Supersonic Flow around a Dihedral Airfoil: Modeling and Experimentation Investigation
Numerical modeling of fluid flows, whether compressible or incompressible, laminar or turbulent presents a considerable contribution in the scientific and industrial fields. However, the development of an approximate model of a supersonic flow requires the introduction of specific and more precise techniques and methods. For this purpose, the object of this paper is modeling a supersonic flow of inviscid fluid around a dihedral airfoil. Based on the thin airfoils theory and the non-dimensional stationary Steichen equation of a two-dimensional supersonic flow in isentropic evolution, we obtained a solution for the downstream velocity potential of the oblique shock at the second order of relative thickness that characterizes a perturbation parameter. This result has been dealt with by the asymptotic analysis and characteristics method. In order to validate our model, the results are discussed in comparison with theoretical and experimental results. Indeed, firstly, the comparison of the results of our model has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the existing theoretical results. Finally, an experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream Mach number over a symmetrical dihedral airfoil wing. The comparison of the different Mach number downstream results of our model with those of the existing theoretical data (relative margin between 0.07% and 4%) and with experimental results (concordance for a deflection angle between 1° and 11°) support the validation of our model with accuracy.
Surface Pressure Distribution of a Flapped-Airfoil for Different Momentum Injection at the Leading Edge
The aim of the research work is to modify the NACA 4215 airfoil with flap and rotary cylinder at the leading edge of the airfoil and experimentally study the static pressure distribution over the airfoil completed with flap and leading-edge vortex generator. In this research, NACA 4215 wing model has been constructed by generating the profile geometry using the standard equations and design software such as AutoCAD and SolidWorks. To perform the experiment, three wooden models are prepared and tested in subsonic wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out in various angles of attack. Flap angle and momentum injection rate are changed to observe the characteristics of pressure distribution. In this research, a new concept of flow separation control mechanism has been introduced to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil. Control of flow separation over airfoil which experiences a vortex generator (rotating cylinder) at the leading edge of airfoil is experimentally simulated under the effects of momentum injection. The experimental results show that the flow separation control is possible by the proposed mechanism, and benefits can be achieved by momentum injection technique. The wing performance is significantly improved due to control of flow separation by momentum injection method.
Aerodynamic Design Optimization of High-Speed Hatchback Cars for Lucrative Commercial Applications
The choice of high-speed, low budget hatchback car with diversified options is increasing for meeting the new generation buyers trend. This paper is aimed to augment the current speed of the hatchback cars through the aerodynamic drag reduction technique. The inverted airfoils are facilitated at the bottom of the car for generating the downward force for negating the lift while increasing the current speed range for achieving a better road performance. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a 2D steady pressure-based k-ɛ realizable model with enhanced wall treatment. In our numerical studies, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model and its code of solution are used. The code is calibrated and validated using the exact solution of the 2D boundary layer displacement thickness at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows. We observed through the parametric analytical studies that the inverted airfoil integrated with the bottom surface at various predesigned locations of Hatchback cars can improve its overall aerodynamic efficiency through drag reduction, which obviously decreases the fuel consumption significantly and ensure an optimum road performance lucratively with maximum permissible speed within the framework of the manufactures constraints.
Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil
In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.
The Influence of Variable Geometrical Modifications of the Trailing Edge of Supercritical Airfoil on the Characteristics of Aerodynamics
The fuel consumption of modern, high wing loading, commercial aircraft in the first stage of flight is high because the usable flight level is lower and the weather conditions (jet stream) have great impact on aircraft performance. To reduce the fuel consumption, it is necessary to raise during first stage of flight the L/D ratio value within Cl 0.55-0.65. Different variable geometrical wing trailing edge modifications of SC(2)-410 airfoil were compared at M 0.78 using the CFD software STAR-CCM+ simulation based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results obtained show that by increasing the width of the airfoil by 4% and by modifying the trailing edge airfoil, it is possible to decrease airfoil drag at Cl 0.70 for up to 26.6% and at the same time to increase commercial aircraft L/D ratio for up to 5.0%. Fuel consumption can be reduced in proportion to the increase in L/D ratio.
Numerical Investigations on Dynamic Stall of a Pitching-Plunging Helicopter Blade Airfoil
Effect of plunging motion on the pitch oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A simulation model based on overset grid technology and k - ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is established, and the numerical simulation results are compared with available experimental data and other simulations. Two cases of phase angle φ = 0, μ which represents the phase difference between the pitching and plunging motions of an airfoil are performed. Airfoil vortex generation, moving, and shedding are discussed in detail. Good agreements have been achieved with the available literature. The upward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack less than the actual one during pitching analysis. It is observed that the formation of the stall vortex is suppressed, resulting in a decrease in the lift coefficient and a delay of the stall angle. However, the downward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack higher the actual one.
CFD Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil
The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45-degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90-degree mitered elbow and fans, respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE standard table. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11-m2 cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynolds number of airstream is 2.7x106 (based on the hydraulic duct diameter), thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result agrees well with the operating data, and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the airfoil and it gets high pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which generates low pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.
Numerical Investigation of Improved Aerodynamic Performance of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet
Numerical investigations are performed to analyze the flow behavior over NACA0015 and to evaluate the efficiency of synthetic jet as active control device. The second objective of this work is to investigate the influence of momentum coefficient of synthetic jet on the flow behaviour. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using, k-ω SST provided by ANSYS CFX-CFD code. The model presented in this paper is a comprehensive representation of the information found in the literature. Comparison of obtained numerical flow parameters with the experimental ones shows that the adopted computational procedure reflects nearly the real flow nature. Also, numerical results state that use of synthetic jets devices has positive effects on the flow separation, and thus, aerodynamic performance improvement of NACA0015 airfoil. It can also be observed that the use of synthetic jet increases the lift coefficient about 13.3% and reduces the drag coefficient about 52.7%.
Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight
This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.
Power Performance Improvement of 500W Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Salient Design Parameters
This paper presents the performance characteristics of
Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with NACA airfoil
blades. The performance of Darrieus-type VAWT can be
characterized by torque and power. There are various parameters
affecting the performance such as chord length, helical angle, pitch
angle and rotor diameter. To estimate the optimum shape of Darrieustype
wind turbine in accordance with various design parameters, we
examined aerodynamic characteristics and separated flow occurring
in the vicinity of blade, interaction between flow and blade, and
torque and power characteristics derived from it. For flow analysis,
flow variations were investigated based on the unsteady RANS
(Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) equation. Sliding mesh algorithm
was employed in order to consider rotational effect of blade. To
obtain more realistic results we conducted experiment and numerical
analysis at the same time for three-dimensional shape. In addition,
several parameters (chord length, rotor diameter, pitch angle, and
helical angle) were considered to find out optimum shape design and
characteristics of interaction with ambient flow. Since the NACA
airfoil used in this study showed significant changes in magnitude of
lift and drag depending on an angle of attack, the rotor with low drag,
long cord length and short diameter shows high power coefficient in
low tip speed ratio (TSR) range. On the contrary, in high TSR range,
drag becomes high. Hence, the short-chord and long-diameter rotor
produces high power coefficient. When a pitch angle at which airfoil
directs toward inside equals to -2° and helical angle equals to 0°,
Darrieus-type VAWT generates maximum power.
Effect of Adverse Pressure Gradient on a Fluctuating Velocity over the Co-Flow Jet Airfoil
The boundary layer separation and new active flow control of a NACA 0025 airfoil were studied experimentally. This new flow control is sometimes known as a co-flow jet (cfj) airfoil. This paper presents the fluctuating velocity in a wall jet over the co-flow jet airfoil subjected to an adverse pressure gradient and a curved surface. In these results, the fluctuating velocity at the inner part increasing by increased the angle of attack up to 12o and this has due to the jet energized, while the angle of attack 20o has different. The airfoil cord based Reynolds number has 105.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Dimple Effect on Aircraft Wing
The main objective of aircraft aerodynamics is to
enhance the aerodynamic characteristics and maneuverability of the
aircraft. This enhancement includes the reduction in drag and stall
phenomenon. The airfoil which contains dimples will have
comparatively less drag than the plain airfoil. Introducing dimples on
the aircraft wing will create turbulence by creating vortices which
delays the boundary layer separation resulting in decrease of pressure
drag and also increase in the angle of stall. In addition, wake
reduction leads to reduction in acoustic emission. The overall
objective of this paper is to improve the aircraft maneuverability by
delaying the flow separation point at stall and thereby reducing the
drag by applying the dimple effect over the aircraft wing. This project
includes both computational and experimental analysis of dimple
effect on aircraft wing, using NACA 0018 airfoil. Dimple shapes of
Semi-sphere, hexagon, cylinder, square are selected for the analysis;
airfoil is tested under the inlet velocity of 30m/s and 60m/s at
different angle of attack (5˚, 10˚, 15˚, 20˚, and 25˚). This analysis
favors the dimple effect by increasing L/D ratio and thereby
providing the maximum aerodynamic efficiency, which provides the
enhanced performance for the aircraft.
Dynamic Stall Vortex Formation of OA-209 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number
The unsteady flow field around oscillating OA-209 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 3.5×105 were investigated. Three different reduced frequencies were tested in order to see how it affects the hysteresis loop of an airfoil. At a reduced frequency of 0.05 the deep dynamic stall phenomenon was observed. Lift overshooting was observed as a result of dynamic stall vortex (DSV) shedding. Further investigation was carried out to find out the cause of DSV formation and shedding over airfoil. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and CFD tools were used and it was found out that dynamic stall separation (DSS), which is separated from leading edge separation (LES) and trailing edge separation (TES), triggered the dynamic stall vortex (DSV).
Selection and Design of an Axial Flow Fan
This work presents a methodology for the selection
and design of propeller oriented to the experimental verification of
theoretical results. The problem of propeller selection and design
usually present itself in the following manner: a certain air volume
and static pressure are required for a certain system. Once the
necessity of fan design on a theoretical basis has been recognized, it
is possible to determinate the dimensions for a fan unit so that it will
perform in accordance with a certain set of specifications. The same
procedures in this work then can be applied in other propeller
Optimal Design of Airfoil Platform Shapes with High Aspect Ratio Using Genetic Algorithm
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) performing their
operations for a long time have been attracting much attention in
military and civil aviation industries for the past decade. The
applicable field of UAV is changing from the military purpose only to
the civil one. Because of their low operation cost, high reliability and
the necessity of various application areas, numerous development
programs have been initiated around the world. To obtain the optimal
solutions of the design variable (i.e., sectional airfoil profile, wing
taper ratio and sweep) for high performance of UAVs, both the lift and
lift-to-drag ratio are maximized whereas the pitching moment should
be minimized, simultaneously. It is found that the lift force and
lift-to-drag ratio are linearly dependent and a unique and dominant
solution are existed. However, a trade-off phenomenon is observed
between the lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment. As the result of
optimization, sixty-five (65) non-dominated Pareto individuals at the
cutting edge of design spaces that are decided by airfoil shapes can be
Design and Manufacturing of a Propeller for Axial-Flow Fan
This work presents a methodology for the design and
manufacture of propellers oriented to the experimental verification of
theoretical results based on the combined model. The design process
begins by using algorithms in Matlab which output data contain the
coordinates of the points that define the blade airfoils, in this case the
NACA 6512 airfoil was used. The modeling for the propeller blade
was made in NX7, through the imported files in Matlab and with the
help of surfaces. Later, the hub and the clamps were also modeled.
Finally, NX 7 also made possible to create post-processed files to the
required machine. It is possible to find the block of numbers with G
& M codes about the type of driver on the machine. The file
extension is .ptp. These files made possible to manufacture the blade,
and the hub of the propeller.
A Comparison between Hybrid and Experimental Extended Polars for the Numerical Prediction of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Performance using Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm
A dynamic stall-corrected Blade Element-Momentum algorithm based on a hybrid polar is validated through the comparison with Sandia experimental measurements on a 5-m diameter wind turbine of Troposkien shape. Different dynamic stall models are evaluated. The numerical predictions obtained using the extended aerodynamic coefficients provided by both Sheldal and Klimas and Raciti Castelli et al. are compared to experimental data, determining the potential of the hybrid database for the numerical prediction of vertical-axis wind turbine performances.
Dynamic Mesh Based Airfoil Design Optimization
A method of dynamic mesh based airfoil optimization is proposed according to the drawbacks of surrogate model based airfoil optimization. Programs are designed to achieve the dynamic mesh. Boundary condition is add by integrating commercial software Pointwise, meanwhile the CFD calculation is carried out by commercial software Fluent. The data exchange and communication between the software and programs referred above have been accomplished, and the whole optimization process is performed in iSIGHT platform. A simplified airfoil optimization study case is brought out to show that aerodynamic performances of airfoil have been significantly improved, even save massive repeat operations and increase the robustness and credibility of the optimization result. The case above proclaims that dynamic mesh based airfoil optimization is an effective and high efficient method.
Effect of Dynamic Stall, Finite Aspect Ratio and Streamtube Expansion on VAWT Performance Prediction using the BE-M Model
A multiple-option analytical model for the evaluation of the energy performance and distribution of aerodynamic forces acting on a vertical-axis Darrieus wind turbine depending on both rotor architecture and operating conditions is presented. For this purpose, a numerical algorithm, capable of generating the desired rotor conformation depending on design geometric parameters, is coupled to a Single/Double-Disk Multiple-Streamtube Blade Element – Momentum code. Both single and double-disk configurations are analyzed and model predictions are compared to literature experimental data in order to test the capability of the code for predicting rotor performance. Effective airfoil characteristics based on local blade Reynolds number are obtained through interpolation of literature low-Reynolds airfoil databases. Some corrections are introduced inside the original model with the aim of simulating also the effects of blade dynamic stall, rotor streamtube expansion and blade finite aspect ratio, for which a new empirical relationship to better fit the experimental data is proposed. In order to predict also open field rotor operation, a freestream wind shear profile is implemented, reproducing the effect of atmospheric boundary layer.
Vortex Wake Formation and Its Effects on Thrust and Propulsive Efficiency of an Oscillating Airfoil
Flows over a harmonically oscillating NACA 0012
airfoil are simulated here using a two-dimensional, unsteady,
incompressibleNavier-Stokes solver.Both pure-plunging and
pitching-plunging combined oscillations are considered at a Reynolds
number of 5000. Special attention is paid to the vortex shedding and
interaction mechanism of the motions. For all the simulations
presented here, the reduced frequency (k) is fixed at a value of 2.5
and plunging amplitude (h) is selected to be in the range of 0.2-0.5.
The simulation results show that the interaction mechanism between
the leading and trailing edge vortices has a decisive effect on the
values of the resulting thrust and propulsive efficiency.
Airfoils Aerodynamic Efficiency Study in Heavy Rain via Two Phase Flow Approach
Heavy rainfall greatly affects the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. There are many accidents of aircraft caused by aerodynamic efficiency degradation by heavy rain. In this Paper we have studied the heavy rain effects on the aerodynamic efficiency of NACA 64-210 & NACA 0012 airfoils. For our analysis, CFD method and preprocessing grid generator are used as our main analytical tools, and the simulation of rain is accomplished via two phase flow approach-s Discrete Phase Model (DPM). Raindrops are assumed to be non-interacting, non-deforming, non-evaporating and non-spinning spheres. Both airfoil sections exhibited significant reduction in lift and increase in drag for a given lift condition in simulated rain. The most significant difference between these two airfoils was the sensitivity of the NACA 64-210 to liquid water content (LWC), while NACA 0012 performance losses in the rain environment is not a function of LWC . It is expected that the quantitative information gained in this paper will be useful to the operational airline industry and greater effort such as small scale and full scale flight tests should put in this direction to further improve aviation safety.
Numerical Study of Airfoils Aerodynamic Performance in Heavy Rain Environment
Heavy rainfall greatly affects the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. There are many accidents of aircraft caused by aerodynamic efficiency degradation by heavy rain.
In this Paper we have studied the heavy rain effects on the aerodynamic efficiency of cambered NACA 64-210 and symmetric
NACA 0012 airfoils. Our results show significant increase in drag and decrease in lift. We used preprocessing software gridgen for creation of geometry and mesh, used fluent as solver and techplot as postprocessor. Discrete phase modeling called DPM is used to model the rain particles using two phase flow approach. The rain particles are assumed to be inert.
Both airfoils showed significant decrease in lift and increase in drag in simulated rain environment. The most significant difference between these two airfoils was the NACA 64-210 more sensitivity than NACA 0012 to liquid water content (LWC). We believe that the results showed in this paper will be useful for the designer of the commercial aircrafts and UAVs, and will be helpful for training of the pilots to control the airplanes in heavy rain.
Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Airfoil Asymmetry on VAWT Performance
This paper presents a model for the evaluation of
energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a three-bladed
small vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine depending on blade chord
curvature with respect to rotor axis.
The adopted survey methodology is based on an analytical code
coupled to a solid modeling software, capable of generating the
desired blade geometry depending on the blade design geometric
parameters, which is linked to a finite volume CFD code for the
calculation of rotor performance.
After describing and validating the model with experimental data,
the results of numerical simulations are proposed on the bases of two
different blade profile architectures, which are respectively
characterized by a straight chord and by a curved one, having a chord
radius equal to rotor external circumference. A CFD campaign of
analysis is completed for three blade-candidate airfoil sections, that is
the recently-developed DU 06-W-200 cambered blade profile, a
classical symmetrical NACA 0021 and its derived cambered airfoil,
characterized by a curved chord, having a chord radius equal to rotor
The effects of blade chord curvature on angle of attack, blade
tangential and normal forces are first investigated and then the
overall rotor torque and power are analyzed as a function of blade
azimuthal position, achieving a numerical quantification of the
influence of blade camber on overall rotor performance.
Experimental Study of Frequency Behavior for a Circular Cylinder behind an Airfoil
The interaction between wakes of bluff body and
airfoil have profound influences on system performance in many
industrial applications, e.g., turbo-machinery and cooling fan. The
present work investigates the effect of configuration include; airfoil-s
angle of attack, transverse and inline spacing of the models, on
frequency behavior of the cylinder-s near-wake. The experiments
carried on under subcritical flow regime, using the hot-wire
anemometry (HWA). The relationship between the Strouhal numbers
and arrangements provide an insight into the global physical
processes of wake interaction and vortex shedding.
Effect of Turbulence Models on Simulated Iced Aircraft Airfoil
The present work describes a computational study of
aerodynamic characteristics of GLC305 airfoil clean and with 16.7
min ice shape (rime 212) and 22.5 min ice shape (glaze 944).The
performance of turbulence models SA, Kε, Kω Std, and Kω SST
model are observed against experimental flow fields at different
Mach numbers 0.12, 0.21, 0.28 in a range of Reynolds numbers
3x106, 6x106, and 10.5x106 on clean and iced aircraft airfoil
GLC305. Numerical predictions include lift, drag and pitching
moment coefficients at different Mach numbers and at different angle
of attacks were done. Accuracy of solutions with respect to the
effects of turbulence models, variation of Mach number, initial
conditions, grid resolution and grid spacing near the wall made the
study much sensitive. Navier Stokes equation based computational
technique is used. Results are very close to the experimental results.
It has seen that SA and SST models are more efficient than Kε and
Kω standard in under study problem.
Fatigue Life Consumption for Turbine Blades-Vanes Accelerated by Erosion-Contour Modification
A new mechanism responsible for structural life
consumption due to resonant fatigue in turbine blades, or vanes, is
presented and explained. A rotating blade or vane in a gas turbine can
change its contour due to erosion and/or material build up, in any of
these instances, the surface pressure distribution occurring on the
suction and pressure sides of blades-vanes can suffer substantial
modification of their pressure and temperatures envelopes and flow
characteristics. Meanwhile, the relative rotation between the blade
and duct vane while the pressurized gas flows and the consequent
wake crossings, will induce a fluctuating thrust force or lift that will
excite the blade.
An actual totally used up set of vane-blade components in a HP
turbine power stage in a gas turbine is analyzed. The blade suffered
some material erosion mostly at the trailing edge provoking a
peculiar surface pressure envelope which evolved as the relative
position between the vane and the blade passed in front of each other.
Interestingly preliminary modal analysis for this eroded blade
indicates several natural frequencies within the aeromechanic power
spectrum, moreover, the highest frequency component is 94% of one
natural frequency indicating near resonant condition.
Independently of other simultaneously occurring fatigue cycles
(such as thermal, centrifugal stresses).
Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamic Analysis for Oscillatory Airfoils using Time Spectral Method
This research proposes an algorithm for the simulation
of time-periodic unsteady problems via the solution unsteady Euler
and Navier-Stokes equations. This algorithm which is called Time
Spectral method uses a Fourier representation in time and hence
solve for the periodic state directly without resolving transients
(which consume most of the resources in a time-accurate scheme).
Mathematical tools used here are discrete Fourier transformations. It
has shown tremendous potential for reducing the computational cost
compared to conventional time-accurate methods, by enforcing
periodicity and using Fourier representation in time, leading to
spectral accuracy. The accuracy and efficiency of this technique is
verified by Euler and Navier-Stokes calculations for pitching airfoils.
Because of flow turbulence nature, Baldwin-Lomax turbulence
model has been used at viscous flow analysis. The results presented
by the Time Spectral method are compared with experimental data. It
has shown tremendous potential for reducing the computational cost
compared to the conventional time-accurate methods, by enforcing
periodicity and using Fourier representation in time, leading to
spectral accuracy, because results verify the small number of time
intervals per pitching cycle required to capture the flow physics.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Multiple Airfoils in Configuration
A potential flow model is used to study the unsteady
flow past two airfoils in configuration, each of which is suddenly set
into motion. The airfoil bound vortices are modeled using lumped
vortex elements and the wake behind the airfoil is modeled by discrete
vortices. This consists of solving a steady state flow problem at each
time-step where unsteadiness is incorporated through the “zero normal
flow on a solid surface" boundary condition at every time instant.
Additionally, along with the “zero normal flow on a solid surface"
boundary condition Kelvin-s condition is used to compute the strength
of the latest wake vortex shed from the trailing edge of the airfoil.
Location of the wake vortices is updated at each time-step to get the
wake shape at each time instant. Results are presented to show the
effect of airfoil-airfoil interaction and airfoil-wake interaction on the
aerodynamic characteristics of each airfoil.
Aerodynamic Stall Control of a Generic Airfoil using Synthetic Jet Actuator
The aerodynamic stall control of a baseline 13-percent
thick NASA GA(W)-2 airfoil using a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) is
presented in this paper. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes
equations are solved on a hybrid grid using a commercial software to
simulate the effects of a synthetic jet actuator located at 13% of the
chord from the leading edge at a Reynolds number Re = 2.1x106 and
incidence angles from 16 to 22 degrees. The experimental data for the
pressure distribution at Re = 3x106 and aerodynamic coefficients at
Re = 2.1x106 (angle of attack varied from -16 to 22 degrees) without
SJA is compared with the computational fluid dynamic (CFD)
simulation as a baseline validation. A good agreement of the CFD
simulations is obtained for aerodynamic coefficients and pressure
A working SJA has been integrated with the baseline airfoil and
initial focus is on the aerodynamic stall control at angles of attack
from 16 to 22 degrees. The results show a noticeable improvement in
the aerodynamic performance with increase in lift and decrease in
drag at these post stall regimes.
Aerodynamics and Optimization of Airfoil Under Ground Effect
The Prediction of aerodynamic characteristics and
shape optimization of airfoil under the ground effect have been carried
out by integration of computational fluid dynamics and the multiobjective
Pareto-based genetic algorithm. The main flow
characteristics around an airfoil of WIG craft are lift force, lift-to-drag
ratio and static height stability (H.S). However, they show a strong
trade-off phenomenon so that it is not easy to satisfy the design
requirements simultaneously. This difficulty can be resolved by the
optimal design. The above mentioned three characteristics are chosen
as the objective functions and NACA0015 airfoil is considered as a
baseline model in the present study. The profile of airfoil is
constructed by Bezier curves with fourteen control points and these
control points are adopted as the design variables. For multi-objective
optimization problems, the optimal solutions are not unique but a set
of non-dominated optima and they are called Pareto frontiers or Pareto
sets. As the results of optimization, forty numbers of non- dominated
Pareto optima can be obtained at thirty evolutions.