A hotel mainly uses its energy on water heating, space
heating, refrigeration, space cooling, cooking, lighting and other
building services. A number of 4-5 stars hotels in Auckland city are
selected for this study. Comparing with the energy used for others,
the energy used for the internal space thermal control (e.g. internal
space heating) is more closely related to the hotel building itself.
This study not only investigates relationship between annual energy
(and winter energy) consumptions and building design data but also
relationships between winter extra energy consumption and building
design data. This study is to identify the major design factors that
significantly impact hotel energy consumption for improving the
future hotel design for energy efficient.
 S. Becken, Energy use in the New Zealand accommodation sector,
Landcare Research and Tourism Research and Education Centre
(TREC), Lincoln University, 2000.
 N. Isaacs, and N. Crocker, Commercial building energy survey: hotels,
Centre for Building Performance Research, Victoria University of
 L. Lind, Swedish Ground Source Heat Pump Case Study (2010
Revision), GNS Science Report 2010/54. 30p
 B. Su and Q. Wang, "Building passive design and hotel energy
efficiency," In N. Ghafoori (Ed.), in Proceedings of The Fifth
International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference
(ISEC-5), pp.851-855, London: Taylor & Francis group, 2009.
 J. P Liu, Architectural Physicals, Beijing: China Construction Industry
 B. Su, "The impact strength of building passive design on housing
energy efficiency," Architectural Science Review, vol. 54, no. 4, pp.
270-276, December 2011.