In vitro Study of Laser Diode Radiation Effect on the Photo-Damage of MCF-7 and MCF-10A Cell Clusters
Breast Cancer is one of the most considerable diseases in the United States and other countries and is the second leading cause of death in women. Common breast cancer treatments would lead to adverse side effects such as loss of hair, nausea, and weakness. These complications arise because these cancer treatments damage some healthy cells while eliminating the cancer cells. In an effort to address these complications, laser radiation was utilized and tested as a targeted cancer treatment for breast cancer. In this regard, tissue engineering approaches are being employed by using an electrospun scaffold in order to facilitate the growth of breast cancer cells. Polycaprolacton (PCL) was used as a material for scaffold fabricating because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and supporting cell growth. The specific breast cancer cells have the ability to create a three-dimensional cell cluster due to the spontaneous accumulation of cells in the porosity of the scaffold under some specific conditions. Therefore, we are looking for a higher density of porosity and larger pore size. Fibers showed uniform diameter distribution and final scaffold had optimum characteristics with approximately 40% porosity. The images were taken by SEM and the density and the size of the porosity were determined with the Image. After scaffold preparation, it has cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. Then, it has been washed with glycine and phosphate buffer saline (PBS), in order to neutralize the residual glutaraldehyde. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor (MTT) results have represented approximately 91.13% viability of the scaffolds for cancer cells. In order to create a cluster, Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7, breast cancer cell line) and Michigan Cancer Foundation-10A (MCF-10A, human mammary epithelial cell line) cells were cultured on the scaffold in 24 well plate for five days. Then, we have exposed the cluster to the laser diode 808 nm radiation to investigate the effect of laser on the tumor with different power and time. Under the same conditions, cancer cells lost their viability more than the healthy ones. In conclusion, laser therapy is a viable method to destroy the target cells and has a minimum effect on the healthy tissues and cells and it can improve the other method of cancer treatments limitations.
 DeSantis, Carol E., et al. "Breast cancer statistics, 2017, racial disparity in mortality by state." CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 67.6 (2017): 439-448.
 Chang, Leslie, et al. "Breast cancer treatment and its effects on aging." Journal of geriatric oncology (2018).
 Etraty Khosroshahi, Mohammad; Lasers and its applications in medicine, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Second edition, 2011.
 Zamora-Romero, Noé, et al. "Laser-excited gold nanoparticles for treatment of cancer cells in vitro." Medical Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions VIII. Vol. 10417. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2017.
 Niemz, Markolf H. Laser-tissue interactions: fundamentals and applications. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013
 Ash, Caerwyn, et al. "Mathematical modeling of the optimum pulse structure for safe and effective photo epilation using broadband pulsed light." Journal of applied clinical medical physics 13.5 (2012): 290-299.
 Beik J, Abed Z, Ghoreishi FS, Hosseini-Nami S, Mehrzadi S, Shakeri-Zadeh A, et al. Nanotechnology in hyperthermia cancer therapy: from fundamental principles to advanced applications. J Control Release. 2016; 235:205–21.
 Taratula O, Schumann C, Duong T, Taylor KL, Taratula O. Dendrimer-encapsulated naphthalocyanine as a single agent-based theranostic nanoplatform for near-infrared fluorescence imaging and combinatorial anticancer phototherapy. Nanoscale. 2015; 7:3888–902.
 Wang, Bing-Yen, et al. "Near-Infrared-Triggered Photodynamic Therapy toward Breast Cancer Cells Using Dendrimer-Functionalized Upconversion Nanoparticles." Nanomaterials 7.9 (2017): 269.
 Liu, Yun-qing, et al. "Inhibitory effect of aloe emodin mediated photodynamic therapy on human oral mucosa carcinoma in vitro and in vivo." Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 97 (2018): 697-707.
 M. C. Lee, J. D. Liao, W. L. Huang, F. Y. Jiang, Y. Z. Jheng, Y. Y. Jin, Y.S. Tseng, Aloininduced cell growth arrest cell apoptosis, and autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells, Biomark. Genom. Med. 6 (2014) 144–149.
 Alemany-Ribes, M.; García-Díaz, M.; Busom, M.; Nonell, S.; Semino, C.E. Toward a 3D Cellular Model for Studying İn vitro the Outcome of Photodynamic Treatments: Accounting for the Effects of Tissue Complexity. Tissue Eng. Part A 2013, 19, 1665–1674.
 El-Sayed, Ivan H., Xiaohua Huang, and Mostafa A. El-Sayed. "Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles." Cancer letters 239.1 (2006): 129-135.
 Cantu, Travis, et al. "Conductive polymer-based nanoparticles for laser-mediated photothermal ablation of cancer: Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation." International journal of nanomedicine 12 (2017): 615.
 Niu, Chengcheng, et al. "Laser irradiated fluorescent perfluorocarbon microparticles in 2-D and 3-D breast cancer cell models." Scientific Reports 7 (2017).
 Tempany CM, McDannold NJ, Hynynen K, Jolesz FA. Focused ultrasound surgery in oncology: overview and principles. Radiology. 2011;259(1):39–56.
 Feller, John F., Bernadette M. Greenwood, and R. Jason Stafford. "Transrectal Laser Focal Therapy of Prostate Cancer." Imaging and Focal Therapy of Early Prostate Cancer (2017): 325-343.
 Sercarz JA, Bublik M, Joo J, et al. Outcomes of laser thermal therapy for recurrent head and neck cancer. Otolaryngol Head Surg 2010; 142:344–350.
 Liu, Zen, and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic. "Modeling tumor microenvironments using custom-designed biomaterial scaffolds." Current opinion in chemical engineering 11 (2016): 94-105.
 Entekhabi, Elahe, et al. "Design and manufacture of neural tissue engineering scaffolds using hyaluronic acid and polycaprolactone nanofibers with controlled porosity." Materials Science and Engineering: C 69 (2016): 380-387.
 Motlagh, Najmeh Sadat Hosseini, et al. "Fluorescence properties of doxorubicin coupled carbon nanocarriers." Applied optics 56.26 (2017): 7498-7503.
 C. Luo, E. Stride, M. Edirisinghe, Mapping the influence of solubility and dielectric constant on electrospinning polycaprolactone solutions, Macromolecules 45 (11) (2012) 4669–4680.
 Vert M. Bioresorbable synthetic polymers and their operation field. In: Walenkamp G, editor. Stutgart: Georg Thieme; 1998.
 Jerome C, Lecomte P. Recent advances in the synthesis of aliphatic polyesters by ring-opening polymerization. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2008; 60:1056–76.
 Vert M, Li SM, Spenlehauer G, Guerin P. Bioresorbability and biocompatibility of aliphatic polyesters. J Mater Sci Mater Med 1992; 3:432–46.
 Sun H, Mei L, Song C, Cui X, Wang P. The in vivo degradation, absorption and excretion of PCL-based implant. Biomaterials 2006; 27:1735–40.
 Croisier, Florence, et al. "Mechanical testing of electrospun PCL fibers." Acta biomaterialia 8.1 (2012): 218-224.
 H. Sun, et al., The in vivo degradation, absorption and excretion of PCL-based implant, Biomaterials 27 (9) (2006) 1735–1740.
 Vogelstein, Bert, and Kenneth W. Kinzler, eds. The genetic basis of human cancer. Vol. 821. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
 Proskuryakov, Sergey Ya, Anatoli G. Konoplyannikov, and Vladimir L. Gabai. "Necrosis: a specific form of programmed cell death?" Experimental cell research 283.1 (2003): 1-16.
 Klionsky, Daniel J. "Autophagy revisited: a conversation with Christian de Duve." Autophagy 4.6 (2008): 740-743.
 Elengoe, Asita, and Salehhuddin Hamdan. "Hyperthermia and its Clinical Application in Cancer Treatment." International Journal of Advancement in Life Sciences Research (2018): 22-27.