Bandwidth and Delay Aware Routing Protocol with Scheduling Algorithm for Multi Hop Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
The scheduling based routing scheme is presented in this paper to avoid link failure. The main objective of this system is to introduce a cross-layer protocol framework that integrates routing with priority-based traffic management and distributed transmission scheduling. The reservation scheme is based on ID. The presented scheme guarantees that bandwidth reserved time slot is used by another packet in which end-to-end reservation is achieved. The Bandwidth and Delay Aware Routing Protocol with Scheduling Algorithm is presented to allocate channels efficiently. The experimental results show that the presented schemes performed well in various parameters compared to existing methods.
VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions
Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors
that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure
(V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future
provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic
congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how
to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If
security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur,
thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of
the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and
unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed
in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security
solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses
various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas
of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric
key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security.
The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to
overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive
overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its
security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future
0.13-μm CMOS Vector Modulator for Wireless Backhaul System
In this paper, a CMOS vector modulator designed for wireless backhaul system based on 802.11ac is presented. A poly phase filter and sign select switches yield two orthogonal signal paths. Two variable gain amplifiers with strongly reduced phase shift of only ±5 ° are used to weight these paths. It has a phase control range of 360 ° and a gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB. The current drawn from a 1.2 V supply amounts 20.4 mA. Using a 0.13 mm technology, the chip die area amounts 1.47x0.75 mm².
APPLE: Providing Absolute and Proportional Throughput Guarantees in Wireless LANs
This paper proposes an APPLE scheme that aims at providing absolute and proportional throughput guarantees, and maximizing system throughput simultaneously for wireless LANs with homogeneous and heterogenous traffic. We formulate our objectives as an optimization problem, present its exact and approximate solutions, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution. Simulations validate that APPLE scheme is accurate, and the approximate solution can well achieve the desired objectives already.
Comparison of Frequency-Domain Contention Schemes in Wireless LANs
In IEEE 802.11 networks, it is well known that the
traditional time-domain contention often leads to low channel
utilization. The first frequency-domain contention scheme, the time to
frequency (T2F), has recently been proposed to improve the channel
utilization and has attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, we
present the latest research progress on the weighed frequency-domain
contention. We compare the basic ideas, work principles of these
related schemes and point out their differences. This paper is very
useful for further study on frequency-domain contention.
On the Performance Analysis of Coexistence between IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks
This paper presents an intensive measurement studying of the network performance analysis when IEEE 802.11g Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) coexisting with IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). The measurement results show that the coexistence between both networks could increase the Frame Error Rate (FER) of the IEEE 802.15.4 networks up to 60% and it could decrease the throughputs of the IEEE 802.11g networks up to 55%.
Throughput Optimization on Wireless Networks by Increasing the Maximum Transmission Unit
Throughput enhancement can be achieved with two main approaches. The first one is by the increase of transmission rate and the second one is reducing the control traffic. This paper focuses on how the throughput can be enhanced by increasing Maximum Transmission Unit -MTU. Transmission of larger packets can cause a throughput improvement by reducing IP overhead. Analysis results are obtained by a mathematical model and simulation tools with a main focus on wireless channels.
A Generator from Cascade Markov Model for Packet Loss and Subsequent Bit Error Description
In this paper we present a novel error model for
packet loss and subsequent error description. The proposed model
simulates the error performance of wireless communication link. The
model is designed as two independent Markov chains, where the first
one is used for packet generation and the second one generates
correctly and incorrectly transmitted bits for received packets from
the first chain. The statistical analyses of real communication on the
wireless link are used for determination of model-s parameters. Using
the obtained parameters and the implementation of the generator, we
collected generated traffic. The obtained results generated by
proposed model are compared with the real data collection.
Analysis of Wi-Fi Access Networks Situation in the City Area
With increasing number of wireless devices like
laptops, Wi-Fi Web Cams, network extenders, etc., a new kind of
problems appeared, mostly related to poor Wi-Fi throughput or
communication problems. In this paper an investigation on wireless
networks and it-s saturation in Vilnius City and its surrounding is
presented, covering the main problems of wireless saturation and
network load during day. Also an investigation on wireless channel
selection and noise levels were made, showing the impact of
neighbor AP to signal and noise levels and how it changes during the
CAPWAP Status and Design Considerations for Seamless Roaming Support
Wireless LAN technologies have picked up
momentum in the recent years due to their ease of deployment, cost
and availability. The era of wireless LAN has also given rise to
unique applications like VOIP, IPTV and unified messaging.
However, these real-time applications are very sensitive to network
and handoff latencies. To successfully support these applications,
seamless roaming during the movement of mobile station has become
crucial. Nowadays, centralized architecture models support roaming
in WLANs. They have the ability to manage, control and
troubleshoot large scale WLAN deployments. This model is managed
by Control and Provision of Wireless Access Point protocol
(CAPWAP). This paper covers the CAPWAP architectural solution
along with its proposals that have emerged. Based on the literature
survey conducted in this paper, we found that the proposed
algorithms to reduce roaming latency in CAPWAP architecture do
not support seamless roaming. Additionally, they are not sufficient
during the initial period of the network. This paper also suggests
important design consideration for mobility support in future
centralized IEEE 802.11 networks.
Routing Load Analysis over 802.11 DCF of Reactive Routing Protocols DSR and DYMO
The Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of self-configuring and rapidly deployed mobile nodes (routers) without any central infrastructure. Routing is one of the potential issues. Many routing protocols are reported but it is difficult to decide which one is best in all scenarios. In this paper on demand routing protocols DSR and DYMO based on IEEE 802.11 DCF MAC protocol are examined and characteristic summary of these routing protocols is presented. Their performance is analyzed and compared on performance measuring metrics throughput, dropped packets due to non availability of routes, duplicate RREQ generated for route discovery and normalized routing load by varying CBR data traffic load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.
Traffic Load based Performance Analysis of DSR and STAR Routing Protocol
The wireless adhoc network is comprised of wireless
node which can move freely and are connected among themselves
without central infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range
of wireless interfaces, in most cases communication has to be relayed
over intermediate nodes. Thus, in such multihop network each node
(also called router) is independent, self-reliant and capable to route
the messages over the dynamic network topology. Various protocols
are reported in this field and it is very difficult to decide the best one.
A key issue in deciding which type of routing protocol is best for
adhoc networks is the communication overhead incurred by the
protocol. In this paper STAR a table driven and DSR on demand
protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are analyzed for their performance
on different performance measuring metrics versus varying traffic
CBR load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.
, wireless networks
, route discovery
, performance evaluation
, IEEE 802.11
Protocol Modifications for Improved Co-Channel Wireless LAN Goodput in Partitioned Spaces
Partitions can play a significant role in minimising cochannel
interference of Wireless LANs by attenuating signals across
room boundaries. This could pave the way towards higher density
deployments in home and office environments through spatial
channel reuse. Yet, due to protocol limitations, the latest incantation
of IEEE 802.11 standard is still unable to take advantage of this fact:
Despite having clearly adequate Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR)
over co-channel neighbouring networks in other rooms, its goodput
falls significantly lower than its maximum in the absence of cochannel
interferers. In this paper, we describe how this situation can
be remedied via modest modifications to the standard.
Performance Analysis of Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Based on EDCA IEEE802.11e
IEEE 802.11e is the enhanced version of the IEEE
802.11 MAC dedicated to provide Quality of Service of wireless
network. It supports QoS by the service differentiation and
prioritization mechanism. Data traffic receives different priority
based on QoS requirements. Fundamentally, applications are divided
into four Access Categories (AC). Each AC has its own buffer queue
and behaves as an independent backoff entity. Every frame with a
specific priority of data traffic is assigned to one of these access
categories. IEEE 802.11e EDCA (Enhanced Distributed Channel
Access) is designed to enhance the IEEE 802.11 DCF (Distributed
Coordination Function) mechanisms by providing a distributed
access method that can support service differentiation among
different classes of traffic. Performance of IEEE 802.11e MAC layer
with different ACs is evaluated to understand the actual benefits
deriving from the MAC enhancements.
Fairness and Quality of Service Issues and Analysis of IEEE 802.11e Wireless LAN
The IEEE 802.11e which is an enhanced version of the 802.11 WLAN standards incorporates the Quality of Service (QoS) which makes it a better choice for multimedia and real time applications. In this paper we study various aspects concerned with 802.11e standard. Further, the analysis results for this standard are compared with the legacy 802.11 standard. Simulation results show that IEEE 802.11e out performs legacy IEEE 802.11 in terms of quality of service due to its flow differentiated channel allocation and better queue management architecture. We also propose a method to improve the unfair allocation of bandwidth for downlink and uplink channels by varying the medium access priority level.
Enhanced QoS Mechanisms for IEEE 802.11e Wireless Networks
The quality-of-service (QoS) support for wireless
LANs has been a hot research topic during the past few years. In this paper, two QoS provisioning mechanisms are proposed for the employment in 802.11e EDCA MAC scheme. First, the proposed call
admission control mechanism can not only guarantee the QoS for the higher priority existing connections but also provide the minimum reserved bandwidth for traffic flows with lower priority. In addition, the adaptive contention window adjustment mechanism can adjust the
maximum and minimum contention window size dynamically according to the existing connection number of each AC. The collision
probability as well as the packet delay will thus be reduced effectively.
Performance results via simulations have revealed the enhanced QoS property achieved by employing these two mechanisms.
Enhancement Throughput of Unplanned Wireless Mesh Networks Deployment Using Partitioning Hierarchical Cluster (PHC)
Wireless mesh networks based on IEEE 802.11
technology are a scalable and efficient solution for next generation
wireless networking to provide wide-area wideband internet access to
a significant number of users. The deployment of these wireless mesh
networks may be within different authorities and without any
planning, they are potentially overlapped partially or completely in
the same service area. The aim of the proposed model is design a new
model to Enhancement Throughput of Unplanned Wireless Mesh
Networks Deployment Using Partitioning Hierarchical Cluster
(PHC), the unplanned deployment of WMNs are determinates there
performance. We use throughput optimization approach to model the
unplanned WMNs deployment problem based on partitioning
hierarchical cluster (PHC) based architecture, in this paper the
researcher used bridge node by allowing interworking traffic between
these WMNs as solution for performance degradation.
Software Architecture and Support for Patient Tracking Systems in Critical Scenarios
In this work a new platform for mobile-health systems is
presented. System target application is providing decision support to
rescue corps or military medical personnel in combat areas. Software
architecture relies on a distributed client-server system that manages a
wireless ad-hoc networks hierarchy in which several different types of
client operate. Each client is characterized for different hardware and
software requirements. Lower hierarchy levels rely in a network of
completely custom devices that store clinical information and patient
status and are designed to form an ad-hoc network operating in the
2.4 GHz ISM band and complying with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard
(ZigBee). Medical personnel may interact with such devices, that are
called MICs (Medical Information Carriers), by means of a PDA
(Personal Digital Assistant) or a MDA (Medical Digital Assistant),
and transmit the information stored in their local databases as well as
issue a service request to the upper hierarchy levels by using IEEE
802.11 a/b/g standard (WiFi). The server acts as a repository that
stores both medical evacuation forms and associated events (e.g., a
teleconsulting request). All the actors participating in the diagnostic
or evacuation process may access asynchronously to such repository
and update its content or generate new events. The designed system
pretends to optimise and improve information spreading and flow
among all the system components with the aim of improving both
diagnostic quality and evacuation process.
Impact of Implementing VPN to Secure Wireless LAN
Many corporations are seriously concerned about
security of networks and therefore, their network supervisors are still
reluctant to install WLANs. In this regards, the IEEE802.11i standard
was developed to address the security problems, even though the
mistrust of the wireless LAN technology is still existing. The thought
was that the best security solutions could be found in open standards
based technologies that can be delivered by Virtual Private
Networking (VPN) being used for long time without addressing any
security holes for the past few years. This work, addresses this issue
and presents a simulated wireless LAN of IEEE802.11g protocol, and
analyzes impact of integrating Virtual Private Network technology to
secure the flow of traffic between the client and the server within the
LAN, using OPNET WLAN utility. Two Wireless LAN scenarios
have been introduced and simulated. These are based on normal
extension to a wired network and VPN over extension to a wired
network. The results of the two scenarios are compared and indicate
the impact of improving performance, measured by response time
and load, of Virtual Private Network over wireless LAN.
A Novel FFT-Based Frequency Offset Estimator for OFDM Systems
This paper proposes a novel frequency offset (FO) estimator for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Simplicity is most significant feature of this algorithm and can be repeated to achieve acceptable accuracy. Also fractional and integer part of FO is estimated jointly with use of the same algorithm. To do so, instead of using conventional algorithms that usually use correlation function, we use DFT of received signal. Therefore, complexity will be reduced and we can do synchronization procedure by the same hardware that is used to demodulate OFDM symbol. Finally, computer simulation shows that the accuracy of this method is better than other conventional methods.
Vulnerabilities of IEEE 802.11i Wireless LAN CCMP Protocol
IEEE has recently incorporated CCMP protocol to provide robust security to IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. It is found that CCMP has been designed with a weak nonce construction and transmission mechanism, which leads to the exposure of initial counter value. This weak construction of nonce renders the protocol vulnerable to attacks by intruders. This paper presents how the initial counter can be pre-computed by the intruder. This vulnerability of counter block value leads to pre-computation attack on the counter mode encryption of CCMP. The failure of the counter mode will result in the collapse of the whole security mechanism of 802.11 WLAN.
Performance Evaluation of Bluetooth Links in the Presence of Specific Types of Interference
In the last couple of years Bluetooth has gained a large share in the market of home and personal appliances. It is now a well established technology a short range supplement to the wireless world of 802.11. The two main trends of research that have sprung from these developments are directed towards the coexistence and performance issues of Bluetooth and 802.11 as well as the co-existence in the very short range of multiple Bluetooth devices. Our work aims at thoroughly investigating different aspects of co-channel interference and effects of transmission power, distance and 802.11 interference on Bluetooth connections.
VoIP and Database Traffic Co-existence over IEEE 802.11b WLAN with Redundancy
This paper presents the findings of two experiments that were performed on the Redundancy in Wireless Connection Model (RiWC) using the 802.11b standard. The experiments were simulated using OPNET 11.5 Modeler software. The first was aimed at finding the maximum number of simultaneous Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) users the model would support under the G.711 and G.729 codec standards when the packetization interval was 10 milliseconds (ms). The second experiment examined the model?s VoIP user capacity using the G.729 codec standard along with background traffic using the same packetization interval as in the first experiment. To determine the capacity of the model under various experiments, we checked three metrics: jitter, delay and data loss. When background traffic was added, we checked the response time in addition to the previous three metrics. The findings of the first experiment indicated that the maximum number of simultaneous VoIP users the model was able to support was 5, which is consistent with recent research findings. When using the G.729 codec, the model was able to support up to 16 VoIP users; similar experiments in current literature have indicated a maximum of 7 users. The finding of the second experiment demonstrated that the maximum number of VoIP users the model was able to support was 12, with the existence of background traffic.