A Small-Scale Flexible Test Bench for the Investigation of Fertigation Strategies in Soilless Culture
In soilless culture, the management of the nutrient
solution is the most important aspect for crop growing. Fertigation
dose, frequency and nutrient concentration must be planned with
the objective of reaching an optimal crop growth by limiting
the utilized resources and the associated costs. The definition of
efficient fertigation strategies is a complex problem since fertigation
requirements vary on the basis of different factors, and crops are
sensitive to small variations on fertigation parameters. To the best
of author knowledge, a small-scale test bench that is flexible for
both nutrient solution preparation and precise irrigation is currently
missing, limiting the investigations in standard practices for soilless
culture. Starting from the analysis of the state of the art, this paper
proposes a small-scale system that is potentially able to concurrently
test different fertigation strategies. The system will be designed and
implemented throughout a three year project started on August 2018.
However, due to the importance of the topic within current challenges
as food security and climate change, this work is spread considering
that may inspire other universities and organizations.
Fuzzy Control of Thermally Isolated Greenhouse Building by Utilizing Underground Heat Exchanger and Outside Weather Conditions
A traditional greenhouse is a metal frame agricultural building used for cultivation plants in a controlled environment isolated from external climatic changes. Using greenhouses in agriculture is an efficient way to reduce the water consumption, where agriculture field is considered the biggest water consumer world widely. Controlling greenhouse environment yields better productivity of plants but demands an increase of electric power. Although various control approaches have been used towards greenhouse automation, most of them are applied to traditional greenhouses with ventilation fans and/or evaporation cooling system. Such approaches are still demanding high energy and water consumption. The aim of this research is to develop a fuzzy control system that minimizes water and energy consumption by utilizing outside weather conditions and underground heat exchanger to maintain the optimum climate of the greenhouse. The proposed control system is implemented on an experimental model of thermally isolated greenhouse structure with dimensions of 6x5x2.8 meters. It uses fans for extracting heat from the ground heat exchanger system, motors for automatic open/close of the greenhouse windows and LED as lighting system. The controller is integrated also with environmental condition sensors. It was found that using the air-to-air horizontal ground heat exchanger with 90 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness placed 2.5 m below the ground surface results in decreasing the greenhouse temperature of 3.28 ˚C which saves around 3 kW of consumed energy. It also eliminated the water consumption needed in evaporation cooling systems which are traditionally used for cooling the greenhouse environment.
Email Based Global Automation with Raspberry Pi and Control Circuit Module: Development of Smart Home Application
Global Automation is an emerging technology of today’s era and is based on Internet of Things (IoT). Global automation deals with the controlling of electrical appliances throughout the world. The fabrication of this system has been carried out with interfacing an electrical control system module to Raspberry Pi. An electrical control system module includes a relay driver mechanism through which appliances are controlled automatically in respective condition. In this research project, one email ID has been assigned to Raspberry Pi, and the users from different location having different email ID can mail to Raspberry Pi on assigned email address “[email protected]
” with subject heading “Device Control” with predefined command on compose email line. Also, a notification regarding current working condition of this system has been updated on respective user email ID. This approach is an innovative way of implementing smart automation system through which a user can control their electrical appliances like light, fan, television, refrigerator, etc. in their home with the use of email facility. The development of this project helps to enhance the concept of smart home application as well as industrial automation.
A Fully-Automated Disturbance Analysis Vision for the Smart Grid Based on Smart Switch Data
The deployment of smart grid devices such as smart meters and smart switches (SS) supported by a reliable and fast communications system makes automated distribution possible, and thus, provides great benefits to electric power consumers and providers alike. However, more research is needed before the full utility of smart switch data is realized. This paper presents new automated switching techniques using SS within the electric power grid. A concise background of the SS is provided, and operational examples are shown. Organization and presentation of data obtained from SS are shown in the context of the future goal of total automation of the distribution network. The description of application techniques, the examples of success with SS, and the vision outlined in this paper serve to motivate future research pertinent to disturbance analysis automation.
Experimental Simulation Set-Up for Validating Out-Of-The-Loop Mitigation when Monitoring High Levels of Automation in Air Traffic Control
An increasing degree of automation in air traffic will also change the role of the air traffic controller (ATCO). ATCOs will fulfill significantly more monitoring tasks compared to today. However, this rather passive role may lead to Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) effects comprising vigilance decrement and less situation awareness. The project MINIMA (Mitigating Negative Impacts of Monitoring high levels of Automation) has conceived a system to control and mitigate such OOTL phenomena. In order to demonstrate the MINIMA concept, an experimental simulation set-up has been designed. This set-up consists of two parts: 1) a Task Environment (TE) comprising a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) simulator as well as 2) a Vigilance and Attention Controller (VAC) based on neurophysiological data recording such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking devices. The current vigilance level and the attention focus of the controller are measured during the ATCO’s active work in front of the human machine interface (HMI). The derived vigilance level and attention trigger adaptive automation functionalities in the TE to avoid OOTL effects. This paper describes the full-scale experimental set-up and the component development work towards it. Hence, it encompasses a pre-test whose results influenced the development of the VAC as well as the functionalities of the final TE and the two VAC’s sub-components.
Automation of Web-Portal Construction Processes with SQL Server for the Black Sea Ecosystem Monitoring
The present article discusses design and development of Information System for monitoring ecology within the Black Sea basin of Georgia. Sea parameters, river, estuary, vulnerable district, water sample, etc. were considered as the major parameters of the sea ecosystem. A conceptual schema has been developed for the Black Sea ecosystem based on object-role model. The experimental database for the Black Sea ecosystem has been constructed using Ms SQL Server, while the object-role model NORMA has been developed using graphical instrument Ms Visual Studio within the integrated environment of .NET Framework 4.5. Web portal has been designed based on Ms SharePoint Server. The server database connection with web-portal has been carried out by means of External List of Ms SharePoint Server Designer.
, service-oriented architecture
, object-role modelling
, Black sea
, monitoring system
, automation of data processing.
Distributed Automation System Based Remote Monitoring of Power Quality Disturbance on LV Network
Electrical distribution networks are prone to power quality disturbances originating from the complexity of the distribution network, mode of distribution (overhead or underground) and types of loads used by customers. Data on the types of disturbances present and frequency of occurrence is needed for economic evaluation and hence finding solution to the problem. Utility companies have resorted to using secondary power quality devices such as smart meters to help gather the required data. Even though this approach is easier to adopt, data gathered from these devices may not serve the required purpose, since the installation of these devices in the electrical network usually does not conform to available PQM placement methods. This paper presents a design of a PQM that is capable of integrating into an existing DAS infrastructure to take advantage of available placement methodologies. The monitoring component of the design is implemented and installed to monitor an existing LV network. Data from the monitor is analyzed and presented. A portion of the LV network of the Electricity Company of Ghana is modeled in MATLAB-Simulink and analyzed under various earth fault conditions. The results presented show the ability of the PQM to detect and analyze PQ disturbance such as voltage sag and overvoltage. By adopting a placement methodology and installing these nodes, utilities are assured of accurate and reliable information with respect to the quality of power delivered to consumers.
Computer Aided Assembly Attributes Retrieval Methods for Automated Assembly Sequence Generation
Achieving an appropriate assembly sequence needs deep verification for its physical feasibility. For this purpose, industrial engineers use several assembly predicates; namely, liaison, geometric feasibility, stability and mechanical feasibility. However, testing an assembly sequence for these predicates requires huge assembly information. Extracting such assembly information from an assembled product is a time consuming and highly skillful task with complex reasoning methods. In this paper, computer aided methods are proposed to extract all the necessary assembly information from computer aided design (CAD) environment in order to perform the assembly sequence planning efficiently. These methods use preliminary capabilities of three-dimensional solid modelling and assembly modelling methods used in CAD software considering equilibrium laws of physical bodies.
Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing
Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.
RoboWeedSupport-Semi-Automated Unmanned Aerial System for Cost Efficient High Resolution in Sub-Millimeter Scale Acquisition of Weed Images
Recent advances in the Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) safety and perception systems enable safe low altitude autonomous terrain following flights recently demonstrated by the consumer DJI Mavic PRO and Phamtom 4 Pro drones. This paper presents the first prototype system utilizing this functionality in form of semi-automated UAS based collection of crop/weed images where the embedded perception system ensures a significantly safer and faster gathering of weed images with sub-millimeter resolution. The system is to be used when the weeds are at cotyledon stage and prior to the harvest recognizing the grass weed species, which cannot be discriminated at the cotyledon stage.
Multi-Level Meta-Modeling for Enabling Dynamic Subtyping for Industrial Automation
Modern industrial automation relies on service oriented concepts of Internet of Things (IoT) device modeling in order to provide a flexible and extendable environment for service meta-repository. However, state-of-the-art meta-modeling techniques prefer design-time modeling, which results in a heavy usage of class sometimes unnecessary static subtyping. Although this approach benefits from clear-cut object-oriented design principles, it also seals the model repository for further dynamic extensions. In this paper, a dynamic multi-level modeling approach is introduced that enables dynamic subtyping through a more relaxed partial instantiation mechanism. The approach is demonstrated on a simple sensor network example.
Automated User Story Driven Approach for Web-Based Functional Testing
Manual writing of test cases from functional requirements is a time-consuming task. Such test cases are not only difficult to write but are also challenging to maintain. Test cases can be drawn from the functional requirements that are expressed in natural language. However, manual test case generation is inefficient and subject to errors. In this paper, we have presented a systematic procedure that could automatically derive test cases from user stories. The user stories are specified in a restricted natural language using a well-defined template. We have also presented a detailed methodology for writing our test ready user stories. Our tool “Test-o-Matic” automatically generates the test cases by processing the restricted user stories. The generated test cases are executed by using open source Selenium IDE. We evaluate our approach on a case study, which is an open source web based application. Effectiveness of our approach is evaluated by seeding faults in the open source case study using known mutation operators. Results show that the test case generation from restricted user stories is a viable approach for automated testing of web applications.
A Calibration Device for Force-Torque Sensors
The paper deals with the existing methods of force-torque sensor calibration with a number of components from one to six, analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, the necessity of introduction of a calibration method. Calibration method and its constructive realization are also described here. A calibration method allows performing automated force-torque sensor calibration both with selected components of the main vector of forces and moments and with complex loading. Thus, two main advantages of the proposed calibration method are achieved: the automation of the calibration process and universality.
Wireless Power Transfer Application in GSM Controlled Robot for Home Automation
The aim of this paper is to combine the concept of wireless power transfer and GSM controlled robot for the application of home automation. The wireless power transfer concept can be well utilized to charge battery of the GSM controlled robot. When the robot has completed its task, it can come to the origin where it can charge itself. Robot can be charged wirelessly, when it is not performing any task. Combination of GSM controlled robot and wireless power transfer provides greater advantage such as; no wastage of charge stored in the battery when the robot is not doing any task. This provides greater reliability that at any instant, robot can do its work once it receives a message through GSM module. GSM module of the robot and user mobile phone must be interfaced properly, so that robot can do task when it receives message from same user mobile phone, not from any other phone. This paper approaches a robotic movement control through the smart phone and control of GSM robot is done by programming in Arduino environment. The commands used in controlling the robot movement are also explained.
Performance Comparison between Conventional and Flexible Box Erecting Machines Using Dispatching Rules
In this paper, we introduce a flexible box erecting
machine (BEM) that swiftly and automatically transforms cardboard
into a three dimensional box. Recently, the parcel service and
home-shopping industries have grown rapidly, and there is an
increasing need for various box types to ship various products.
However, workers cannot fold thousands of boxes manually in a day.
As such, automatic BEMs are garnering greater attention. This study
takes equipment operation into consideration as well as mechanical
improvements in order to design a BEM that is able to outperform its
conventional counterparts. We analyzed six dispatching rules – First In
First Out (FIFO), Shortest Processing Time (SPT), Earliest Due Date
(EDD), Setup Avoidance, EDD + SPT, and EDD + Setup Avoidance –
to determine which one was most suitable for BEM operation.
Consequently, SPT and Setup Avoidance were found to be the most
critical rules, followed by EDD + Setup Avoidance, EDD + SPT,
EDD, and FIFO. This hierarchy was valid for both our conventional
BEM and our new flexible BEM from the viewpoint of processing
time. We believe that this research can contribute to flexible BEM
management, which has the potential to increase productivity and
Manual to Automated Testing: An Effort-Based Approach for Determining the Priority of Software Test Automation
Test automation allows performing difficult and time
consuming manual software testing tasks efficiently, quickly and
repeatedly. However, development and maintenance of automated
tests is expensive, so it needs a proper prioritization what to automate
first. This paper describes a simple yet efficient approach for such
prioritization of test cases based on the effort needed for both manual
execution and software test automation. The suggested approach is
very flexible because it allows working with a variety of assessment
methods, and adding or removing new candidates at any time. The
theoretical ideas presented in this article have been successfully
applied in real world situations in several software companies by the
authors and their colleagues including testing of real estate websites,
cryptographic and authentication solutions, OSGi-based middleware
framework that has been applied in various systems for smart homes,
connected cars, production plants, sensors, home appliances, car head
units and engine control units (ECU), vending machines, medical
devices, industry equipment and other devices that either contain or
are connected to an embedded service gateway.
ConductHome: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes
This paper presents the interface ConductHome which
controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using
“invariant gesture protocols”. This interface is meant to simplify the
interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows
the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part
interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful
information for the user. An objective of this work is the
development of a natural/invariant/simple gesture control interface to
help elder people/people with disabilities.
Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools
Software testing has become a mandatory process in
assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is
needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the
software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced
in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test
activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test
reporting is being managed and automated using several test
automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.
A New Intelligent, Dynamic and Real Time Management System of Sewerage
The current tools for real time management of sewer
systems are based on two software tools: the software of weather
forecast and the software of hydraulic simulation. The use of the first
ones is an important cause of imprecision and uncertainty, the use of
the second requires temporal important steps of decision because of
their need in times of calculation. This way of proceeding fact that
the obtained results are generally different from those waited. The major idea of this project is to change the basic paradigm by
approaching the problem by the "automatic" face rather than by that
"hydrology". The objective is to make possible the realization of a
large number of simulations at very short times (a few seconds)
allowing to take place weather forecasts by using directly the real
time meditative pluviometric data. The aim is to reach a system
where the decision-making is realized from reliable data and where
the correction of the error is permanent. A first model of control laws was realized and tested with different
return-period rainfalls. The gains obtained in rejecting volume vary
from 19 to 100 %. The development of a new algorithm was then
used to optimize calculation time and thus to overcome the
subsequent combinatorial problem in our first approach. Finally, this
new algorithm was tested with 16- year-rainfall series. The obtained
gains are 40 % of total volume rejected to the natural environment
and of 65 % in the number of discharges.
Concept of Automation in Management of Electric Power Systems
An electric power system includes a generating, a
transmission, a distribution, and consumers subsystems. An electrical
power network in Tanzania keeps growing larger by the day and
become more complex so that, most utilities have long wished for
real-time monitoring and remote control of electrical power system
elements such as substations, intelligent devices, power lines,
capacitor banks, feeder switches, fault analyzers and other physical
facilities. In this paper, the concept of automation of management of
power systems from generation level to end user levels was
determined by using Power System Simulator for Engineering
(PSS/E) version 30.3.2.
Release Management with Continuous Delivery: A Case Study
We present our approach on using continuous delivery
pattern for release management. One of the key practices of agile and
lean teams is the continuous delivery of new features to stakeholders.
The main benefits of this approach lie in the ability to release new
applications rapidly which has real strategic impact on the
competitive advantage of an organization. Organizations that
successfully implement Continuous Delivery have the ability to
evolve rapidly to support innovation, provide stable and reliable
software in more efficient ways, decrease the amount of resources
need for maintenance, and lower the software delivery time and costs.
One of the objectives of this paper is to elaborate a case study where
IT division of Central Securities Depository Institution (MKK) of
Turkey apply Continuous Delivery pattern to improve release
Automated Testing of Workshop Robot Behavior
Autonomous mobile robots can be found in a wide
field of applications. Their types range from household robots over
workshop robots to autonomous cars and many more. All of them
undergo a number of testing steps during development, production
and maintenance. This paper describes an approach to improve
testing of robot behavior. It was inspired by the RoboCup @work
competition that itself reflects a robotics benchmark for industrial
robotics. There, scaled down versions of mobile industrial robots
have to navigate through a workshop-like environment or operation
area and have to perform tasks of manipulating and transporting
work pieces. This paper will introduce an approach of automated
vision-based testing of the behavior of the so called youBot robot,
which is the most widely used robot platform in the RoboCup
@work competition. The proposed system allows automated testing
of multiple tries of the robot to perform a specific missions and
it allows for the flexibility of the robot, e.g. selecting different
paths between two tasks within a mission. The approach is based
on a multi-camera setup using, off the shelf cameras and optical
markers. It has been applied for test-driven development (TDD) and
maintenance-like verification of the robot behavior and performance.
The Use of Ontology Framework for Automation Digital Forensics Investigation
One of the main goals of a computer forensic analyst is to determine the cause and effect of the acquisition of a digital evidence in order to obtain relevant information on the case is being handled. In order to get fast and accurate results, this paper will discuss the approach known as Ontology Framework. This model uses a structured hierarchy of layers that create connectivity between the variant and searching investigation of activity that a computer forensic analysis activities can be carried out automatically. There are two main layers are used, namely Analysis Tools and Operating System. By using the concept of Ontology, the second layer is automatically designed to help investigator to perform the acquisition of digital evidence. The methodology of automation approach of this research is by utilizing Forward Chaining where the system will perform a search against investigative steps and atomically structured in accordance with the rules of the Ontology.
Greenhouse Micro Climate Monitoring Based On WSN with Smart Irrigation Technique
Greenhouse is a building, which provides controlled climate conditions to the plants to keep them from external hard conditions. Greenhouse technology gives freedom to the farmer to select any crop type in any time during year. The quality and productivity of plants inside greenhouse is highly dependent on the management quality and a good management scheme is defined by the quality of the information collected from the greenhouse environment. Therefore, Continuous monitoring of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and soil moisture gives information to the grower to better understand, how each factor affects growth and how to manage maximal crop productiveness. In this piper, we designed and implemented climate monitoring with irrigation control system based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The designed system is characterized with friendly to use, easy to install by any greenhouse user, multi-sensing nodes, multi-PAN ID, low cast, water irrigation control and low operation complexity. The system consists of two node types (sensing and control) with star topology on one PAN ID. Moreover, greenhouse manager can modifying system parameters such as (sensing node addresses, irrigation upper and lower control limits) by updating corresponding data in SDRAM memory. In addition, the designed system uses 2*16 characters. LCD to display the micro climate parameters values of each plants row inside the greenhouse.
Design of Air Conditioning Automation for Patisserie Shopwindow
Having done in this study, air-conditioning
automation for patisserie shopwindow was designed. In the cooling
sector it is quite important to cooling up the air temperature in the
shopwindow within short time interval. Otherwise the patisseries
inside of the shopwindow will be spoilt in a few days. Additionally
the humidity is other important parameter for the patisseries kept in
shopwindow. It must be raised up to desired level in a quite short
time. Traditional patisserie shopwindows only allow controlling
temperature manually. There is no humidity control and humidity is
supplied by fans that are directed to the water at the bottom of the
shopwindows. In this study, humidity and temperature sensors
(SHT11), PIC, AC motor controller, DC motor controller, ultrasonic
nebulizer and other electronic circuit members were used to simulate
air conditioning automation for patisserie shopwindow in proteus
software package. The simulation results showed that temperature
and humidity values are adjusted in desired time duration by openloop
control technique. Outer and inner temperature and humidity
values were used for control mechanism.
Novel Trends in Manufacturing Systems with View on Implementation Possibilities of Intelligent Automation
The current trend of increasing quality and demands
of the final product is affected by time analysis of the entire
manufacturing process. The primary requirement of manufacturing is
to produce as many products as soon as possible, at the lowest
possible cost, but of course with the highest quality. Such
requirements may be satisfied only if all the elements entering and
affecting the production cycle are in a fully functional condition.
These elements consist of sensory equipment and intelligent control
elements that are essential for building intelligent manufacturing
systems. The intelligent manufacturing paradigm includes a new
approach to production system structure design. Intelligent behaviors
are based on the monitoring of important parameters of system and
its environment. The flexible reaction to changes. The realization and
utilization of this design paradigm as an "intelligent manufacturing
system" enables the flexible system reaction to production
requirement as soon as environmental changes too. Results of these
flexible reactions are a smaller layout space, be decreasing of
production and investment costs and be increasing of productivity.
Intelligent manufacturing system itself should be a system that can
flexibly respond to changes in entering and exiting the process in
interaction with the surroundings.
Automation of the Maritime UAV Command, Control, Navigation Operations, Simulated in Real-Time Using Kinect Sensor: A Feasibility Study
This paper describes the process used in the
automation of the Maritime UAV commands using the Kinect sensor.
The AR Drone is a Quadrocopter manufactured by Parrot  to be
controlled using the Apple operating systems such as iPhones and
Ipads. However, this project uses the Microsoft Kinect SDK and
Microsoft Visual Studio C# (C sharp) software, which are compatible
with Windows Operating System for the automation of the navigation
and control of the AR drone.
The navigation and control software for the Quadrocopter runs on
a windows 7 computer. The project is divided into two sections; the
Quadrocopter control system and the Kinect sensor control system.
The Kinect sensor is connected to the computer using a USB cable
from which commands can be sent to and from the Kinect sensors.
The AR drone has Wi-Fi capabilities from which it can be connected
to the computer to enable transfer of commands to and from the
The project was implemented in C#, a programming language that
is commonly used in the automation systems. The language was
chosen because there are more libraries already established in C# for
both the AR drone and the Kinect sensor.
The study will contribute toward research in automation of
systems using the Quadrocopter and the Kinect sensor for navigation
involving a human operator in the loop. The prototype created has
numerous applications among which include the inspection of vessels
such as ship, airplanes and areas that are not accessible by human
An Automated Approach for Assembling Modular Fixtures Using SolidWorks
Modular fixtures (MFs) are very important tools in
manufacturing processes in terms of reduction the cost and the
production time. This paper introduces an automated approach for
assembling MFs elements by employing SolidWorks as a powerful
3D CAD software. Visual Basic (VB) programming language was
applied integrating with SolidWorks API (Application programming
interface) functions. This integration allowed creating plug-in file and
generating new menus in the SolidWorks environment. The menus
allow the user to select, insert, and assemble MFs elements.
CASTE: a Cloud-Based Automatic Software Test Environment
This paper presents the design and implementation of CASTE, a Cloud-based automatic software test environment. We first present the architecture of CASTE, then the main packages and classes of it are described in detail. CASTE is built upon a private Infrastructure as a Service platform. Through concentrated resource management of virtualized testing environment and automatic execution control of test scripts, we get a better solution to the testing resource utilization and test automation problem. Experiments on CASTE give very appealing results.
Modeling and Implementation of an Oceanic- Robot Glider
A glider is in essence an unpowered vehicle and in this project we designed and built an oceanic glider, designed to operate underwater. This Glider was designed to collect ocean data such as temperature, pressure and (in future measures physical dimensions of the operating environment) and output this data to an external source. Development of the Oceanic Glider required research into various actuation systems that control buoyancy, pitch and yaw and the dynamics of these systems. It also involved the design and manufacture of the Glider and the design and implementation of a controller that enabled the Glider to navigate and move in an appropriate manner.