Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 8

8
10002026
Online Optic Disk Segmentation Using Fractals
Abstract:
Optic disk segmentation plays a key role in the mass screening of individuals with diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma ailments. An efficient hardware-based algorithm for optic disk localization and segmentation would aid for developing an automated retinal image analysis system for real time applications. Herein, TMS320C6416DSK DSP board pixel intensity based fractal analysis algorithm for an automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disk is reported. The experiment has been performed on color and fluorescent angiography retinal fundus images. Initially, the images were pre-processed to reduce the noise and enhance the quality. The retinal vascular tree of the image was then extracted using canny edge detection technique. Finally, a pixel intensity based fractal analysis is performed to segment the optic disk by tracing the origin of the vascular tree. The proposed method is examined on three publicly available data sets of the retinal image and also with the data set obtained from an eye clinic. The average accuracy achieved is 96.2%. To the best of the knowledge, this is the first work reporting the use of TMS320C6416DSK DSP board and pixel intensity based fractal analysis algorithm for an automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disk. This will pave the way for developing devices for detection of retinal diseases in the future.
7
10000066
Automatic Detection and Classification of Microcalcification, Mass, Architectural Distortion and Bilateral Asymmetry in Digital Mammogram
Abstract:

Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection of breast cancer. There are different lesions which are breast cancer characteristic such as microcalcifications, masses, architectural distortions and bilateral asymmetry. One of the major challenges of analysing digital mammogram is how to extract efficient features from it for accurate cancer classification. In this paper we proposed a hybrid feature extraction method to detect and classify all four signs of breast cancer. The proposed method is based on multiscale surrounding region dependence method, Gabor filters, multi fractal analysis, directional and morphological analysis. The extracted features are input to self adaptive resource allocation network (SRAN) classifier for classification. The validity of our approach is extensively demonstrated using the two benchmark data sets Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammograph (DDSM) and the results have been proved to be progressive.

6
9999124
Fractal - Wavelet Based Techniques for Improving the Artificial Neural Network Models
Abstract:

Natural resources management including water resources requires reliable estimations of time variant environmental parameters. Small improvements in the estimation of environmental parameters would result in grate effects on managing decisions. Noise reduction using wavelet techniques is an effective approach for preprocessing of practical data sets. Predictability enhancement of the river flow time series are assessed using fractal approaches before and after applying wavelet based preprocessing. Time series correlation and persistency, the minimum sufficient length for training the predicting model and the maximum valid length of predictions were also investigated through a fractal assessment.

5
9998712
Physical and Electrical Characterization of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method
Abstract:

In this paper, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel method. The ZnO thin films with well defined orientation were acquired by spin coating of zinc acetate dehydrate monoethanolamine (MEA), de-ionized water and isopropanol alcohol. These films were pre-heated at 275°C for 10 min and then annealed at 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 80 min. The effect of annealing temperature and different thickness on structure and surface morphology of the thin films were verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It was found that there was a significant effect of annealing temperature on the structural parameters of the films such as roughness exponent, fractal dimension and interface width. Thin films also were characterizied by X-ray Diffractometery (XRD) method. XRD analysis revealed that the annealed ZnO thin films consist of single phase ZnO with wurtzite structure and show the c-axis grain orientation. Increasing annealing temperature increased the crystallite size and the c-axis orientation of the film after 450°C. Also In this study, ZnO thin films in different thickness have been prepared by sol-gel method on the glass substrate at room temperature. The thicknesses of films are 100, 150 and 250 nm. Using fractal analysis, morphological characteristics of surface films thickness in amorphous state were investigated. The results show that with increasing thickness, surface roughness (RMS) and lateral correlation length (ξ) are decreased. Also, the roughness exponent (α) and growth exponent (β) were determined to be 0.74±0.02 and 0.11±0.02, respectively.

4
12534
Analysis on Fractals in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric Spaces
Abstract:
This paper investigates the fractals generated by the dynamical system of intuitionistic fuzzy contractions in the intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces by generalizing the Hutchinson-Barnsley theory. We prove some existence and uniqueness theorems of fractals in the standard intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces by using the intuitionistic fuzzy Banach contraction theorem. In addition to that, we analyze some results on intuitionistic fuzzy fractals in the standard intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces with respect to the Hausdorff intuitionistic fuzzy metrics.
3
14137
Gradual Shot Boundary Detection and Classification Based on Fractal Analysis
Abstract:

Shot boundary detection is a fundamental step for the organization of large video data. In this paper, we propose a new method for video gradual shots detection and classification, using advantages of fractal analysis and AIS-based classifier. Proposed features are “vertical intercept" and “fractal dimension" of each frame of videos which are computed using Fourier transform coefficients. We also used a classifier based on Clonal Selection Algorithm. We have carried out our solution and assessed it according to the TRECVID2006 benchmark dataset.

2
7845
3D Locomotion and Fractal Analysis of Goldfish for Acute Toxicity Bioassay
Abstract:
Biological reactions of individuals of a testing animal to toxic substance are unique and can be used as an indication of the existing of toxic substance. However, to distinguish such phenomenon need a very complicate system and even more complicate to analyze data in 3 dimensional. In this paper, a system to evaluate in vitro biological activities to acute toxicity of stochastic self-affine non-stationary signal of 3D goldfish swimming by using fractal analysis is introduced. Regular digital camcorders are utilized by proposed algorithm 3DCCPC to effectively capture and construct 3D movements of the fish. A Critical Exponent Method (CEM) has been adopted as a fractal estimator. The hypothesis was that the swimming of goldfish to acute toxic would show the fractal property which related to the toxic concentration. The experimental results supported the hypothesis by showing that the swimming of goldfish under the different toxic concentration has fractal properties. It also shows that the fractal dimension of the swimming related to the pH value of FD Ôëê 0.26pH + 0.05. With the proposed system, the fish is allowed to swim freely in all direction to react to the toxic. In addition, the trajectories are precisely evaluated by fractal analysis with critical exponent method and hence the results exhibit with much higher degree of confidence.
1
9878
EEG-Based Fractal Analysis of Different Motor Imagery Tasks using Critical Exponent Method
Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to characterize the spontaneous Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of four different motor imagery tasks and to show hereby a possible solution for the present binary communication between the brain and a machine ora Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). The processing technique used in this paper was the fractal analysis evaluated by the Critical Exponent Method (CEM). The EEG signal was registered in 5 healthy subjects,sampling 15 measuring channels at 1024 Hz.Each channel was preprocessed by the Laplacian space ltering so as to reduce the space blur and therefore increase the spaceresolution. The EEG of each channel was segmented and its Fractaldimension (FD) calculated. The FD was evaluated in the time interval corresponding to the motor imagery and averaged out for all the subjects (each channel). In order to characterize the FD distribution,the linear regression curves of FD over the electrodes position were applied. The differences FD between the proposed mental tasks are quantied and evaluated for each experimental subject. The obtained results of the proposed method are a substantial fractal dimension in the EEG signal of motor imagery tasks and can be considerably utilized as the multiple-states BCI applications.

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