Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 32

32
10010247
An Overview of Georgia’s Economic Growth Since 2012: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities for Future Development
Authors:
Abstract:

After the Rose Revolution of 2003, Georgia has achieved an unparalleled socioeconomic success. However, economic growth since 2012 has been sluggish and certainly not enough to rapidly improve the county’s standard of living that still remains substantially low compared to that in developed nations. Recent poor economic performance has shown that some key challenges need to be addressed if Georgia is to achieve high future economic growth that will decrease the poverty rate and create a middle class in the country. This paper offers in detail analysis of the economic performance of Georgia since 2012 and identifies key challenges facing the country’s economy. The main challenge going forward will be transforming Georgia from a consumption-driven to a production-oriented economy. It is identified that mobilizing domestic investment through savings, attracting foreign investment in tradable sectors and expanding the country’s export base will be crucial in the facilitation of the above-mentioned structural transformation. As the outcome of the research, the paper suggests a strategy for accelerating Georgia’ future economic growth and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

31
10010044
21st Century Islam: Global Challenges of Islamic Representation and Knowledge Acquisition
Abstract:

This research examined and outlined some of the challenges facing Islam and Muslims in the 21st century, considering global Islamic representation and knowledge acquisition as key objectives. It was observed that the Western media misrepresentation of Islam and the Western ethos embodied by the acquisition of western civilisation are major challenges faced by Islam and Muslims today. The problem of sectarianism, decline in the socio-economic power of Muslim communities and the archaic nature of the Islamic creed were recorded as major actors to the evolving global Islamic issues. It was therefore concluded that Islam is not the reason for these challenges, rather the action of some Muslims and non-Muslims were the contributing factors to the pandemics faced by Islam and Muslims. Some relevant recommendations were made to the Islamic world that could serve as effectual solutions to these lingering problems.

30
10009653
Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions
Abstract:
The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.
29
10009142
CoP-Networks: Virtual Spaces for New Faculty’s Professional Development in the 21st Higher Education
Abstract:
The 21st century higher education and globalization challenge new faculty members to build effective professional networks and partnership with industry in order to accelerate their growth and success. This creates the need for community of practice (CoP)-oriented development approaches that focus on cognitive apprenticeship while considering individual predisposition and future career needs. This work adopts data mining, clustering analysis, and social networking technologies to present the CoP-Network as a virtual space that connects together similar career-aspiration individuals who are socially influenced to join and engage in a process for domain-related knowledge and practice acquisitions. The CoP-Network model can be integrated into higher education to extend traditional graduate and professional development programs.
28
10007742
Lack of BIM Training: Investigating Practical Solutions for the State of Kuwait
Abstract:

Despite the evident benefits of building information modeling (BIM) to the construction industry, it faces significant implementation challenges in the State of Kuwait. This study investigates the awareness of construction stakeholders of BIM implementation challenges, and identifies various solutions to overcome these challenges. Specifically, the main objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the barriers that deter utilization of BIM, (2) examine the awareness of engineers, architects, and construction stakeholders of these barriers, and (3) identify practical solutions to facilitate BIM utilization. A questionnaire survey was designed to collect data on the aforementioned objectives from local companies and senior BIM experts. It was found that engineers are highly aware of BIM implementation barriers. In addition, it was concluded from the questionnaire that the biggest barrier is the lack of BIM training. Based on expert feedback, the study concluded with a number of recommendations on how to overcome the barriers of BIM utilization. This should prove useful to the construction industry stakeholders and can lead to significant changes to design and construction practices.

27
10007195
Innovation Strategies and Challenges in Emerging Economies: The Case of Research and Technology Organizations in Turkey
Authors:
Abstract:

Innovation is highly critical for every company, especially for technology-based organizations looking to sustain their competitive advantage. However, this is not an easy task. Regardless of the size of the enterprise, market and location, all organizations face numerous challenges. Even though huge barriers to innovation exist in different countries, firm- and industry-specific challenges can be distinguished. This paper examines innovation strategies and obstacles to innovation in research and technology organizations (RTO) of Turkey. From the most important to the least, nine different challenges are ranked according the results of this survey. The findings reveal that to take the lead in innovation, financial constraint is the biggest challenge, which is consistent with the related literature. It ranked number one in this study. Beyond that, based on a sample of 40 RTOs, regional challenges such as underdeveloped regional innovation ecosystem plays a significant role in hampering innovation. Most of the organizations (55%) embrace an incremental approach to innovation, while only few pursue radical shifts. About 40% of the RTOs focus on product innovation, and 27.5% of them concentrate on technological innovation, while a very limited number aim for operational excellence and customer engagement as the focus of their strategic innovation efforts.

26
10006551
The Importance of Intellectual Property for Universities of Technology in South Africa: Challenges Faced and Proposed Way Forward
Abstract:
Intellectual property should be a day-to-day business decision due to its value, but increasingly, a number of institution are still not aware of the importance. Intellectual Property (IP) and its value are often not adequately appreciated. In the increasingly knowledge-driven economy, IP is a key consideration in day-to-day business decisions because new ideas and products appear almost daily in the market, which results in continuous innovation and research. Therefore, this paper will focus on the importance of IP for universities of technology and also further demonstrates how IP can become an economic tool and the challenges faced by these universities in implementing an IP system.
25
10006565
Supporting Embedded Medical Software Development with MDevSPICE® and Agile Practices
Abstract:

Emerging medical devices are highly relying on embedded software that runs on the specific platform in real time. The development of embedded software is different from ordinary software development due to the hardware-software dependency. MDevSPICE® has been developed to provide guidance to support such development. To increase the flexibility of this framework agile practices have been introduced. This paper outlines the challenges for embedded medical device software development and the structure of MDevSPICE® and suggests a suitable combination of agile practices that will help to add flexibility and address corresponding challenges of embedded medical device software development.

24
10005938
Knowledge Management Challenges within Traditional Procurement System
Abstract:

In the construction industry, project members are conveyor of project knowledge which is, often, not managed properly to be used in future projects. As construction projects are temporary and unique, project members are willing to be recruited once a project is completed. Therefore, poor management of knowledge across construction projects will lead to a considerable amount of knowledge loss; the ignoring of which would be detrimental to project performance. This issue is more prominent in projects undertaken through the traditional procurement system, as this system does not incentives project members for integration. Thus, disputes exist between the design and construction phases based on the poor management of knowledge between those two phases. This paper aims to highlight the challenges of the knowledge management that exists within the traditional procurement system. Expert interviews were conducted and challenges were identified and analysed by the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach in order to summarise the relationships among them. Two identified key challenges are the Culture of an Organisation and Knowledge Management Policies. A knowledge of the challenges and their relationships will help project manager and stakeholders to have a better understanding of the importance of knowledge management.

23
10005537
Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy
Abstract:
Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.
22
10005608
Context, Challenges, Constraints and Strategies of Non-Profit Organisations in Responding to the Needs of Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Cape Town, South Africa
Abstract:

While South Africa has been the chosen host country for over 1,2 million asylum seekers/refugees it has at the same time, been struggling to address the needs of its own people who are still trapped in poverty with little prospects of employment. This limited exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken in Cape Town with a purposive sample of 21 key personnel from various NPOs providing a service to asylum seekers/refugees. Individual in-depth face to face interviews were carried out and the main findings were: Some of the officials at the Department of Home Affairs, health personnel, landlords, school principals, employers, bank officials and police officers were prejudicial in their practices towards asylum seekers/ refugees. The major constraints experienced by NPOs in this study were linked to a lack of funding and minimal government support, strained relationship with the Department of Home Affairs and difficulties in accessing refugees. And finally, the strategies adopted by these NPOs included networking with other service providers, engaging in advocacy, raising community awareness and liaising with government. Thus, more focused intervention strategies are needed to build social cohesion, address prejudices which fuels xenophobic attacks and raise awareness/educate various sectors about refugee rights. Given this burgeoning global problem, social work education and training should include curriculum content on migrant issues. Furthermore, larger studies using mixed methodology approaches would yield more nuanced data and provide for more strategic interventions.

21
10004802
Development of Personal and Social Identity in Immigrant Deaf Adolescents
Abstract:

Identity development in adolescence is characterized by many risks and challenges, and becomes even more complex by the situation of migration and deafness. In particular, the condition of the second generation of migrant adolescents involves the comparison between the family context in which everybody speaks a language and deals with a specific culture (usually parents’ and relatives’ original culture), the social context (school, peer groups, sports groups), where a foreign language is spoken and a new culture is faced, and finally in the context of the “deaf” world. It is a dialectic involving unsolved differences that have to be treated in a discontinuous process, which will give complex outcomes and chances depending on the process of elaboration of the themes of growth and development, culture and deafness. This paper aims to underline the problems and opportunities for each issue which immigrant deaf adolescents must deal with. In particular, it will highlight the importance of a multifactorial approach for the analysis of personal resources (both intra-psychic and relational); the level of integration of the family of origin in the migration context; the elaboration of the migration event, and finally, the tractability of the condition of deafness. Some psycho-educational support objectives will be also highlighted for the identity development of deaf immigrant adolescents, with particular emphasis on the construction of the adolescents’ useful abilities to decode complex emotions, to develop self-esteem and to get critical thoughts about the inevitable attempts to build their identity. Remarkably, and of importance, the construction of flexible settings which support adolescents in a supple, “decentralized” way in order to avoid the regressive defenses that do not allow for the development of an authentic self.

20
10004457
A Survey on Requirements and Challenges of Internet Protocol Television Service over Software Defined Networking
Abstract:

Over the last years, the demand for high bandwidth services, such as live (IPTV Service) and on-demand video streaming, steadily and rapidly increased. It has been predicted that video traffic (IPTV, VoD, and WEB TV) will account more than 90% of global Internet Protocol traffic that will cross the globe in 2016. Consequently, the importance and consideration on requirements and challenges of service providers faced today in supporting user’s requests for entertainment video across the various IPTV services through virtualization over Software Defined Networks (SDN), is tremendous in the highest stage of attention. What is necessarily required, is to deliver optimized live and on-demand services like Internet Protocol Service (IPTV Service) with low cost and good quality by strictly fulfill the essential requirements of Clients and ISP’s (Internet Service Provider’s) in the same time. The aim of this study is to present an overview of the important requirements and challenges of IPTV service with two network trends on solving challenges through virtualization (SDN and Network Function Virtualization). This paper provides an overview of researches published in the last five years.

19
10003052
Challenges and Opportunities of Utilization of Social Media by Business Education Students in Nigeria Universities
Abstract:
Global economy today is full of sophistication. All over the world, business and marketing practices are undergoing unprecedented transformation. In realization of this fact, the federal government of Nigeria has put in place a robust transformation agenda in order to put Nigeria in a better position to be a competitive player and in the process transform all sectors of its economy. New technologies, especially the Internet, are the driving force behind this transformation. However, technology has inadvertently affected the way businesses are done thus necessitating the acquisition of new skills. In developing countries like Nigeria, citizens are still battling with effective application of those technologies. Obviously, students of business education need to acquire relevant business knowledge to be able to transit into the world of work on graduation from school and compete favorably in the labor market. Therefore, effective utilization of social media by both teachers and students can help extensively in empowering students with the needed skills. Social media which is a group of Internet-based applications built on the ideological foundations of Web 2.0, that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content, and if incorporated into the classroom experience may be the needed answer to unemployment and poverty in Nigeria as beneficiaries can easily connect with existing and potential enterprises and customers, engage with them and reinforce mutual business benefits. Challenges and benefits of social media use in education in Nigeria universities were revealed in this study.
18
10002770
Upon Further Reflection: More on the History, Tripartite Role, and Challenges of the Professoriate
Abstract:
This paper expands on the role of the professor by detailing the origins of the profession, adding some of the unique contributions of North American universities as well as some of the best practice recommendations to the unique tripartite role of the professor. It describes current challenges to the profession including the ever-controversial student rating of professors. It continues with the significance of empowerment to the role of the professor. It concludes with a predictive prescription for the future of the professoriate and the role of the university-level educational administrator toward that end.
17
9999238
SCM Challenges and Opportunitiesin the Timber Construction Sector
Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to identify the main challenges faced by companies in the timber construction sector and to provide improvement opportunities that can be implemented on a short-, medium- and long-term basis. To identify the challenges and propose actions for each company a literature review and a multiple case research were conducted using the Quick Scan Audit Methodology. Finally, the findings and outcomes are compared with each other to support companies in the timer construction sector when implementing and restructuring their day-to-day activities.

16
9999489
Solid Waste Management in Adama, Ethiopia: Aspects and Challenges
Abstract:

The ever increasing amount of solid waste (SW) generated which is exacerbated by lack of proper waste management system is of growing concern worldwide and in major cities in developing countries due to its social, economic and environmental implications. This study attempts to describe the aspects of solid waste management (SWM) in Adama, one of the fast urbanizing cities in Ethiopia, and highlights the challenges thereof. Data were gathered through interview supplemented by field observation and self-administered questionnaire. Then, the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. In addition, secondary data were gathered from documents. Findings revealed that the current SWM practice couldn’t cope with the fast urbanizing needs and the rapid population growth exhibited by the city. Besides, major factors contributing to the inefficient system were identified. The study would provide practical insights to decision makers in developing a sustainable SWM system leading to minimized risk in the city.

15
9999094
Managing IT Departments in Higher Education Institutes: Coping with the Exponentially Growing Needs and Expectations
Abstract:

Information technology is changing rapidly and the users’ expectations are also growing. Dealing with these changes in information technology, while satisfying the users’ needs and expectations is a big challenge. IT managers need to explore new mechanisms/strategies to enable them to cope with such challenges.

 The objectives of this research are to identify the significant challenges that might face IT managers in higher education institutes in the face of the high and ever growing customer expectations and to propose possible solutions to cope with such high-speed changes in information technology.

To achieve these objectives, interviews with the IT professionals from different higher education institutes in Oman were conducted. In addition, documentation (printed and online) related to these institutions were studied and an intensive literature review of published work was examined.

The findings of this research are expected to give a better understanding of the challenges that might face the IT managers at higher education institutes. This acquired understanding is expected to highlight the importance of being adaptable and fast in keeping up with the ever-growing technological changes. Moreover, adopting different tools and technologies could assist IT managers in developing their organisations’ IT policies and strategies.

14
9997324
Challenges for Rural School Leaders in a Developing Context: The Case of Solomon Islands
Abstract:

Thirty-eight rural school leaders in Solomon Islands responded to a questionnaire aimed at identifying their perceptions of work challenges. The data analysis points to an overwhelming percentage of school leaders feeling they face multifaceted problems in their work settings, including such challenges as untrained teachers, lack of funding, limited learning and teaching resources, and land disputes. The latter in particular is beyond the school leader’s jurisdiction; addressing it needs urgent attention from the principal stakeholder(s). Such challenges, seemingly tangential to the business of schooling, inadvertently affect the provision of good-quality education. The findings demonstrate that contextual challenges raise questions about what powers leadership at school level has to deal with some of them. The suggestion is advanced for the significant place-conscious leadership development to help address some community and cultural challenges. Implications of this paper are likely to be relevant to other similar contexts in the Pacific region and beyond.

13
9996702
The Link between Money Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Vector Error Correction Model Approach
Abstract:

The paper examines the impact of money market on economic growth in Nigeria using data for the period 1980-2012. Econometrics techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares Method, Johanson’s Co-integration Test and Vector Error Correction Model were used to examine both the long-run and short-run relationship. Evidence from the study suggest that though a long-run relationship exists between money market and economic growth, but the present state of the Nigerian money market is significantly and negatively related to economic growth. The link between the money market and the real sector of the economy remains very weak. This implies that the market is not yet developed enough to produce the needed growth that will propel the Nigerian economy because of several challenges. It was therefore recommended that government should create the appropriate macroeconomic policies, legal framework and sustain the present reforms with a view to developing the market so as to promote productive activities, investments, and ultimately economic growth.

12
17212
Using Cloud Computing for E-Government: Challenges and Benefits
Abstract:

Cloud computing is a style of computing which is formed from the aggregation and development of technologies such as grid computing distributed computing, parallel computing and service-oriented architecture. And its aim is to provide computing, communication and storage resources in a safe environment based on service, as fast as possible, which is virtually provided via Internet platform. Considering that the provided Services in e-government are available via the Internet, thus cloud computing can be used in the implementation of e-government architecture and provide better service with the lowest economic cost using its benefits. In this paper, the Methods of using cloud computing in e-government has been studied and it's been attempted to identify the challenges and benefits of the cloud to get used in the e-government and proposals have been offered to overcome its shortcomings, encourage and partnership of governments and people to use this economical and new technology.

11
10308
Making India a Telecom Manufacturing Hub: Emerging Issues and Challenges
Abstract:
Indian telecom services industry has been witnessing a stupendous growth since 1990s. Over the years, subscriber base has grown steadily and it crossed 950 million marks in March 2012. India with second largest subscriber base also offers one of the lowest call tariffs in the world. But in the euphoria of high growth in services, the equipment manufacturing received least priority. India mainly depends on imported components from China. Of late, it is realized that lack of domestic manufacturing may pose a serious challenge to India-s continued success in the telecom sector. Therefore, the National Telecom Policy 2012 aims at developing a strong equipment manufacturing base within India. This paper realistically assesses India-s true potential in equipment manufacturing and seeks to identify the emerging issues and challenges before the Indian telecom equipment manufacturing sector while it tries to make a transition from an import-dependent industry to a global manufacturing hub.
10
9996969
Challenges and Opportunities in Nuclear Energy: Promising Option in Turkey?
Abstract:

Dramatic growth in the population requires a parallel increase in the total installed capacity of electricity. Diversity, independency of resources and global warming call for installing renewable and nuclear energy plants. Several types of energy plants exist in Turkey; however, nuclear energy with its several attractive features is not utilized at all. This study presents the available energy resources in Turkey and reviews major challenges and opportunities in nuclear energy. At the end of this paper, some conclusions are stated.

9
12677
Towards Cloud Computing Anatomy
Abstract:
Cloud Computing has recently emerged as a compelling paradigm for managing and delivering services over the internet. The rise of Cloud Computing is rapidly changing the landscape of information technology, and ultimately turning the longheld promise of utility computing into a reality. As the development of Cloud Computing paradigm is speedily progressing, concepts, and terminologies are becoming imprecise and ambiguous, as well as different technologies are interfering. Thus, it becomes crucial to clarify the key concepts and definitions. In this paper, we present the anatomy of Cloud Computing, covering its essential concepts, prominent characteristics, its affects, architectural design and key technologies. We differentiate various service and deployment models. Also, significant challenges and risks need are tackled in order to guarantee the long-term success of Cloud Computing. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the anatomy of Cloud Computing and pave the way for further research in this area.
8
1681
A study of the ERP Project Life Cycles in Small-and-Medium–Sized Enterprises: Critical Issues and Lessons Learned
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to increase our knowledge as regards how Small-and-Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) tackle ERP implementation projects to achieve successful adoption and use of these systems within the organization. SMEs have scare resources to handle these kinds of projects which have proved to be risky and costly. There are several studies focusing on ERP implementation in larger companies, however, few studies report on challenges experienced by SMEs. Our research seeks to bridge this gap. Through a multiple case study of four companies, we identified challenges and critical elements within the different phases (pre-implementation, implementation and post-implementation) of the ERP life cycle. To interpret our findings, we utilize a well-know ERP life cycle model and critical success factors developed for larger companies which are reported in former research literature. We discuss if these models are relevant for SMEs and suggest additional critical elements identified in this study to make a framework more adapted to the SME context.
7
15886
Good Practices in the Development of the Erasmus Mundus Master program in Color in Informatics and Media Technology
Abstract:
The main objective of this paper is to identify and disseminate good practice in quality assurance and enhancement as well as in teaching and learning at master level. This paper focuses on the experience of the Erasmus Mundus Master program CIMET (Color in Informatics and Media Technology). Amongst topics covered, we discuss the adjustments necessary to a curriculum designed for excellent international students and their preparation for a global labor market.
6
8762
Challenges to Enable Quick Start of an Environmental Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network Technology
Abstract:
With the advancement of wireless sensor network technology, its practical utilization is becoming an important challange. This paper overviews my past environmental monitoring project, and discusses the process of starting the monitoring by classifying it into four steps. The steps to start environmental monitoring can be complicated, but not well discussed by researchers of wireless sensor network technology. This paper demonstrates our activity and challenges in each of the four steps to ease the process, and argues future challenges to enable quick start of environmental monitoring.
5
12510
The Used of Environmental Ethics in Methods and Techniques of Environmental Management
Abstract:
Although, it is a long time that human know about the importance of environment in life, but at the last decade of 20 century, the space that was full of hot scientific, collegial and political were made in environmental challenge, So much that, this problem not only disarrange the peace and security of life, but also it has threatened human existence. One of the problems in last years that are significant for authorities is unsatisfactory achieved results against of using huge cost for magnificent environmental projects. This subject leads thinker to this thought that for solving the environmental problems it is needed new methods include of sociology, ethics and philosophic, etc. methods apart of technical affairs. Environment ethics is a new branch of philosophic ethics discussion that discusses about the ethics relationship between humans and universe that is around them. By notifying to the above considered affairs, in today world, necessity of environmental ethics for environment management is reduplicated. In the following the article has been focused on environmental ethics role and environmental management methods and techniques for developing it.
4
11597
The Prospects and Challenges of Open Learning and Distance Education in Malawi
Abstract:
Open and distance learning is a fairly new concept in Malawi. The major public provider, the Malawi College of Distance Education, rolled out its activities only about 40 years ago. Over the years, the demand for distance education has tremendously increased. The present government has displayed positive political will to uplift ODL as outlined in the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy as well as the National Education Sector Plan. A growing national interest in education coupled with political stability and a booming ICT industry also raise hope for success. However, a fragile economy with a GNI per capita of -US$ 200 over the last decade, poor public funding, erratic power supply and lack of expertise put strain on efforts towards the promotion of ODL initiatives. Despite the challenges, the nation appears determined to go flat out and explore all possible avenues that could revolutionise education access and equity through ODL.
3
5629
Challenges of e-Government Services Adoption in Saudi Arabia from an e-Ready Citizen Perspective
Abstract:
More and more governments around the world are introducing e-government as a means of reducing costs, improving services, saving time and increasing effectiveness and efficiency in the public sector Therefore e-government has been identified as one of the top priorities for Saudi government and all its agencies. However, the adoption of e-government is facing many challenges and barriers such as technological, cultural, organizational, and social issues which must be considered and treated carefully by any government contemplating its adoption. This paper reports on a pilot study amongst online (e-ready) citizens to identify the challenges and barriers that affect the adoption of e-government services especially from their perspective in Saudi society. Based on the analysis of data collected from an online survey the researcher was able to identify some of the important barriers and challenges from the e-ready citizen perspective. As a result, this study has generated a list of possible strategies to move towards successful adoption of egovernment services in Saudi Arabia.
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