The Internet of Healthcare Things: A European Perspective and a Review of Ethical Concerns
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a disruptive technological paradigm that is at the center of the digital evolution by integrating physical and virtual worlds leading to the creation of extended interconnected ecosystems that are characterized as smart environments. The concept of the IoT has a broad range of applications in different industries including the healthcare sector. The Internet of Healthcare Things (IoHT), a branch of the IoT, is expected to bring promising benefits to all involved stakeholders and accelerate the revolution of the healthcare sector through a transition towards preventive and personalized medicine. The socio-economic challenges that the healthcare sector is facing further emphasize the need for a radical transformation of healthcare systems in both developed and developing countries with the role of pervasive technological innovations, such as IoHT, recognized as key to counteract the relevant challenges. Besides the number of potential opportunities that IoHT presents, there are fundamental ethical concerns that need to be considered and addressed in relation to the application of IoHT. This paper contributes to the discussion of the emerging topic of IoHT by providing an overview of the role and potential of IoHT, highlighting the characteristics of the current and future healthcare landscape, reporting on the up-to-date status of IoHT in Europe and reflecting upon existing research in the ethics of IoHT by incorporating additional ethical dimensions that have been ignored which can provide pathways for future research in the field.
The Emerging Global Judicial Ethics: Issues and Problems
In many states around the world, actions to improve judicial ethics are developing significantly through the production of professional standards for judges. The quest to improve the ethics of judges is legitimate. However, as this development tends to be very important at the moment, some risks it presents must be highlighted. Indeed, if the objective of improving Judges’ Ethics is legitimate, it can also lead to banalization of justice, reinforcement of criticism against the judiciary and to broach incidentally the question of the limits of judgment, which is most perilous for the independence of the judiciary. This research, based on case studies, interviews with judges and an analysis of the literature on this topic (mainly from the United States of America and European Union Member States), tends to draw attention to the fact that the result of the development of these professional standards is that the ethical requirements of judges become ethical requirements of justice, which is an undesirable effect of which we must be aware, in order to prevent it.
Regulation, Co-Regulation and Self-Regulation of Civil Unmanned Aircrafts in Europe
Safety and security concerns play a key role during
the design of civil UAs (aircraft controlled by a pilot who is not onboard
it) by the producers and the offer of different services by the
operators. At present, European countries have fragmented
regulations about the manufacture and use of civil drones, therefore
the European institutions are trying to approach all these regulations
into a common one. In this sense, not only law but also ethics can
give guidelines to the industry in order to obtain better reports from
their clients. With our results, we would like to give advice to the
European industry, as well as give new insights to the academia and
Application of Western and Islamic Philosophy to Business Ethics
The world has witnessed the collapse of many corporate giants as a result of unethical behavior in recent decades. This has induced a series of questions by the global community on why such occurrences could happen, even with corporate governance in place. This paper attempts to propose a philosophical approach from an Islamic perspective to be consolidated with current corporate governance in order to confront contemporary dilemmas. In this paper, ethical theories are presented as a discussion followed by their applications to modern cases of financial collapses. Virtue ethics by Aristotle, justice and fairness by John Rawls, deontology by Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill, are the four theories which can then be contrasted with the paradigm of Muslim scholars. Despite the differences between the fundamental principles of Islamic and Western worldviews, their ethical theories are aimed at making right decisions and solving ethical dilemmas based on what is good for society. Therefore, Islamic principles should be synthesized with Western philosophy to form a more coherent framework. The integration of Islamic and western ethical theories into business is important for sound corporate governance.
Representations of Childcare Robots as a Controversial Issue
This paper interrogates online representations of robot companions for children, including promotional material by manufacturers, media articles and technology blogs. The significance of the study lies in its contribution to understanding attitudes to robots. The prospect of childcare robots is particularly controversial ethically, and is associated with emotive arguments. The sampled material is restricted to relatively recent posts (the past three years) though the analysis identifies both continuous and changing themes across the past decade. The method extrapolates social representations theory towards examining the ways in which information about robotic products is provided for the general public. Implications for social acceptance of robot companions for the home and robot ethics are considered.
Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility: Research on the Interconnection of Both Concepts and Its Impact on Non-Profit Organizations
The aim of non-profit organizations (NPO) is to provide services and goods for its clientele, with profit being a minor objective. By having this definition as the basic purpose of doing business, it is obvious that the goal of an organisation is to serve several bottom lines and not only the financial one. This approach is underpinned by the non-distribution constraint which means that NPO are allowed to make profits to a certain extent, but not to distribute them. The advantage is that there are no single shareholders who might have an interest in the prosperity of the organisation: there is no pie to divide. The gained profits remain within the organisation and will be reinvested in purposeful projects. Good governance is mandatory to support the aim of NPOs. Looking for a measure of good governance the principals of corporate governance (CG) will come in mind. The purpose of CG is direction and control, and in the field of NPO, CG is enlarged to consider the relationship to all important stakeholders who have an impact on the organisation. The recognition of more relevant parties than the shareholder is the link to corporate social responsibility (CSR). It supports a broader view of the bottom line: It is no longer enough to know how profits are used but rather how they are made. Besides, CSR addresses the responsibility of organisations for their impact on society. When transferring the concept of CSR to the non-profit area it will become obvious that CSR with its distinctive features will match the aims of NPOs. As a consequence, NPOs who apply CG apply also CSR to a certain extent. The research is designed as a comprehensive theoretical and empirical analysis. First, the investigation focuses on the theoretical basis of both concepts. Second, the similarities and differences are outlined and as a result the interconnection of both concepts will show up. The contribution of this research is manifold: The interconnection of both concepts when applied to NPOs has not got any attention in science yet. CSR and governance as integrated concept provides a lot of advantages for NPOs compared to for-profit organisations which are in a steady justification to show the impact they might have on the society. NPOs, however, integrate economic and social aspects as starting point. For NPOs CG is not a mere concept of compliance but rather an enhanced concept integrating a lot of aspects of CSR. There is no “either-nor” between the concepts for NPOs.
Achieving Maximum Performance through the Practice of Entrepreneurial Ethics: Evidence from SMEs in Nigeria
It is acknowledged that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may encounter different ethical issues and pressures that could affect the way in which they strategize or make decisions concerning the outcome of their business. Therefore, this research aimed at assessing entrepreneurial ethics in the business of SMEs in Nigeria. Secondary data were adopted as source of corpus for the analysis. The findings conclude that a sound entrepreneurial ethics system has a significant effect on the level of performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government needs to provide both guiding and physical structures; as well as learning systems that could inculcate these entrepreneurial ethics.
Net Regularity and Its Ethical Implications on Internet Stake Holders
Net Neutrality (NN) is the principle of treating all online data the same without any prioritization of some over others. A research gap in current scholarship about “violations of NN” and the subsequent ethical concerns paves the way for the following research question: To what extent violations of NN entail ethical concerns and implications for Internet stakeholders? To answer this question, NR is examined using the two major action-based ethical theories, Kantian and Utilitarian, across the relevant Internet stakeholders. First some necessary IT background is provided that shapes how the Internet works and who the key stakeholders are. Following the IT background, the relationship between the stakeholders, users, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and content providers is discussed and illustrated. Then some violations of NN that are currently occurring is covered, without attracting any attention from the general public from an ethical perspective, as a new term Net Regularity (NR). Afterwards, the current scholarship on NN and its violations are discussed, that are mainly from an economic and sociopolitical perspectives to highlight the lack of ethical discussions on the issue. Before moving on to the ethical analysis however, websites are presented as digital entities that are affected by NR and their happiness is measured using functionalism. The analysis concludes that NR is prone to an unethical treatment of Internet stakeholders in the perspective of both theories. Finally, the current Digital Divide in the world is presented to be able to better illustrate the implications of NR. The implications present the new Internet divide that will take place between individuals within society. Through answering the research question using ethical analysis, it attempts to shed some light on the issue of NR and what kind of society it would lead to. NR would not just lead to a divided society, but divided individuals that are separated by something greater than distance, the Internet.
The Interaction between Human and Environment on the Perspective of Environmental Ethics
Environmental problems could not be separated from unethical human perspectives and behaviors toward the environment. There is a fundamental error in the philosophy of people’s perspective about human and nature and their relationship with the environment, which in turn will create an inappropriate behavior in relation to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate and to understand the ethics of the environment in the context of humans interacting with the environment by using the hermeneutic approach. The related theories and concepts collected from literature review are used as data, which were analyzed by using interpretation, critical evaluation, internal coherence, comparisons, and heuristic techniques. As a result of this study, there will be a picture related to the interaction of human and environment in the perspective of environmental ethics, as well as the problems of the value of ecological justice in the interaction of humans and environment. We suggest that the interaction between humans and environment need to be based on environmental ethics, in a spirit of mutual respect between humans and the natural world.
Understanding Narrative Transformations of Ebola in Negotiations of Epidemic Risk
Discussing the nexus between global health policy and local practices, this article addresses the recent Ebola outbreak as a role model for narrative co-constructions of epidemic risk. We will demonstrate in how far a theory-driven and methodologically rooted analysis of narrativity can help to improve mechanisms of prevention and intervention whenever epidemic risk needs to be addressed locally in order to contribute to global health. Analyzing the narrative transformation of Ebola, we will also address issues of transcultural problem-solving and of normative questions at stake. In this regard, we seek to contribute to a better understanding of a key question of global health and justice as well as to the underlying ethical questions. By highlighting and analyzing the functions of narratives, this paper provides a translational approach to refine our practices by which we address epidemic risk, be it on the national, the transnational or the global scale.
Ethical Perspectives on Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum in Architecture in Nigeria: A Case Study of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli
The use of Computer Aided Design (CAD)
technologies has become pervasive in the Architecture, Engineering
and Construction (AEC) industry. This has led to its inclusion as an
important part of the training module in the curriculum for
Architecture Schools in Nigeria. This paper examines the ethical
questions that arise in the implementation of Computer Aided Design
(CAD) Content of the curriculum for Architectural education. Using
existing literature, it begins this scrutiny from the propriety of
inclusion of CAD into the education of the architect and the
obligations of the different stakeholders in the implementation
process. It also examines the questions raised by the negative use of
computing technologies as well as perceived negative influence of
the use of CAD on design creativity. Survey methodology was
employed to gather data from the Department of Architecture,
Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, which has been
used as a case study on how the issues raised are being addressed.
The paper draws conclusions on what will make for successful ethical
Creation of a Care Robot Impact Assessment
This paper pioneers Care Robot Impact Assessment
(CRIA), a methodology used to identify, analyze, mitigate and
eliminate the risks posed by the insertion of non-medical personal
care robots (PCR) in medical care facilities. Its precedent instruments
[Privacy and Surveillance Impact Assessment (PIA and SIA)] fall
behind in coping with robots. Indeed, personal care robots change
dramatically how care is delivered. The paper presents a specific
risk-sector methodology, identifies which robots are under its scope
and presents some of the challenges introduced by these robots.
Auditor with the Javanese Characters and Non Javanese in Audit Firm: Conflict of Interest
Many issues about the relationship between auditors in
auditing practices with its stakeholders often heard. It appears in
perspectives of bringing out the variety of phenomena affecting from
the audit practice of greed and not appreciating from the
independency of the audit profession and professional code of ethics.
It becomes a logical consequence in practicing of capitalism in
accounting. The main purpose of this article would like to uncover
the existing auditing practices in Indonesia, especially in Java that
associated with a strong influence of Javanese culture with reluctant
/”shy", politely, "legowo (gratefully accepted)", "ngemong"
(friendly), "not mentholo" (lenient), "tepo seliro" (tolerance),
"ngajeni" (respectful), "acquiescent" and also reveals its relationships
with Non Javanese culture in facing the conflict of interest in
practical of auditing world. The method used by interpretive
approach that emphasizes the role of language, interpret and
understand and see social reality as something other than a label,
name or concept. Global practices in auditing of each country have
particular cultures that affect the standard set by those regulatory
standards results the adaptation of IAS. The majority of parties in
Indonesia is dominated by Javanese racial regulators, so Java culture
is embedded in every audit practices and those conditions in Java
leads auditors in having similar behaviour, sometimes interfere with
standard Java code of conduct must be executed by an auditor.
Auditors who live in Java have the characters of Javanese culture that
is hard to avoid in the audit practice. However, practically, the
auditors still are relevant in their profession.
Social Media and Counseling: Opportunities, Risks and Ethical Considerations
The purpose of this article is to briefly review the opportunities that social media present to counselors and psychologists. Particular attention was given to understanding some of the more important common risks inherent in social media and the potential ethical dilemmas which may arise for counselors and psychologists who embrace them in their practice. Key considerations of issues pertinent to an online presence such as multiple relationships, visibility and privacy, maintaining ethical principles and professional boundaries are being discussed.
A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank
In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn.
Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behavior within the organization is likely to yield desired results.
This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).
Transparency of Audit Firms in Croatia
The aim of this paper is to raise general awareness of transparency importance for audit firms and for audit services’ users. This paper analyzes transparency of audit firms that audited financial statements of listed companies, for year 2011 and 2012. We use this two years because in the meantime Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants has been adopted. This paper investigates whether transparency reports of audit firms are in accordance with the Croatian Audit Act and whether there is a difference on transparency in observed years. For this paper quality index of transparency report and financial indicators of audit firms are used to get conclusion about condition of audit firms transparency reporting. Results of our study indicate that audit firms are not fully transparent, looking for both years. Transparency of audit firms in 2012 has improved significantly, compared with transparency in 2011.
Behavior of Engineering Students in Kuwait University
This initial study is concerned with the behavior of
engineering students in Kuwait University which became a concern
due to the global issues of education in all levels. A survey has been
conducted to identify academic and societal issues affecting the
engineering student performance. The study is drawing major
conclusions with regard to private tutoring and the online availability
of textbooks’ solution manuals.
Ethics Perception of Pharmaceutical Companies
The paper is intended to declare and apply ethics, i. e.
moral principles, rules in marketing environment. Ethical behavior of
selected pharmaceutical companies in the Slovak Republic is the
object of our research. The aim of our research is to determine
perception of ethical behavior of the pharmaceutical industry in
Slovakia by the medicine representatives in comparison with the
assessment of doctors and patients. The experimental sample
included 90 participants who were divided into three groups:
medicine representatives of the pharmaceutical companies (N=30),
doctors (N=30) and patients (N=30). The research method was a
Questionnaire of ethical behavior, created by us, that describes
individual areas included in the Code of ethics of the pharmaceutical
industry in Slovakia. The results showed influence of professional
status on ethical behavior perception, not gender. Higher perception
was indicated at patients rather than doctors and medicine
Causal Factors Affecting on Trustworthiness and Success of the National Press Council of Thailand in Regulating Professional Ethics in Views of Newspaper Journalists
The objectives of this research were 1) to study the
opinions of newspaper journalists about their trustworthiness in the
National Press Council of Thailand (NPCT) and the NPCT-s success
in regulating the professional ethics; and 2) to study the differences
among mean vectors of the variables of trustworthiness in the NPCT
and opinions on the NPCT-s success in regulating professional ethics
among samples working at different work positions and from
different affiliation of newspaper organizations. The results showed
that 1) Interaction effects between the variables of work positions and
affiliation were not statistically significant at the confidence level of
0.05. 2) There was a statistically significant difference (p
The Ethics of Dissent: The Case of David Kelly
In this paper, we rely on the story of the late British
weapons inspector David Kelly to illustrate how sensemaking can
inform the study of the ethics of suppression of dissent. Using
archival data, we reconstruct Dr. Kelly-s key responsibilities as a
weapons inspector and government employee. We begin by clarifying
the concept of dissent and how it is a useful organizational process.
We identify the various ways that dissent has been discussed in the
organizational literature and reconsider the process of sensemaking.
We conclude that suppression of opinions that deviate from the
majority is part of the identity maintenance of the sensemaking
process. We illustrate the prevention of dissent in organizations
consists of a set of unsatisfactory trade-offs.
Directors- Islamic Code of Ethics
This paper discusses a new model of Islamic code of
ethics for directors. Several corporate scandals and local (example
Transmile and Megan Media) and overseas corporate (example
Parmalat and Enron) collapses show that the current corporate
governance and regulatory reform are unable to prevent these events
from recurring. Arguably, the code of ethics for directors is under
research and the current code of ethics only concentrates on binding
the work of the employee of the organization as a whole, without
specifically putting direct attention to the directors, the group of
people responsible for the performance of the company. This study
used a semi-structured interview survey of well-known Islamic
scholars such as the Mufti to develop the model. It is expected that
the outcome of the research is a comprehensive model of code of
ethics based on the Islamic principles that can be applied and used by
the company to construct a code of ethics for their directors.
The Internet, its Social and Ethical Problem to the Young and How Curriculum Can Address the Issue
The impact of the information revolution is double
edged. While it is applauded for its versatility and performance
robustness and acclaimed for making life smooth and easy, on the
other hand people are concerned about its dark side especially to
younger generations. The education system should extend its
educating role beyond the school to home. Parents should be included
in forming the policies of Internet use as well as in the curriculum
delivery. This paper discusses how curriculum can be instrumental in
addressing social and ethical issues resulted from the Internet.
The Used of Environmental Ethics in Methods and Techniques of Environmental Management
Although, it is a long time that human know about
the importance of environment in life, but at the last decade of 20
century, the space that was full of hot scientific, collegial and
political were made in environmental challenge, So much that, this
problem not only disarrange the peace and security of life, but also it
has threatened human existence. One of the problems in last years
that are significant for authorities is unsatisfactory achieved results
against of using huge cost for magnificent environmental projects.
This subject leads thinker to this thought that for solving the
environmental problems it is needed new methods include of
sociology, ethics and philosophic, etc. methods apart of technical
affairs. Environment ethics is a new branch of philosophic ethics
discussion that discusses about the ethics relationship between
humans and universe that is around them. By notifying to the above
considered affairs, in today world, necessity of environmental ethics
for environment management is reduplicated. In the following the
article has been focused on environmental ethics role and
environmental management methods and techniques for developing
Ethics in Negotiations: The Confrontation between Representation and Practices
While in practice negotiation is always a mix of
cooperation and competition, these two elements correspond to
different approaches of the relationship and also different orientations
in term of strategy, techniques, tactics and arguments employed by
the negotiators with related effects and in the end leading to different
outcomes. The levels of honesty, trust and therefore cooperation are
influenced not only by the uncertainty of the situation, the objectives,
stakes or power but also by the orientation given from the very
beginning of the relationship. When negotiation is reduced to a
confrontation of power, participants rely on coercive measures, using
different kinds of threats or make false promises and bluff in order to
establish a more acceptable balance of power.
Most of the negotiators have a tendency to complain about the
unethical aspects of the tactics used by their counterparts while, as
the same time, they are mostly unaware of the sources of influence of
their own vision and practices. In this article, our intention is to
clarify these sources and try to understand what can lead negotiators
to unethical practices.
Ethics in the Technology Driven Enterprise
Innovations in technology have created new ethical
challenges. Essential use of electronic communication in the
workplace has escalated at an astronomical rate over the past decade.
As such, legal and ethical dilemmas confronted by both the employer
and the employee concerning managerial control and ownership of einformation
have increased dramatically in the USA. From the
employer-s perspective, ownership and control of all information
created for the workplace is an undeniable source of economic
advantage and must be monitored zealously. From the perspective of
the employee, individual rights, such as privacy, freedom of speech,
and freedom from unreasonable search and seizure, continue to be
stalwart legal guarantees that employers are not legally or ethically
entitled to abridge in the workplace. These issues have been the
source of great debate and the catalyst for legal reform. The fine line
between ethical and legal has been complicated by emerging
technologies. This manuscript will identify and discuss a number of
specific legal and ethical issues raised by the dynamic electronic
workplace and conclude with suggestions that employers should
follow to respect the delicate balance between employees- legal
rights to privacy and the employer's right to protect its knowledge
systems and infrastructure.
Sustainability: An Ethical Approach Towards Project Business Success
For any country the project management has been a
vital part for its development. The highly competitive business world
has created tremendous pressure on the project managers to achieve
success. The pressure is derived from survival and profit building in
business organizations which compels the project managers to pursue
unethical practices. As a result unethical activities in business
projects can be found easily where situations or issues arise due to
dubious business practice, high corruption, or absolute violation of
the law. The recent spur on Commonwealth games to be organized in
New Delhi indicates towards the same. It has been seen that the
project managers mainly focus on cost, time, and quality rather than
social impact and long term effects of the project. Surprisingly the
literature as well as the practitioner-s perspective also does not
identify the role of ethics in project success. This paper identifies
ethics as the fourth most important dimension in the project based
organizations. The paper predicts that the approach of considering
ethics will result in sustainability of the project. It will increase
satisfaction and loyalty of the customers as well as create harmony,
trust, brotherhood, values and morality among the team members.
This paper is conceptual in nature as inadequate literature exists
linking the project success with an ethical approach.
The Ethics of Instream Flows: Science and Policy in Southern Alberta, Canada
Securing instream flows for aquatic ecosystems is
critical for sustainable water management and the promotion of
human and environmental health. Using a case study from the semiarid
region of southern Alberta (Canada) this paper considers how
the determination of instream flow standards requires judgments with
respect to: (1) The relationship between instream flow indicators and
assessments of overall environmental health; (2) The indicators used
to determine adequate instream flows, and; (3) The assumptions
underlying efforts to model instream flows given data constraints. It
argues that judgments in each of these areas have an inherently
ethical component because instream flows have direct effects on the
water(s) available to meet obligations to humans and non-humans.
The conclusion expands from the case study to generic issues
regarding instream flows, the growing water ethics literature and
prospects for linking science to policy.
Evaluating Complexity – Ethical Challenges in Computational Design Processes
Complexity, as a theoretical background has made it
easier to understand and explain the features and dynamic behavior
of various complex systems. As the common theoretical background
has confirmed, borrowing the terminology for design from the
natural sciences has helped to control and understand urban
complexity. Phenomena like self-organization, evolution and
adaptation are appropriate to describe the formerly inaccessible
characteristics of the complex environment in unpredictable bottomup
systems. Increased computing capacity has been a key element in
capturing the chaotic nature of these systems.
A paradigm shift in urban planning and architectural design has
forced us to give up the illusion of total control in urban
environment, and consequently to seek for novel methods for
steering the development. New methods using dynamic modeling
have offered a real option for more thorough understanding of
complexity and urban processes. At best new approaches may renew
the design processes so that we get a better grip on the complex
world via more flexible processes, support urban environmental
diversity and respond to our needs beyond basic welfare by liberating
ourselves from the standardized minimalism.
A complex system and its features are as such beyond human
ethics. Self-organization or evolution is either good or bad. Their
mechanisms are by nature devoid of reason. They are common in
urban dynamics in both natural processes and gas. They are features
of a complex system, and they cannot be prevented. Yet their
dynamics can be studied and supported.
The paradigm of complexity and new design approaches has been
criticized for a lack of humanity and morality, but the ethical
implications of scientific or computational design processes have not
been much discussed. It is important to distinguish the (unexciting)
ethics of the theory and tools from the ethics of computer aided
processes based on ethical decisions. Urban planning and architecture
cannot be based on the survival of the fittest; however, the natural
dynamics of the system cannot be impeded on grounds of being
In this paper the ethical challenges of using the dynamic models
are contemplated in light of a few examples of new architecture and
dynamic urban models and literature. It is suggested that ethical
challenges in computational design processes could be reframed
under the concepts of responsibility and transparency.
Paradigm and Paradox: Knowledge Management and Business Ethics
Knowledge management (KM) is generally
considered to be a positive process in an organisation, facilitating
opportunities to achieve competitive advantage via better quality
information handling, compilation of expert know-how and rapid
response to fluctuations in the business environment. The KM
paradigm as portrayed in the literature informs the processes that can
increase intangible assets so that corporate knowledge is preserved.
However, in some instances, knowledge management exists in a
universe of dynamic tension among the conflicting needs to respect
privacy and intellectual property (IP), to guard against data theft, to
protect national security and to stay within the laws. While the
Knowledge Management literature focuses on the bright side of the
paradigm, there is also a different side in which knowledge is
distorted, suppressed or misappropriated due to personal or
organisational motives (the paradox). This paper describes the ethical
paradoxes that occur within the taxonomy and deontology of
knowledge management and suggests that recognising both the
promises and pitfalls of KM requires wisdom.
Understanding and Designing Situation-Aware Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Systems
Using spatial models as a shared common basis of
information about the environment for different kinds of contextaware
systems has been a heavily researched topic in the last years.
Thereby the research focused on how to create, to update, and to
merge spatial models so as to enable highly dynamic, consistent and
coherent spatial models at large scale. In this paper however, we
want to concentrate on how context-aware applications could use this
information so as to adapt their behavior according to the situation
they are in. The main idea is to provide the spatial model
infrastructure with a situation recognition component based on
generic situation templates. A situation template is – as part of a
much larger situation template library – an abstract, machinereadable
description of a certain basic situation type, which could be
used by different applications to evaluate their situation. In this
paper, different theoretical and practical issues – technical, ethical
and philosophical ones – are discussed important for understanding
and developing situation dependent systems based on situation
templates. A basic system design is presented which allows for the
reasoning with uncertain data using an improved version of a
learning algorithm for the automatic adaption of situation templates.
Finally, for supporting the development of adaptive applications, we
present a new situation-aware adaptation concept based on