Sliding Mode Power System Stabilizer for Synchronous Generator Stability Improvement
Many modern synchronous generators in power systems are extremely weakly damped. The reasons are cost optimization of the machine building and introduction of the additional control equipment into power systems. Oscillations of the synchronous generators and related stability problems of the power systems are harmful and can lead to failures in operation and to damages. The only useful solution to increase damping of the unwanted oscillations represents the implementation of the power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizers generate the additional control signal which changes synchronous generator field excitation voltage. Modern power system stabilizers are integrated into static excitation systems of the synchronous generators. Available commercial power system stabilizers are based on linear control theory. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the synchronous generator, current stabilizers do not assure optimal damping of the synchronous generator’s oscillations in the entire operating range. For that reason the use of the robust power system stabilizers which are convenient for the entire operating range is reasonable. There are numerous robust techniques applicable for the power system stabilizers. In this paper the use of sliding mode control for synchronous generator stability improvement is studied. On the basis of the sliding mode theory, the robust power system stabilizer was developed. The main advantages of the sliding mode controller are simple realization of the control algorithm, robustness to parameter variations and elimination of disturbances. The advantage of the proposed sliding mode controller against conventional linear controller was tested for damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating range of the synchronous generator and the increase of the power system stability. The proposed study contributes to the progress in the development of the advanced stabilizer, which will replace conventional linear stabilizers and improve damping of the synchronous generators.
Slip Suppression Sliding Mode Control with Various Chattering Functions
This study presents performance analysis results of
SMC (Sliding mode control) with changing the chattering functions
applied to slip suppression problem of electric vehicles (EVs). In
SMC, chattering phenomenon always occurs through high frequency
switching of the control inputs. It is undesirable phenomenon and
degrade the control performance, since it causes the oscillations of the
control inputs. Several studies have been conducted on this problem
by introducing some general saturation function. However, study
about whether saturation function was really best and the performance
analysis when using the other functions, weren’t being done so much.
Therefore, in this paper, several candidate functions for SMC are
selected and control performance of candidate functions is analyzed.
In the analysis, evaluation function based on the trade-off between
slip suppression performance and chattering reduction performance
is proposed. The analyses are conducted in several numerical
simulations of slip suppression problem of EVs. Then, we can
see that there is no difference of employed candidate functions
in chattering reduction performance. On the other hand, in slip
suppression performance, the saturation function is excellent overall.
So, we conclude the saturation function is most suitable for slip
suppression sliding mode control.
Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay
Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension
system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model
is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the
passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise
due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is
also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding
mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator
time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of
the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.
Sliding Mode Control of a Bus Suspension System
The vibrations, caused by the irregularities of the road surface, are to be suppressed via suspension systems. In this paper, sliding mode control for a half bus model with air suspension system is presented. The bus is modelled as five degrees of freedom (DoF) system. The mathematical model of the half bus is developed using Lagrange Equations. For time domain analysis, the bus model is assumed to travel at certain speed over the bump road. The numerical results of the analysis indicate that the sliding mode controllers can be effectively used to suppress the vibrations and to improve the ride comfort of the busses.
DEA-Based Variable Structure Position Control of DC Servo Motor
This paper presents Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) based Variable Structure Position Control (VSPC) of Laboratory DC servomotor (LDCSM). DEA is employed for the optimal tuning of Variable Structure Control (VSC) parameters for position control of a DC servomotor. The VSC combines the techniques of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) that gives the advantages of small overshoot, improved step response characteristics, faster dynamic response and adaptability to plant parameter variations, suppressed influences of disturbances and uncertainties in system behavior. The results of the simulation responses of the VSC parameters adjustment by DEA were performed in Matlab Version 2010a platform and yield better dynamic performance compared with the untuned VSC designed.
MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking
In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control)
method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the
slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed.
The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC
gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by
the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety
and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip
ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate
the effectiveness of the method.
Study of Two MPPTs for Photovoltaic Systems Using Controllers Based in Fuzzy Logic and Sliding Mode
In this study, we proposed two techniques to track the
maximum power point (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system. The first is
an intelligent control technique, and the second is robust used for
variable structure system. In fact the characteristics I-V and P–V of
the photovoltaic generator depends on the solar irradiance and
temperature. These climate changes cause the fluctuation of
maximum power point; a maximum power point tracking technique
(MPPT) is required to maximize the output power. For this we have
adopted a control by fuzzy logic (FLC) famous for its stability and
robustness. And a Siding Mode Control (SMC) widely used for
variable structure system. The system comprises a photovoltaic panel
(PV), a DC-DC converter, which is considered as an adaptation stage
between the PV and the load. The modelling and simulation of the
system is developed using MATLAB/Simulink. SMC technique
provides a good tracking speed in fast changing irradiation and when
the irradiation changes slowly or it is constant the panel power of
FLC technique presents a much smoother signal with less
The Exploitation of Balancing an Inverted Pendulum System Using Sliding Mode Control
The inverted pendulum system is a classic control
problem that is used in universities around the world. It is a suitable
process to test prototype controllers due to its high non-linearities and
lack of stability. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging
control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled
state. This paper presents the possibility of balancing an inverted
pendulum system using sliding mode control (SMC). The goal is to
determine which control strategy delivers better performance with
respect to pendulum’s angle and cart's position. Therefore,
proportional-integral-derivative (PID) is used for comparison. Results
have proven SMC control produced better response compared to PID
control in both normal and noisy systems.
Back Stepping Sliding Mode Control of Blood Glucose for Type I Diabetes
Diabetes is a growing health problem in worldwide.
Especially, the patients with Type 1 diabetes need strict glycemic
control because they have deficiency of insulin production. This
paper attempts to control blood glucose based on body mathematical
body model. The Bergman minimal mathematical model is used to
develop the nonlinear controller. A novel back-stepping based sliding
mode control (B-SMC) strategy is proposed as a solution that
guarantees practical tracking of a desired glucose concentration. In
order to show the performance of the proposed design, it is compared
with conventional linear and fuzzy controllers which have been done
in previous researches. The numerical simulation result shows the
advantages of sliding mode back stepping controller design to linear
and fuzzy controllers.
3D Guidance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Sliding Mode Approach
This paper presents a 3D guidance scheme for
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed guidance scheme
is based on the sliding mode approach using nonlinear sliding
manifolds. Generalized 3D kinematic equations are considered
here during the design process to cater for the coupling between
longitudinal and lateral motions. Sliding mode based guidance
scheme is then derived for the multiple-input multiple-output
(MIMO) system using the proposed nonlinear manifolds. Instead of
traditional sliding surfaces, nonlinear sliding surfaces are proposed
here for performance and stability in all flight conditions. In the
reaching phase control inputs, the bang-bang terms with signum
functions are accompanied with proportional terms in order to reduce
the chattering amplitudes. The Proposed 3D guidance scheme is
implemented on a 6-degrees-of-freedom (6-dof) simulation of a UAV
and simulation results are presented here for different 3D trajectories
with and without disturbances.
Applied Actuator Fault Accommodation in Flight Control Systems Using Fault Reconstruction Based FDD and SMC Reconfiguration
Historically, actuators’ redundancy was used to deal
with faults occurring suddenly in flight systems. This technique was
generally expensive, time consuming and involves increased weight
and space in the system. Therefore, nowadays, the on-line fault
diagnosis of actuators and accommodation plays a major role in the
design of avionic systems. These approaches, known as Fault
Tolerant Flight Control systems (FTFCs) are able to adapt to such
sudden faults while keeping avionics systems lighter and less
expensive. In this paper, a (FTFC) system based on the Geometric
Approach and a Reconfigurable Flight Control (RFC) are presented.
The Geometric approach is used for cosmic ray fault reconstruction,
while Sliding Mode Control (SMC) based on Lyapunov stability
theory is designed for the reconfiguration of the controller in order to
compensate the fault effect. Matlab®/Simulink® simulations are
performed to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the
proposed flight control system against actuators’ faulty signal caused
by cosmic rays. The results demonstrate the successful real-time
implementation of the proposed FTFC system on a non-linear 6 DOF
Sliding Mode Position Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based On Passivity Approach
In this paper, a sliding mode control method based on the passivity approach is proposed to control the position of surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Firstly, the dynamics of a PMSM was proved to be strictly passive. The position controller with an adaptive law was used to estimate the load torque to eliminate the chattering effects associated with the conventional sliding mode controller. The stability analysis of the overall position control system was carried out by adopting the passivity theorem instead of Lyapunov-type arguments. Finally, experimental results were provided to show that the good position tracking can be obtained, and exhibit robustness in the variations of the motor parameters and load torque disturbances.
Evolved Bat Algorithm Based Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control with LMI Criterion
In this paper, the stability analysis of a GA-Based adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller for a nonlinear system is discussed. First, a nonlinear plant is well-approximated and described with a reference model and a fuzzy model, both involving FLC rules. Then, FLC rules and the consequent parameter are decided on via an Evolved Bat Algorithm (EBA). After this, we guarantee a new tracking performance inequality for the control system. The tracking problem is characterized to solve an eigenvalue problem (EVP). Next, an adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller (AFSMC) is proposed to stabilize the system so as to achieve good control performance. Lyapunov’s direct method can be used to ensure the stability of the nonlinear system. It is shown that the stability analysis can reduce nonlinear systems into a linear matrix inequality (LMI) problem. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the control methodology.
A Model-Reference Sliding Mode for Dual-Stage Actuator Servo Control in HDD
This paper presents a method of sliding mode control (SMC) designing and developing for the servo system in a dual-stage actuator (DSA) hard disk drive. Mathematical modeling of hard disk drive actuators is obtained, extracted from measuring frequency response of the voice-coil motor (VCM) and PZT micro-actuator separately. Matlab software tools are used for mathematical model estimation and also for controller design and simulation. A model-reference approach for tracking requirement is selected as a proposed technique. The simulation results show that performance of a model-reference SMC controller design in DSA servo control can be satisfied in the tracking error, as well as keeping the positioning of the head within the boundary of +/-5% of track width under the presence of internal and external disturbance. The overall results of model-reference SMC design in DSA are met per requirement specifications and significant reduction in %off track is found when compared to the single-state actuator (SSA).
Sliding Mode Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
This paper describes a sliding mode controller for
autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The dynamic of AUV
model is highly nonlinear because of many factors, such as
hydrodynamic drag, damping, and lift forces, Coriolis and centripetal
forces, gravity and buoyancy forces, as well as forces from thruster.
To address these difficulties, a nonlinear sliding mode controller is
designed to approximate the nonlinear dynamics of AUV and
improve trajectory tracking. Moreover, the proposed controller can
profoundly attenuate the effects of uncertainties and external
disturbances in the closed-loop system. Using the Lyapunov theory
the boundedness of AUV tracking errors and the stability of the
proposed control system are also guaranteed. Numerical simulation
studies of an AUV are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the
Nonlinear Integral-Type Sliding Surface for Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters
This paper presents a new nonlinear integral-type sliding surface for synchronizing two different chaotic systems with parametric uncertainty. On the basis of Lyapunov theorem and average dwelling time method, we obtain the control gains of controllers which are derived to achieve chaos synchronization. In order to reduce the gains, the error system is modeled as a switching system. We obtain the sufficient condition drawn for the robust stability of the error dynamics by stability analysis. Then we apply it to guide the design of the controllers. Finally, numerical examples are used to show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Backstepping Sliding Mode Controller Coupled to Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for Interconnected Fractional Nonlinear System
Performance control law is studied for an
interconnected fractional nonlinear system. Applying a backstepping
algorithm, a backstepping sliding mode controller (BSMC) is
developed for fractional nonlinear system. To improve control law
performance, BSMC is coupled to an adaptive sliding mode observer
have a filtered error as a sliding surface. The both architecture
performance is studied throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on
a cart. Simulation result show that the BSMC coupled to an adaptive
sliding mode observer have stable control law and eligible control
amplitude than the BSMC.
General Purpose Pulse Width Modulation Based Sliding Mode Controller for Buck DC-DC
This paper is a simple and systematic approaches to the design and analysis a pulse width modulation (PWM) based sliding mode controller for buck DC-DC Converters. Various aspects of the design, including the practical problems and the proposed solutions, are detailed. However, these control strategies can't compensate for large load current and input voltage variations. In this paper, a new control strategy by compromising both schemes advantages and avoiding their drawbacks is proposed, analyzed and simulated.
Design of Power System Stabilizer Based on Sliding Mode Control Theory for Multi- Machine Power System
This paper present a new method for design of power
system stabilizer (PSS) based on sliding mode control (SMC)
technique. The control objective is to enhance stability and improve
the dynamic response of the multi-machine power system. In order to
test effectiveness of the proposed scheme, simulation will be carried
out to analyze the small signal stability characteristics of the system
about the steady state operating condition following the change in
reference mechanical torque and also parameters uncertainties. For
comparison, simulation of a conventional control PSS (lead-lag
compensation type) will be carried out. The main approach is
focusing on the control performance which later proven to have the
degree of shorter reaching time and lower spike.
Nonlinear Controller Design for Active Front Steering System
Active Front Steering system (AFS) provides an electronically controlled superposition of an angle to the steering wheel angle. This additional degree of freedom enables a continuous and driving-situation dependent on adaptation of the steering characteristics. In an active steering system, there needs be no fixed relationship between the steering wheel and the angle of the road wheels. Not only can the effective steering ratio be varied with speed, for example, but also the road wheel angles can be controlled by a combination of driver and computer inputs. Features like steering comfort, effort and steering dynamics are optimized and stabilizing steering interventions can be performed. In contrast to the conventional stability control, the yaw rate was fed back to AFS controller and the stability performance was optimized with Sliding Mode control (SMC) method. In addition, tire uncertainties have been taken into account in SM controller to provide the control robustness. In this paper, 3-DOF nonlinear model is used to design the AFS controller and 8-DOF nonlinear model is used to model the controlled vehicle.
Dynamic Model of a Buck Converter with a Sliding Mode Control
This paper presents the averaging model of a buck
converter derived from the generalized state-space averaging method.
The sliding mode control is used to regulate the output voltage of the
converter and taken into account in the model. The proposed model
requires the fast computational time compared with those of the full
topology model. The intensive time-domain simulations via the exact
topology model are used as the comparable model. The results show
that a good agreement between the proposed model and the switching
model is achieved in both transient and steady-state responses. The
reported model is suitable for the optimal controller design by using
the artificial intelligence techniques.
Active and Reactive Power Control of a DFIG with MPPT for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion using Sliding Mode Control
This paper presents the study of a variable speed wind
energy conversion system based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator
(DFIG) based on a sliding mode control applied to achieve control of
active and reactive powers exchanged between the stator of the DFIG
and the grid to ensure a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of
a wind energy conversion system. The proposed control algorithm is
applied to a DFIG whose stator is directly connected to the grid and
the rotor is connected to the PWM converter. To extract a maximum
of power, the rotor side converter is controlled by using a stator
flux-oriented strategy. The created decoupling control between active
and reactive stator power allows keeping the power factor close to
unity. Simulation results show that the wind turbine can operate at
its optimum energy for a wide range of wind speed.
An Improved Optimal Sliding Mode Control for Structural Stability
In this paper, the modified optimal sliding mode control with a proposed method to design a sliding surface is presented. Because of the inability of the previous approach of the sliding mode method to design a bounded and suitable input, the new variation is proposed in the sliding manifold to obviate problems in a structural system. Although the sliding mode control is a powerful method to reject disturbances and noises, the chattering problem is not good for actuators. To decrease the chattering phenomena, the optimal control is added to the sliding mode control. Not only the proposed method can decline the intense variations in the inputs of the system but also it can produce the efficient responses respect to the sliding mode control and optimal control that are shown by performing some numerical simulations.
A Robust Wheel Slip Controller for a Hybrid Braking System
A robust wheel slip controller for electric vehicles is
introduced. The proposed wheel slip controller exploits the dynamics
of electric traction drives and conventional hydraulic brakes for
achieving maximum energy efficiency and driving safety. Due to
the control of single wheel traction motors in combination with a
hydraulic braking system, it can be shown, that energy recuperation
and vehicle stability control can be realized simultaneously. The
derivation of a sliding mode wheel slip controller accessing two
drivetrain actuators is outlined and a comparison to a conventionally
braked vehicle is shown by means of simulation.
GPI Observer-based Tracking Control and Synchronization of Chaotic Systems
Based on general proportional integral (GPI) observers and sliding mode control technique, a robust control method is proposed for the master-slave synchronization of chaotic systems in the presence of parameter uncertainty and with partially measurable output signal. By using GPI observer, the master dynamics are reconstructed by the observations from a measurable output under the differential algebraic framework. Driven by the signals provided by GPI observer, a sliding mode control technique is used for the tracking control and synchronization of the master-slave dynamics. The convincing numerical results reveal the proposed method is effective, and successfully accommodate the system uncertainties, disturbances, and noisy corruptions.
Design of Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller for Robotic Manipulators Tracking Control
This paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode
controller which combines adaptive control and sliding
mode control to control a nonlinear robotic manipulator
with uncertain parameters. We use an adaptive algorithm
based on the concept of sliding mode control to alleviate the
chattering phenomenon of control input. Adaptive laws are
developed to obtain the gain of switching input and the
boundary layer parameters. The stability and convergence
of the robotic manipulator control system are guaranteed
by applying the Lyapunov theorem. Simulation results
demonstrate that the chattering of control input can be
alleviated effectively. The proposed controller scheme can
assure robustness against a large class of uncertainties and
achieve good trajectory tracking performance.
Trajectory Control of a Robotic Manipulator Utilizing an Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode
In this paper, a novel adaptive fuzzy sliding mode
control method is proposed for the robust tracking control of robotic
manipulators. The proposed controller possesses the advantages of
adaptive control, fuzzy control, and sliding mode control. First, system
stability and robustness are guaranteed based on the sliding mode
control. Further, fuzzy rules are developed incorporating with
adaptation law to alleviate the input chattering effectively. Stability of
the control system is proven by using the Lyapunov method. An
application to a three-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator is
carried out. Accurate trajectory tracking as well as robustness is
achieved. Input chattering is greatly eliminated.
Enhanced Efficacy of Kinetic Power Transform for High-Speed Wind Field
The three-time-scale plant model of a wind power
generator, including a wind turbine, a flexible vertical shaft, a Variable
Inertia Flywheel (VIF) module, an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB)
unit and the applied wind sequence, is constructed. In order to make
the wind power generator be still able to operate as the spindle speed
exceeds its rated speed, the VIF is equipped so that the spindle speed
can be appropriately slowed down once any stronger wind field is
exerted. To prevent any potential damage due to collision by shaft
against conventional bearings, the AMB unit is proposed to regulate
the shaft position deviation. By singular perturbation order-reduction
technique, a lower-order plant model can be established for the
synthesis of feedback controller. Two major system parameter
uncertainties, an additive uncertainty and a multiplicative uncertainty,
are constituted by the wind turbine and the VIF respectively.
Frequency Shaping Sliding Mode Control (FSSMC) loop is proposed
to account for these uncertainties and suppress the unmodeled
higher-order plant dynamics. At last, the efficacy of the FSSMC is
verified by intensive computer and experimental simulations for
regulation on position deviation of the shaft and counter-balance of
unpredictable wind disturbance.
Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of an MR Mount for Vibration Attenuation
In this paper, an magnetorheological (MR) mount with
fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) is studied for vibration
suppression when the system is subject to base excitations. In recent
years, magnetorheological fluids are becoming a popular material in
the field of the semi-active control. However, the dynamic equation of
an MR mount is highly nonlinear and it is difficult to identify. FSMC
provides a simple method to achieve vibration attenuation of the
nonlinear system with uncertain disturbances. This method is capable
of handling the chattering problem of sliding mode control effectively
and the fuzzy control rules are obtained by using the Lyapunov
stability theory. The numerical simulations using one-dimension and
two-dimension FSMC show effectiveness of the proposed controller
for vibration suppression. Further, the well-known skyhook control
scheme and an adaptive sliding mode controller are also included in
the simulation for comparison with the proposed FSMC.
On Two Control Approaches for The Output Voltage Regulation of a Boost Converter
This paper deals with the comparison between two proposed control strategies for a DC-DC boost converter. The first control is a classical Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the second one is a distance based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC). The SMC is an analytical control approach based on the boost mathematical model. However, the FSMC is a non-conventional control approach which does not need the controlled system mathematical model. It needs only the measures of the output voltage to perform the control signal. The obtained simulation results show that the two proposed control methods are robust for the case of load resistance and the input voltage variations. However, the proposed FSMC gives a better step voltage response than the one obtained by the SMC.