Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 17

Investigating the Formation of Nano-Hydroxyapatite on a Biocompatible and Antibacterial Cu/Mg-Substituted Bioglass
Multifunctional bioactive glasses (BGs) are designed with a focus on the provision of bactericidal and biological properties desired for angiogenesis, osteogenesis, and ultimately potential applications in bone tissue engineering. To achieve these, six sol-gel copper/magnesium substituted derivatives of 58S-BG, i.e. a mol% series of 60SiO2-4P2O5-5CuO-(31-x) CaO/xMgO (where x=0, 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10), were synthesized. Afterwards, the effect of MgO/CaO substitution on the in vitro formation of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA), osteoblast-like cell responses and BGs antibacterial performance were studied. During the BGs synthesis, the elimination of nitrates was achieved at 700 °C that prevented the BGs crystallization and stabilized the obtained dried gels. The structural and morphological evaluations were performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These characterizations revealed that Cu-substituted 58S-BG consisting of 5 mol% MgO (BG-5/5) slightly had retarded the formation of HA. In addition, Cu-substituted 58S-BGs consisting 8 mol% and 10 mol% MgO (BG-5/8 and BG-5/10) displayed lower bioactivity probably due to the lower ion release rate of Ca–Si into the simulated body fluid (SBF). The determination of 3-(4, 5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) activities proved that the highest values of both differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells can be obtained from a 5 mol% MgO substituted BG, while the over addition of MgO (8 mol% and 10 mol%) decreased the bioactivity. Furthermore, these novel Cu/Mg-substituted 58S-BGs displayed antibacterial effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Taken together, the results suggest the equally-substituted BG-5/5 (i.e. the one consists of 5 mol% of both CuO and MgO) as a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering, among all newly designed BGs in this work, owing to its desirable cell proliferation, ALP activity and antibacterial properties.
The Effect of Substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO on in vitro Bioactivity of Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass

This study had two main aims: firstly, to determine how the individual substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG) and secondly to introduce a composition in the 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)MgO and 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)SrO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with enhanced biocompatibility, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and more efficient antibacterial activity against MRSA bacteria. Results showed that both magnesium-substituted bioactive glasses (M-BGs) and strontium- substituted bioactive glasses (S-BGs) retarded the Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Meanwhile, magnesium had more pronounced effect. The 3-(4, 5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and ALP assays revealed that the presence of moderate amount (5 mol%) of Mg and Sr had a stimulating effect on increasing of both proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Live dead and Dapi/actin staining revealed both substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO resulted in more biocompatibility and stimulation potential of the MC3T3 cells compared with control. Taken together, among all of the synthesized magnesium substituted (MBGs) and strontium substituted (SBGs), the sample 58- BG with 5 mol% CaO/MgO substitution (BG-5M) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone tissue regeneration field with enhanced biocompatibility, ALP activity as well as the highest antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.

A Composite Developed from a Methyl Methacrylate and Embedded Eppawala Hydroxyapatite for Orthopedics

This study aimed to find out chemical and structural suitability of synthesized eppawala hydroxyapatite composite as bone cement, by comparing and contrasting it with human bone as well as commercially available bone cement, which is currently used in orthopedic surgeries. Therefore, a mixture of commercially available bone cement and its liquid monomer, commercially available methyl methacrylate (MMA) and a mixture of solid state synthesized eppawala hydroxyapatite powder with commercially available MMA were prepared as the direct substitution for bone cement. Then physical and chemical properties including composition, crystallinity, presence of functional groups, thermal stability, surface morphology, and microstructural features were examined compared to human bone. Results show that there is a close similarity between synthesized product and human bone and it has exhibited high thermal stability, good crystalline and porous properties than the commercial product. Finally, the study concluded that synthesized hydroxyapatite composite can be used directly as a substitution for commercial bone cement.

Comparative Study of Calcium Content on in vitro Biological and Antibacterial Properties of Silicon-Based Bioglass

The major aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CaO content on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation, MC3T3 cells cytotoxicity and proliferation as well as antibacterial efficiency of sol-gel derived SiO2–CaO–P2O5 ternary system. For this purpose, first two grades of bioactive glass (BG); BG-58s (mol%: 60%SiO2–36%CaO–4%P2O5) and BG-68s (mol%: 70%SiO2–26%CaO–4%P2O5)) were synthesized by sol-gel method. Second, the effect of CaO content in their composition on in vitro bioactivity was investigated by soaking the BG-58s and BG-68s powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time periods up to 14 days and followed by characterization inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Additionally, live/dead staining, 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays were conducted respectively, as qualitatively and quantitatively assess for cell viability, proliferation and differentiations of MC3T3 cells in presence of 58s and 68s BGs. Results showed that BG-58s with higher CaO content showed higher in vitro bioactivity with respect to BG-68s. Moreover, the dissolution rate was inversely proportional to oxygen density of the BG. Live/dead assay revealed that both 58s and 68s increased the mean number live cells which were in good accordance with MTT assay. Furthermore, BG-58s showed more potential antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria. Taken together, BG-58s with enhanced MC3T3 cells proliferation and ALP activity, acceptable bioactivity and significant high antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria is suggested as a suitable candidate in order to further functionalizing for delivery of therapeutic ions and growth factors in bone tissue engineering.

Development of a Biomaterial from Naturally Occurring Chloroapatite Mineral for Biomedical Applications

Hydroxyapatite is a bioceramic which can be used for applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its structural similarity with the mineral phase of mammalian bones and teeth. In this study, it was synthesized, chemically changing natural Eppawala chloroapatite mineral as a value-added product. Sol-gel approach and solid state sintering were used to synthesize products using diluted nitric acid, ethanol and calcium hydroxide under different conditions. Synthesized Eppawala hydroxyapatite powder was characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in order to find out its composition, crystallinity, presence of functional groups, bonding type, surface morphology, microstructural features, and thermal dependence and stability, respectively. The XRD results reflected the formation of a hexagonal crystal structure of hydroxyapatite. Elementary composition and microstructural features of products were discussed based on the XRF and SEM results of the synthesized hydroxyapatite powder. TGA and DSC results of synthesized products showed high thermal stability and good material stability in nature. Also, FTIR spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite from apatite via the presence of hydroxyl groups. Those results coincided with the FTIR results of mammalian bones including human bones. The study concludes that there is a possibility of producing hydroxyapatite using commercially available Eppawala chloroapatite in Sri Lanka.

Effect of the Experimental Conditions on the Adsorption Capacities in the Removal of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solutions by the Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders
In this study, Pb2+ uptake by the hydroxyapatite nanopowders (n-Hap) from aqueous solutions was investigated by using batch adsorption techniques. The adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature, and initial Pb2+ concentration. The results showed that the equilibrium time of adsorption was achieved within 60 min, and the effective pH was selected to be 5 (natural pH). The maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+ on n-Hap was found as 565 mg.g-1. It is believed that the results obtained for adsorption may provide a background for the detailed mechanism investigations and the pilot and industrial scale applications.
Petro-Mineralogical Studies of Phosphorite Deposit of Sallopat Block of Banswara District, Rajasthan, India

The Paleoproterozoic phosphorite deposit of Sallopat block of Banswara district of Rajasthan belongs to kalinjara formation of lunavada group of Aravalli Super Group. The phosphorites are found to occur as massive, brecciated, laminated and stromatolitic associated with calcareous quartzite, interbedded dolomite and multi coloured chert. The phosphorites are showing alternate brown and grey coloured concentric rims which are composed of phosphate, calcite and quartz minerals. Petro-mineralogical studies of phosphorite samples using petrological microscope, XRD, FEG- SEM and EDX reveal that apatite-(CaF) and apatite-(CaOH) are phosphate minerals which are intermixed with minor amount of carbonate materials. Sporadic findings of the uniform tiny granules of partially anisotropic apatite-(CaF) along with dolomite, calcite, quartz, muscovite, zeolite and other gangue minerals have been observed with the replacement of phosphate material by quartz and carbonate. The presence of microbial filaments of organic matter and alternate concentric rims of stromatolitic structure may suggest that the deposition of the phosphate took place in shallow marine oxidizing environmental conditions leading to the formation of phosphorite layers as primary biogenic precipitates by bacterial or algal activities. Different forms and texture of phosphate minerals may be due to environmental vicissitudes at the time of deposition followed by some replacement processes and biogenic activities.

The Effects and Interactions of Synthesis Parameters on Properties of Mg Substituted Hydroxyapatite
In this study, the effects and interactions of reaction time and capping agent assistance during sol-gel synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowder (MgHA) on hydroxyapatite (HA) to β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratio, Ca/P ratio and mean crystallite size was examined experimentally as well as through statistical analysis. MgHA nanopowders were synthesized by sol-gel technique at room temperature using aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as starting materials. The reaction time for sol-gel synthesis was varied between 15 to 60 minutes. Two process routes were followed with and without addition of triethanolamine (TEA) in the solutions. The elemental compositions of as-synthesized powders were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The functional groups present in the assynthesized MgHA nanopowders were established through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The amounts of phases present, Ca/P ratio and mean crystallite sizes of MgHA nanopowders were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The HA content in biphasic mixture of HA and β-TCP and Ca/P ratio in as-synthesized MgHA nanopowders increased effectively with reaction time of sols (p0.15, two way ANOVA). The MgHA nanopowders synthesized with TEA assistance exhibited 14 nm lower crystallite size (p
Efficacy of Combined CHAp and Lanthanum Carbonate in Therapy for Hyperphosphatemia

Although, lanthanum carbonate has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of the combination of Calcium hydroxyapatite (CHAp) and Lanthanum Carbonate (LaC) for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia on mice. CHAp was prepared by co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4, NH4OH with calcination at 1200ºC. Lanthanum carbonate was prepared by chemical method using NaHCO3 and LaCl3 at low pH environment, below 4.0. The structures were characterized by FTIR spectra and SEM -EDX analysis. The study group included 16 subjects-mice divided into four groups according to the administered substance: lanthanum carbonate (group A), CHAp (group B), lanthanum carbonate + CHAp (group C) and salt water (group D). The results indicate a phosphate decrease when subjects (mice) were treated with CHAp and lanthanum carbonate (0.5% CMC), in a single dose of 1500 mg/kg. Serum phosphate concentration decreased [(from 4.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL) to 4.05 ± 0.2 mg/dL), P < 0.01] in group A and in group C (to 3.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL) at 12 hours from the administration. The combination of CHAp and lanthanum carbonate is a suitable regimen for hyperphosphatemia treatment because it avoids both the hypercalcemia of CaCO3 and the adverse effects of CHAp.

Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Cement

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is one of the most attractive bioceramics due to its moldable and shape ability to fill complicated bony cavities or small dental defect positions. In this study, CPC was produced by using mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4O(PO4)2) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, CaHPO4) in equimolar ratio (1/1) with aqueous solutions of acetic acid (C2H4O2) and disodium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) in combination with sodium alginate in order to improve theirs moldable characteristic. The concentration of the aqueous solutions and sodium alginate were varied to investigate the effect of different aqueous solutions and alginate on properties of the cements. The cement paste was prepared by mixing cement powder (P) with aqueous solution (L) in a P/L ratio of 1.0g/0.35ml. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyses phase formation of the cements. Setting time and compressive strength of the set CPCs were measured using the Gilmore apparatus and Universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that CPCs could be produced by using both basic (Na2HPO4.2H2O) and acidic (C2H4O2) solutions. XRD results show the precipitation of hydroxyapatite in all cement samples. No change in phase formation among cements using difference concentrations of Na2HPO4.2H2O solutions. With increasing concentration of acidic solutions, samples obtained less hydroxyapatite with a high dicalcium phosphate dehydrate leaded to a shorter setting time. Samples with sodium alginate exhibited higher crystallization of hydroxyapatite than that of without alginate as a result of shorten setting time in a basic solution but a longer setting time in an acidic solution. The stronger cement was attained from samples using the acidic solution with sodium alginate; however the strength was lower than that of using the basic solution.

Effect of pH and Ionic Exchange on the Reactivity of Bioglass/Chitosan Composites Used as a Bone Graft Substitute

Chitosan (CH) material reinforced by bioactive glass (46S6) was fabricated. 46S6 containing 17% wt% CH was studied in vitro and in vivo. Physicochemical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis were used. The behavior of 46S6CH17 was studied by measuring the in situ pH in a SBF solution. The 46S6CH17 was implanted in the rat femoral condyl. In vitro 46S6CH17 gave an FTIR - spectrum in which three absorption bands with the maxima at 565, 603 and 1039cm-1 after 3 days of soaking in physiological solution. They are assigned to stretching vibrations of PO4^3- group in phosphate crystalline. Moreover, the pH measurement was decreased in the SBF solution. The stability of the calcium phosphate precipitation depended on the pH value. In vivo, a rise in the Ca and phosphate P ions concentrations in the implanted microenvironment was determined.

Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Functionalized Nanobiocomposite by Nano Hydroxyapatite
In this study, synthesis of biomemitic patterned nano hydroxyapatite-starch biocomposites using different concentration of starch to evaluate effect of polymer alteration on biocomposites structural properties has been reported. Formation of hydroxyapatite nano particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Size and morphology of the samples were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). It seems that by increasing starch content, the more active site of polymer (oxygen atoms) can be provided for interaction with Ca2+ followed by phosphate and hydroxyl group.
Dependence of Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Zn (II) Ions Sorption from Water on Particle Size of Natural Hydroxyapatite Extracted from Bone Ash
Heavy metals have bad effects on environment and soils and it can uptake by natural HAP .natural Hap is an inexpensive material that uptake large amounts of various heavy metals like Zn (II) .Natural HAP (N-HAP), extracted from bovine cortical bone ash, is a good choice for substitution of commercial HAP. Several experiments were done to investigate the sorption capacity of Zn (II) to N-HAP in various particles sizes, temperatures, initial concentrations, pH and reaction times. In this study, the sorption of Zinc ions from a Zn solution onto HAP particles with sizes of 1537.6 nm and 47.6 nm at three initial pH values of 4.50, 6.00 and 7.50 was studied. The results showed that better performance was obtained through a 47.6 nm particle size and higher pH values. The experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Arrhenius equations for equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. The analysis showed a maximum adsorption capacity of NHAP as being 1.562 mmol/g at a pH of 7.5 and small particle size. Kinetically, the prepared N-HAP is a feasible sorbent that retains Zn (II) ions through a favorable and spontaneous sorption process.
Biomimetic Preparation of Nano Hydroxyapatite in Gelatin-Starch Matrix
In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) in gelatin-starch matrix via biomimetic method. Characterization of the samples was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Size and morphology of the nHAp samples were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results reveal that the shape and morphology of nHAp is influenced by presence of biopolymers as template. Carbonyl and amino groups from gelatin and hydroxyl from starch play crucial roles in HAp formation on the surface of gelatin-starch.
Polymerisation Shrinkage of Light−Cured Hydroxyapatite (HA)−Reinforced Dental Composites
The dental composites are preferably used as filling materials due to their esthetic appearances. Nevertheless one of the major problems, during the application of the dental composites, is shape change named as “polymerisation shrinkage" affecting clinical success of the dental restoration while photo-polymerisation. Polymerisation shrinkage of composites arises basically from the formation of a polymer due to the monomer transformation which composes of an organic matrix phase. It was sought, throughout this study, to detect and evaluate the structural polymerisation shrinkage of prepared dental composites in order to optimize the effects of various fillers included in hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced dental composites and hence to find a means to modify the properties of these dental composites prepared with defined parameters. As a result, the shrinkage values of the experimental dental composites were decreased by increasing the filler content of composites and the composition of different fillers used had effect on the shrinkage of the prepared composite systems.
Preparation and Bioactivity Evaluation of Bone like Hydroxyapatite - Bioglass Composite
In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) composites are prepared on addition of 30%CaO-30%P2O5-40%Na2 O based glass to pure HA, in proportion of 2, 5, and 10 wt %. Each composition was sintered over a range of temperatures. The quantitative phase analysis was carried out using XRD and the microstructures were studied using SEM. The density, microhardness, and compressive strength have shown increase with the increasing amount of glass addition. The resulting composites have chemical compositions that are similar to the inorganic constituent of the mineral part of bone, and constitutes trace elements like Na. X-ray diffraction showed no decomposition of HA to secondary phases, however, the glass reinforced-HA composites contained a HA phase and variable amounts of tricalcium phosphate phase, depending on the amount of bioglass added. The HA-composite material exhibited higher compressive strength compared to sintered HA. The HA composite reinforced with 10 wt % bioglass showed highest bioactivity level.
Microstructural and In-Vitro Characterization of Glass-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite Composites
Commercial hydroxyapatite (HA) was reinforced by adding 2, 5, and 10 wt % of 28.5%CaO-28.5%P2O5-38%Na2 O- 5%CaF2 based glass and then sintered. Although HA shows good biocompatibility with the human body, its applications are limited to non load-bearing areas and coatings due to its poor mechanical properties. These mechanical properties can be improved substantially with addition of glass ceramics by sintering. In this study, the effects of sintering hydroxyapatite with above specified phosphate glass additions are quantified. Each composition was sintered over a range of temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the microstructure and phases of the composites. The density, microhardness, and compressive strength were measured using Archimedes Principle, Vickers Microhardness Tester (at 0.98 N), and Instron Universal Testing Machine (cross speed of 0.5 mm/min) respectively. These results were used to indicate which composition provided suitable material for use in hard tissue replacement. Composites containing 10 wt % glass additions formed dense HA/TCP (tricalcium phosphate) composite materials possessing good compressive strength and hardness than HA. In-vitro bioactivity was assessed by evaluating changes in pH and Ca2+ ion concentration of SBF-simulated body fluid on immersion of these composites in it for two weeks.
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