The production of aluminum alloys and ingots –
starting from the processing of alumina to aluminum, and the final
cast product – was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
approach. The studied aluminum supply chain consisted of a carbon
plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the
LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the
production of 1 ton of aluminum metal were investigated. The impact
of the aluminum production was assessed in eight impact categories.
The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power
plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity
Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the
Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant
had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant
and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact
of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The
carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it come
to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean
water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the
case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment
when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times
less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power
 Aluminium and aluminium alloys – life cycle of aluminium, European
Aluminium Association, 2006. http://www.azom.com/
 IEA, 2009. Energy Technology Transitions for Industry: Strategies for
the Nest Industrial Revolution. The International Energy Agency (IEA),
 "GCC aluminum production to hit 5m tones by 2014” by CW Staff on
Feb. 4, 2013, ConstructionWeekOnline.com.
 Gulf industrial bulletin, issued by Gulf Organization for Industrial
Consulting, volume 7, issue 69 (2006).
 Reginald B.H.T., Hsien H.K., An LCA study of a primary aluminum
supply chain, Journal of cleaner production, 13, 2005, pp: 607 – 618
 Mcmilian, C.A., Keoleian, G.A., 2009. Not all primary aluminum is
created equal: life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from 1995 to 2005.
Environmental Science Technology 43, 1571 -1577.
 ISO 14044 (2006): Environmental management – Life cycle assessment
– Requirements and guidelines, International Organization for
Standardization (ISO), Geneva.
 Handbook on life cycle assessment operational guide to the ISO
standards 2002, part2a ,41-63.