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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29858

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High Performance Liquid Chromatography Determination of Urinary Hippuric Acid and Benzoic Acid as Indices for Glue Sniffer Urine
A simple method for the simultaneous determination of hippuric acid and benzoic acid in urine using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was described. Chromatography was performed on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 x 150 mm) column with a mobile phase of mixed solution methanol: water: acetic acid (20:80:0.2) and UV detection at 254 nm. The calibration curve was linear within concentration range at 0.125 to 6.0 mg/ml of hippuric acid and benzoic acid. The recovery, accuracy and coefficient variance of hippuric acid were 104.54%, 0.2% and 0.2% respectively and for benzoic acid were 98.48%, 1.25% and 0.60% respectively. The detection limit of this method was 0.01ng/l for hippuric acid and 0.06ng/l for benzoic acid. This method has been applied to the analysis of urine samples from the suspected of toluene abuser or glue sniffer among secondary school students at Johor Bahru.
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[1] Serap A.A., Pembe O., Yusuf K., Huseyin K., Suheyla E., "Medicolegal Aspects of Blood-Urine Toluene and Urinary Ortho-Cresol concentration in Toluene Exposure". Journal of Medical Science. 31: 415-419, 2001.
[2] Yacob A.R, Zinalibdin M.R. "Characterization using instrumentation of local glue related glue sniffing activity". Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 3:2.58-64, 2009.
[3] Levine B. (2006). "Principles of Forensic Toxicology".(2nd Edition). Part III, Analyte, Inhalants. (pp. 373-380). AACC Press.
[4] Anderson C.E, Loomis G.A. "Recognition and Prevention of Inhalant Abuse". American Academy of Family Physician. 68: 869-874, 2003.
[5] Nicholas .K, Zili S., Maria De La Rosa. "Epidemiology of Inhalant Abuse: An International Perspective". U.S Department of Health and Human Service, Public Health Service, National Institute of Health. Journal of Inhalant abuse. 2-3, 1995.
[6] Inhalant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm "Electrochemical behaviour of electrodeposited Ni-WC composite coatings". Surface & Coatings Technology. Article in press.
[7] Yamazaki K, Tanaka E, Misawa S. "Urinary ortho-cresol concentrations as an indicator of toluene inhalation in glue sniffer". Journal of Forensic Science. 32: 215-223, 1992.
[8] Cecilia Z., Diana V.R., Alberto V., Federica V., Bruno G., Massimo C., Irene M. "Determination of urinary hippuric acid by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography". Journal of Chromatography B, 793. 223-228, 2003.
[9] International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1986). Chemical. Environmental Health Criteria 52: Toluene. WHO. Geneva.
[10] Manabu Y, Atsushi A, Tomoaki M, Toshimitsu W. "Simple Colorimetric semiquantitation of hippuric acid in urine for demonstration of toluene abuse". Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 7: 198-200, 2005.
[11] Yacob A.R., Zinalibdin M.R. "Spectrophotometry Semiquantitation Method Hippuric Acid in Urine for Demonstration of Glue abuser". Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. In Press 2009.
[12] Kiyoshi K, Yukio H, Keiko K, Takashi I. "Determination of Benzoic Acid and Hippuric Acid in human plasma and urine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography". Journal of Chromatography, 425: 67-75, 1988.
[13] Caret R.L, Denniston K.J, Topping J.J. (1997). "Principles and applications of inorganic, organic and biological chemistry". (2nd Edition). Wm.C. Brown Publisher.
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