectangular cross sections NiFe nanowires, with the same diameter/thickness of the experimental wires, using the Object Oriented Micro-magnetic Framework (OOMMF) package where the simulated loops showed different switching events, indicating that such wires have different magnetic states in the reversal process and the micro-magnetic spin structures during switching behavior was complicated. These results further supported the difference between surface and bulk magnetization behavior in these nanowires. This work suggests that a combination of MOKE and MR measurements is required to fully understand the magnetization behavior of such relatively thick isolated cylindrical ferromagnetic nanowires.
Quantum Markov Modeling for Healthcare
A Markov model defines a system of states, composed
by the feasible transition paths between those states, and the
parameters of those transitions. The paths and parameters may be
a representative way to address healthcare issues, such as to identify
the most likely sequence of patient health states given the sequence
of observations. Furthermore estimating the length of stay (LoS) of
patients in hospitalization is one of the challenges that Markov models
allow us to solve. However, finding the maximum probability of
any path that gets to state at time t, can have high computational
cost. A quantum approach allows us to take advantage of quantum
computation since the calculated probabilities can be in several states,
ending up to outperform classical computing due to the possible
superposition of states when handling large amounts of data. The
aid of quantum physics-based architectures and machine learning
techniques are therefore appropriated to address the complexity of
Experimental and Numerical Study on the Effects of Oxygen Methane Flames with Water Dilution for Different Pressures
Among all possibilities to combat global warming, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is presented as a great alternative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Several strategies for CCS from industrial and power plants are being considered. The concept of combined oxy-fuel combustion has been the most alternative solution. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of pure O2 production, additional ways recently emerged. In this paper, an innovative combustion process for a gas turbine cycle was studied: it was composed of methane combustion with oxygen enhanced air (OEA), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and H2O issuing from STIG (Steam Injection Gas Turbine), and the CO2 capture was realized by membrane separator. The effect on this combustion process was emphasized, and it was shown that a study of the influence of H2O dilution on the combustion parameters by experimental and numerical approaches had to be carried out. As a consequence, the laminar burning velocities measurements were performed in a stainless steel spherical combustion from atmospheric pressure to high pressure (up to 0.5 MPa), at 473 K for an equivalence ratio at 1. These experimental results were satisfactorily compared with Chemical Workbench v.4.1 package in conjunction with GRIMech 3.0 reaction mechanism. The good correlations so obtained between experimental and calculated flame speed velocities showed the validity of the GRIMech 3.0 mechanism in this domain of combustion: high H2O dilution, low N2, medium pressure. Finally, good estimations of flame speed and pollutant emissions were determined in other conditions compatible with real gas turbine. In particular, mixtures (composed of CH4/O2/N2/H2O/ or CO2) leading to the same adiabatic temperature were investigated. Influences of oxygen enrichment and H2O dilution (compared to CO2) were disused.
Stability Bound of Ruin Probability in a Reduced Two-Dimensional Risk Model
In this work, we introduce the qualitative and
quantitative concept of the strong stability method in the risk process
modeling two lines of business of the same insurance company or
an insurance and re-insurance companies that divide between them
both claims and premiums with a certain proportion. The approach
proposed is based on the identification of the ruin probability
associate to the model considered, with a stationary distribution of a
Markov random process called a reversed process. Our objective, after clarifying the condition and the perturbation
domain of parameters, is to obtain the stability inequality of the ruin
probability which is applied to estimate the approximation error of a
model with disturbance parameters by the considered model. In the
stability bound obtained, all constants are explicitly written.
Performance of the Strong Stability Method in the Univariate Classical Risk Model
In this paper, we study the performance of the strong
stability method of the univariate classical risk model. We interest to
the stability bounds established using two approaches. The first based
on the strong stability method developed for a general Markov chains.
The second approach based on the regenerative processes theory . By
adopting an algorithmic procedure, we study the performance of the
stability method in the case of exponential distribution claim amounts.
After presenting numerically and graphically the stability bounds, an
interpretation and comparison of the results have been done.
Investigating the Invalidity of the Law of Energy Conservation Based on Waves Interference Phenomenon Inside a Ringed Waveguide
Law of energy conservation is one of the fundamental laws of physics. Energy is conserved, and the total amount of energy is constant. It can be transferred from one object to another and changed from one state to another. However, in the case of wave interference, this law faces important contradictions. Based on the presented mathematical relationship in this paper, it seems that validity of this law depends on the path of energy wave, like light, in which it is located. In this paper, by using some fundamental concepts in physics like the constancy of the electromagnetic wave speed in a specific media and wave theory of light, it will be shown that law of energy conservation is not valid in every condition and in some circumstances, it is possible to increase energy of a system with a determined amount of energy without any input.
Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.
Enhancement of Raman Scattering using Photonic Nanojet and Whispering Gallery Mode of a Dielectric Microstructure
We report the enhancement of Raman scattering
signal by one order of magnitude using photonic nanojet (PNJ) of a
lollipop shaped dielectric microstructure (LSDM) fabricated by a
pulsed CO₂ laser. Here, the PNJ is generated by illuminating sphere
portion of the LSDM with non-resonant laser. Unlike the surface
enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, this technique is
simple, and the obtained results are highly reproducible. In addition,
an efficient technique is proposed to enhance the SERS signal with
the help of high quality factor optical resonance (whispering gallery
mode) of a LSDM. From the theoretical simulations, it has been
found that at least an order of magnitude enhancement in the SERS
signal could be achieved easily using the proposed technique. We
strongly believe that this report will enable the research community
for improving the Raman scattering signals.
The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Degradative solvent extraction is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the degradative solvent extraction method has not been fully understood so far. The rice straw was treated in 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at a different solvent-treatment temperature varied from 250 to 350 oC with the residence time for 60 min. The liquid membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique is applied to study the processing mechanism in-depth without separation of the solvent. It has been found that the strength of the oxygen-hydrogen stretching (3600-3100 cm-1) decreased slightly with increasing temperature in the range of 300-350 oC. The decrease of the hydroxyl group in the solvent soluble suggested dehydration reaction taking place between 300 and 350 oC. FTIR spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1800-1600 cm-1) revealed the presence of esters groups, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. The carboxylic acid increased in the range of 200 to 250 oC and then decreased. The prevailing of aromatic groups showed that the aromatization took place during extraction at above 250 oC. From 300 to 350 oC, the carbonyl functional groups in the solvent-soluble noticeably decreased. The removal of the carboxylic acid and the decrease of esters into the form of carbon dioxide indicated that the decarboxylation reaction occurred during the extraction process.
Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications
We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.
Search for Flavour Changing Neutral Current Couplings of Higgs-up Sector Quarks at Future Circular Collider (FCC-eh)
In the search for new physics beyond the Standard
Model, Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) is a good research
field in terms of the observability at future colliders. Increased
Higgs production with higher energy and luminosity in colliders
is essential for verification or falsification of our knowledge of
physics and predictions, and the search for new physics. Prospective
electron-proton collider constituent of the Future Circular Collider
project is FCC-eh. It offers great sensitivity due to its high luminosity
and low interference. In this work, thq FCNC interaction vertex
with off-shell top quark decay at electron-proton colliders is studied.
By using [email protected]
multi-purpose event generator,
observability of tuh and tch couplings are obtained with equal
coupling scenario. Upper limit on branching ratio of tree level top
quark FCNC decay is determined as 0.012% at FCC-eh with 1 ab ^−1
The Search of Anomalous Higgs Boson Couplings at the Large Hadron Electron Collider and Future Circular Electron Hadron Collider
The Higgs boson was discovered by the ATLAS
and CMS experimental groups in 2012 at the Large Hadron
Collider (LHC). Production and decay properties of the Higgs
boson, Standard Model (SM) couplings, and limits on effective
scale of the Higgs boson’s couplings with other bosons are
investigated at particle colliders. Deviations from SM estimates are
parametrized by effective Lagrangian terms to investigate Higgs
couplings. This is a model-independent method for describing the
new physics. In this study, sensitivity to neutral gauge boson
anomalous couplings with the Higgs boson is investigated using
the parameters of the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC)
and the Future Circular electron-hadron Collider (FCC-eh) with
a model-independent approach. By using [email protected]
multi-purpose event generator with the parameters of LHeC and
FCC-eh, the bounds on the anomalous Hγγ, HγZ and HZZ couplings
in e− p → e− q H process are obtained. Detector simulations are
also taken into account in the calculations.
Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.
The DAQ Debugger for iFDAQ of the COMPASS Experiment
In general, state-of-the-art Data Acquisition Systems
(DAQ) in high energy physics experiments must satisfy high
requirements in terms of reliability, efficiency and data rate capability.
This paper presents the development and deployment of a debugging
tool named DAQ Debugger for the intelligent, FPGA-based Data
Acquisition System (iFDAQ) of the COMPASS experiment at CERN.
Utilizing a hardware event builder, the iFDAQ is designed to be
able to readout data at the average maximum rate of 1.5 GB/s of
the experiment. In complex softwares, such as the iFDAQ, having
thousands of lines of code, the debugging process is absolutely
essential to reveal all software issues. Unfortunately, conventional
debugging of the iFDAQ is not possible during the real data taking.
The DAQ Debugger is a tool for identifying a problem, isolating
the source of the problem, and then either correcting the problem
or determining a way to work around it. It provides the layer
for an easy integration to any process and has no impact on the
process performance. Based on handling of system signals, the
DAQ Debugger represents an alternative to conventional debuggers
provided by most integrated development environments. Whenever
problem occurs, it generates reports containing all necessary
information important for a deeper investigation and analysis. The
DAQ Debugger was fully incorporated to all processes in the iFDAQ
during the run 2016. It helped to reveal remaining software issues
and improved significantly the stability of the system in comparison
with the previous run. In the paper, we present the DAQ Debugger
from several insights and discuss it in a detailed way.
A Comparative Study of Indoor Radon Concentrations between Dwellings and Workplaces in the Ko Samui District, Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand
The Ko Samui district of Surat Thani province is located in the high amounts of equivalent uranium in the ground surface that is the source of radon. Our research in the Ko Samui district aimed at comparing the indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces. Measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 46 dwellings and 127 workplaces, using CR-39 alpha-track detectors in closed-cup. A total of 173 detectors were distributed in 7 sub-districts. The detectors were placed in bedrooms of dwellings and workrooms of workplaces. All detectors were exposed to airborne radon for 90 days. After exposure, the alpha tracks were made visible by chemical etching before they were manually counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were assumed to be correlated with the radon concentration levels. We found that the radon concentrations could be well described by a log-normal distribution. Most concentrations (37%) were found in the range between 16 and 30 Bq.m-3. The radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces varied from a minimum of 11 Bq.m-3 to a maximum of 305 Bq.m-3. The minimum (11 Bq.m-3) and maximum (305 Bq.m-3) values of indoor radon concentrations were found in a workplace and a dwelling, respectively. Only for four samples (3%), the indoor radon concentrations were found to be higher than the reference level recommended by the WHO (100 Bq.m-3). The overall geometric mean in the surveyed area was 32.6±1.65 Bq.m-3, which was lower than the worldwide average (39 Bq.m-3). The statistic comparison of the geometric mean indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces showed that the geometric mean in dwellings (46.0±1.55 Bq.m-3) was significantly higher than in workplaces (28.8±1.58 Bq.m-3) at the 0.05 level. Moreover, our study found that the majority of the bedrooms in dwellings had a closed atmosphere, resulting in poorer ventilation than in most of the workplaces that had access to air flow through open doors and windows at daytime. We consider this to be the main reason for the higher geometric mean indoor radon concentration in dwellings compared to workplaces.
Mathematical Properties of the Viscous Rotating Stratified Fluid Counting with Salinity and Heat Transfer in a Layer
A model of the mathematical fluid dynamics which describes the motion of a three-dimensional viscous rotating fluid in a homogeneous gravitational field with the consideration of the salinity and heat transfer is considered in a vertical finite layer. The model is a generalization of the linearized Navier-Stokes system with the addition of the Coriolis parameter and the equations for changeable density, salinity, and heat transfer. An explicit solution is constructed and the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems is given. The localization and the structure of the spectrum of inner waves is also investigated. The results may be used, in particular, for constructing stable numerical algorithms for solutions of the considered models of fluid dynamics of the Atmosphere and the Ocean.
Investigating the Effects of Thermal and Surface Energy on the Two-Dimensional Flow Characteristics of Oil in Water Mixture between Two Parallel Plates: A Lattice Boltzmann Method Study
A hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model was used to study the combined effects of temperature and contact angle on the movement of slugs and droplets of oil in water (O/W) system flowing between two parallel plates. The model static contact angle due to the deposition of the O/W droplet on a flat surface with simulated hydrophilic characteristic at different fluid temperatures, matched very well the proposed theoretical calculation. Furthermore, the model was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of droplets and slugs deposited on the domain’s upper and lower surfaces, while subjected to parabolic flow conditions. The model accurately simulated the contact angle hysteresis for the dynamic droplets cases. It was also shown that at elevated temperatures the required power to transport the mixture diminished remarkably.
The Study of Stable Isotopes (18O, 2H & 13C) in Kardeh River and Dam Reservoir, North-Eastern Iran
Among various water resources, the surface water has a dominant role in providing water supply in the arid and semi-arid region of Iran. Andarokh-Kardeh basin is located in 50 km from Mashhad city - the second biggest city of Iran (NE of Iran), draining by Kardeh river which provides a significant portion of potable and irrigation water needs for Mashhad. The stable isotopes (18O, 2H,13C-DIC, and 13C-DOC), as reliable and precious water fingerprints, have been measured in Kardeh river (Kharket, Mareshk, Jong, All and Kardeh stations) and in Kardeh dam reservoirs (at five different sites S1 to S5) during March to June 2011 and June 2012. On δ18O vs. δ2H diagram, the river samples were plotted between Global and Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water lines (GMWL and EMMWL) which demonstrate that various moisture sources are providing humidity for precipitation events in this area. The enriched δ18O and δ2H values (-6.5 ‰ and -44.5 ‰ VSMOW) of Kardeh dam reservoir are compared to Kardeh river (-8.6‰and-54.4‰), and its deviation from Mashhad meteoric water line (MMWL- δ2H=7.16δ18O+11.22) is due to evaporation from the open surface water body. The enriched value of δ 13C-DIC and high amount of DIC values (-7.9 ‰ VPDB and 57.23 ppm) in the river and Kardeh dam reservoir (-7.3 ‰ VPDB and 55.53 ppm) is due to dissolution of Mozdooran Carbonate Formation lithology (Jm1 to Jm3 units) (contains enriched δ13C DIC values of 9.2‰ to 27.7‰ VPDB) in the region. Because of the domination of C3 vegetations in Andarokh_Kardeh basin, the δ13C-DOC isotope of the river (-28.4‰ VPDB) and dam reservoir (-32.3‰ VPDB) demonstrate depleted values. Higher DOC concentration in dam reservoir (2.57 ppm) compared to the river (0.72 ppm) is due to more biologogical activities and organic matters in dam reservoir.
The Communication Library DIALOG for iFDAQ of the COMPASS Experiment
Modern experiments in high energy physics impose
great demands on the reliability, the efficiency, and the data rate
of Data Acquisition Systems (DAQ). This contribution focuses on
the development and deployment of the new communication library
DIALOG for the intelligent, FPGA-based Data Acquisition System
(iFDAQ) of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The iFDAQ
utilizing a hardware event builder is designed to be able to readout
data at the maximum rate of the experiment. The DIALOG library is a
communication system both for distributed and mixed environments,
it provides a network transparent inter-process communication layer.
Using the high-performance and modern C++ framework Qt and its
Qt Network API, the DIALOG library presents an alternative to
the previously used DIM library. The DIALOG library was fully
incorporated to all processes in the iFDAQ during the run 2016.
From the software point of view, it might be considered as a
significant improvement of iFDAQ in comparison with the previous
run. To extend the possibilities of debugging, the online monitoring
of communication among processes via DIALOG GUI is a desirable
feature. In the paper, we present the DIALOG library from several
insights and discuss it in a detailed way. Moreover, the efficiency
measurement and comparison with the DIM library with respect to
the iFDAQ requirements is provided.
The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering
The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.
Methods for Material and Process Monitoring by Characterization of (Second and Third Order) Elastic Properties with Lamb Waves
In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.