A Comparative Study of Indoor Radon Concentrations between Dwellings and Workplaces in the Ko Samui District, Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand
The Ko Samui district of Surat Thani province is located in the high amounts of equivalent uranium in the ground surface that is the source of radon. Our research in the Ko Samui district aimed at comparing the indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces. Measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 46 dwellings and 127 workplaces, using CR-39 alpha-track detectors in closed-cup. A total of 173 detectors were distributed in 7 sub-districts. The detectors were placed in bedrooms of dwellings and workrooms of workplaces. All detectors were exposed to airborne radon for 90 days. After exposure, the alpha tracks were made visible by chemical etching before they were manually counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were assumed to be correlated with the radon concentration levels. We found that the radon concentrations could be well described by a log-normal distribution. Most concentrations (37%) were found in the range between 16 and 30 Bq.m-3. The radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces varied from a minimum of 11 Bq.m-3 to a maximum of 305 Bq.m-3. The minimum (11 Bq.m-3) and maximum (305 Bq.m-3) values of indoor radon concentrations were found in a workplace and a dwelling, respectively. Only for four samples (3%), the indoor radon concentrations were found to be higher than the reference level recommended by the WHO (100 Bq.m-3). The overall geometric mean in the surveyed area was 32.6±1.65 Bq.m-3, which was lower than the worldwide average (39 Bq.m-3). The statistic comparison of the geometric mean indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces showed that the geometric mean in dwellings (46.0±1.55 Bq.m-3) was significantly higher than in workplaces (28.8±1.58 Bq.m-3) at the 0.05 level. Moreover, our study found that the majority of the bedrooms in dwellings had a closed atmosphere, resulting in poorer ventilation than in most of the workplaces that had access to air flow through open doors and windows at daytime. We consider this to be the main reason for the higher geometric mean indoor radon concentration in dwellings compared to workplaces.
Effect of Organizational Competitive Climate on Organizational Prosocial Behavior: Workplace Envy as a Mediator
Scarce resources are the inseparable part of organization life. This fact that only small number of the employees can have these resources such as promotion, raise, and recognition can cause competition among employees, which create competitive climate. As well as any other competition, small number wins the reward, and a great number loses, one of the possible emotional reactions to this loss is negative emotions like malicious envy. In this case, the envious person may try to harm the envied person by reducing the prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is a behavior that aimed to benefit others. The main propose of this action is to maintain and increase well-being and well-fare of others. Therefore, one of the easiest ways for harming envied one is to suppress prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior has positive and important implication for organizational efficiency. Our results supported our model and suggested that competitive climate has a significant effect on increasing workplace envy and on the other hand envy has significant negative impact on prosocial behavior. Our result also indicated that envy is the mediator in the relation between competitive climate and prosocial behavior. Organizational competitive climate can cause employees respond envy with negative emotion and hostile and damaging behavior toward envied person. Competition can lead employees to look out for proof of their self-worthiness; and, furthermore, they measure their self-worth, value and respect by the superiority that they gain in competitions. As a result, loss in competitions can harm employee’s self-definition and they try to protect themselves by devaluating envied other and being ‘less friendly’ to them. Some employees may find it inappropriate to engage in the harming behavior, but they may believe there is nothing against withholding the prosocial behavior.
The Employee's Right to Observe the Religious Worship Day: Position of the Portuguese Constitutional Court
The present article seeks to carry out along the lines of
interpretation of the recent Portuguese Constitutional Court case law
on the possibility of an employee to observe a worship day imposed
by religious beliefs. In this approach to the question, considerations
on the subject of the relationship between religious freedom and
labour relations will inevitably arise. We intend to draw conclusions
of practical application from the court decisions on the matter of
freedom of religion.
The Use of Crisis Workplace Technology to Protect Communication Processes of Critical Infrastructure
This paper deals with a protection of the national and
European infrastructure. It is issue nowadays. The paper deals with
the perspectives and possibilities of "smart solutions" to critical
infrastructure protection. The research project deals with computers
aided technologies are used from the perspective of new, better
protection of selected infrastructure objects. Protection is focused on
communication and information channels. These communication and
information channels are very important for the functioning of the
system of protection of critical infrastructure elements.
Effective Online Staff Training: Is This Possible?
The purpose of this paper is to consider the
introduction of online courses to replace the current classroom-based
staff training. The current training is practical, and must be
completed before access to the financial computer system is
authorized. The long term objective is to measure the efficacy,
effectiveness and efficiency of the training, and to establish whether
a transfer of knowledge back to the workplace has occurred. This
paper begins with an overview explaining the importance of staff
training in an evolving, competitive business environment and
defines the problem facing this particular organization. A summary
of the literature review is followed by a brief discussion of the
research methodology and objective. The implementation of the
alpha version of the online course is then described. This paper may
be of interest to those seeking insights into, or new theory regarding,
practical interventions of online learning in the real world.
Design Management Applications to Improve Work Environment for Female Academics in Saudi Arabia
This research study examines cases of Saudi Arabian
universities and female academics for work environment issues
within the context of design management applications. The study
proposes use of design research, ergonomics and systems design
thinking to develop the university design which facilitates removal of
physical and cognitive barriers for female academics. Review of
literature demonstrates that macro and micro ergonomic combined
with design management and system design strategies can
significantly improve the workplace design for female academics.
The university design model would be prepared based on the analyses
of primary data obtained from archived documents, participants'
observation logs, photo audits, focus groups and semi-structured
interviews of currently employed female academics in the selected
Effects of Proactive Coping on Workplace Adaptation After Transition from College to Workplace
Proactive coping directed at an upcoming as opposed
to an ongoing stressor, is a new focus in positive psychology. The
present study explored the proactive coping-s effect on the workplace
adaptation after transition from college to workplace. In order to
demonstrate the influence process between them, we constructed the
model of proactive coping style effecting the actual positive coping
efforts and outcomes by mediating proactive competence during one
year after the transition. Participants (n = 100) started to work right
after graduating from college completed all the four time-s surveys
--one month before (Time 0), one month after (Time 1), three months
after (Time 2), and one year after (Time 3) the transition. Time 0
survey included the measurement of proactive coping style and
competence. Time 1, 2, 3 surveys included the measurement of the
challenge cognitive appraisal, problem solving coping strategy, and
subjective workplace adaptation. The result indicated that proactive
coping style effected newcomers- actual coping efforts and outcomes
by mediating proactive coping competence. The result also showed
that proactive coping competence directly promoted Time1-s actual
positive coping efforts and outcomes, and indirectly promoted Time
2-s and Time 3-s.
Hybridized Technique to Analyze Workstress
Related Data via the StressCafé
This paper presents anapproach of hybridizing two or more artificial intelligence (AI) techniques which arebeing used to
fuzzify the workstress level ranking and categorize the rating accordingly. The use of two or more techniques (hybrid approach)
has been considered in this case, as combining different techniques may lead to neutralizing each other-s weaknesses generating a
superior hybrid solution. Recent researches have shown that there is a
need for a more valid and reliable tools, for assessing work stress. Thus artificial intelligence techniques have been applied in this
instance to provide a solution to a psychological application. An overview about the novel and autonomous interactive model for analysing work-stress that has been developedusing multi-agent
systems is also presented in this paper. The establishment of the intelligent multi-agent decision analyser (IMADA) using hybridized technique of neural networks and fuzzy logic within the multi-agent based framework is also described.
Generational Differences in Perception of Affective Climate Antecedents
This study aims to explore the differences and
similarities in perceptions of affective climate antecedents at the
workplace (intimacy, flexibility, employment stability, and team)
among Japanese and Thai Generations X and Y. The samples in this
study were Thai and Japanese workers who completed a work
environment questionnaire and provided demographic information.
Generational differences in perceptions (beliefs) of what factors
contribute to affective climate were investigated using t-test analysis.
Mean scores for each antecedent were ranked to determine how each
generation in each group prioritized the importance of all affective
climate antecedents. Japanese Generation Y perceived the importance
of employment stability for affective climate of their workplaces to be
significantly higher than did Japanese Generation X. Thai Generation
Y considered flexibility with a higher priority than did Thai
Generation X. Intimacy was perceived as highly important across
generations and countries in regard to affective climate. Results
suggest that managers should design workplaces for a mixture of
diverse generations, resulting in a better affective climate. Differences
in the importance of antecedents for affective climate among
Generations X and Y in two countries were clarified. In addition,
different preferences regarding work environment across Japanese
Generations X and Y and Thai Generations X and Y were discussed.
Identification of Impact of Electromagnetic Fields at Low and High Frequency on Human Body
The article reviews the current state of large-scale
studies about the impact of electromagnetic field on natural
environment. The scenario of investigations – simulation of natural
conditions at the workplace, taking into consideration the influence
both low and high frequency electromagnetic fields is shown.The
biological effects of low and high frequency electromagnetic fields
are below presented. Results of investigation with animals are shown.
The norms and regulations concerning the levels of electromagnetic
field intensity are reviewed.
The Link between Ergonomics and Occupational Diseases
Ergonomics is a useful tool for creating a healthy and
safe workplace. The long-term action of harmful conditions on the
health of workers is the emergence of occupational disease, and the
firm-s increased compensation costs associated with these diseases,
but is also the loss of time needed for educating and including new
workers in the work process. The article deals with the link of
ergonomics to occupational diseases, factors which influence these
diseases. In the conclusion, a model is described to help reduce the
risk of selected occupational diseases using ergonomic principles and
Attributions by Team Members for Team Outcomes in Finnish Working Life
This study focuses on teamwork in Finnish working
life. Through a wide cross-section of teams the study examines the
causes to which team members attribute the outcomes of their teams.
Qualitative data was collected from 314 respondents. They wrote 616
stories to describe memorable experiences of success and failure in
teamwork. The stories revealed 1930 explanations. The findings
indicate that both favorable and unfavorable team outcomes are
perceived as being caused by the characteristics of team members,
relationships between members, team communication, team
structure, team goals, team leadership, and external forces. The types
represent different attribution levels in the context of organizational
Academic Mobbing in Turkey
People at workplace always face with stress and feel it in their lives. There are many factors that create stress and mobbing is one of them. Mobbing is a psychological terror, conducted systematically toward an individual by others at the same workplace. Mobbing started to become a famous subject last years in U.S and Europe. In Turkey, it is a new concept not because it does not occur, because of human nature that does not allow confessing it. Mobbing is being ignored by people, organizations and also government in our country. The focus of this study will be mobbing in Turkey by examining the workplace mobbing among Turkish academicians. There are other studies about mobbing in Turkey but none of them studied academy. Because mobbing methods change according to sectors and occupations, it is important to analyze each sector to understand the methods used in mobbing and the reactions of victims to these actions. The concept is analyzed in detail before focusing on mobbing at universities. This paper will be unique because there is no information about this specific subject in Turkish literature. In this paper, both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to describe the mobbing at Turkish academic environment.
Workplace Learners- Perceptions towards a Blended Learning Approach
The current paper presents the findings of a research
study on learners- barriers and motivators engaged into blended
programs in a workplace context. In this study, the participants were
randomly assigned to one of four parallel e-learning courses, each of
which was delivered using a different learning strategy. Data were
collected through web-based and telephone surveys developed by the
researchers. The results showed that vague instruction, time
management, and insufficient feedback were the top-most barriers to
blended learning. The major motivators for blended learning included
content relevance, flexibility in time, and the ability to work at own
An Empirical Quest for Linkages between HPWS and Employee Behaviors – a Perspective from the Non Managerial Employees in Japanese Organizations
High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) generally give rise to positive impacts on employees by increasing their commitments in workplaces. While some argued this actually have considerable negative impacts on employees with increasing possibilities of imposing strains caused by stress and intensity of such work places. Do stressful workplaces hamper employee commitment? The author has tried to find the answer by exploring linkages between HPWS practices and its impact on employees in Japanese organizations. How negative outcomes like job intensity and workplaces and job stressors can influence different forms of employees- commitments which can be a hindrance to their performance. Design: A close ended questionnaire survey was conducted amongst 16 large, medium and small sized Japanese companies from diverse industries around Chiba, Saitama, and Ibaraki Prefectures and in Tokyo from the month of October 2008 to February 2009. Questionnaires were aimed to the non managerial employees- perceptions of HPWS practices, their behavior, working life experiences in their work places. A total of 227 samples are used for analysis in the study. Methods: Correlations, MANCOVA, SEM Path analysis using AMOS software are used for data analysis in this study. Findings: Average non-managerial perception of HPWS adoption is significantly but negatively correlated to both work place Stressors and Continuous commitment, but positively correlated to job Intensity, Affective, Occupational and Normative commitments in different workplaces at Japan. The path analysis by SEM shows significant indirect relationship between Stressors and employee Affective organizational commitment and Normative organizational commitments. Intensity also has a significant indirect effect on Occupational commitments. HPWS has an additive effect on all the outcomes variables. Limitations: The sample size in this study cannot be a representative to the entire population of non-managerial employees in Japan. There were no respondents from automobile, pharmaceuticals, finance industries. The duration of the survey coincided in a period when Japan as most of the other countries is under going recession. Biases could not be ruled out completely. We must take cautions in interpreting the results of studies as they cannot be generalized. And the path analysis cannot provide the complete causality of the inter linkages between the variables used in the study. Originality: There have been limited studies on linkages in HPWS adoptions and their impacts on employees- behaviors and commitments in Japanese workplaces. This study may provide some ingredients for further research in the fields of HRM policies and practices and their linkages on different forms of employees- commitments.
Application of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language for Design of Automated Workplaces
Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) is description language, which belongs to a field Window on World virtual reality system. The file, which is in VRML format, can be interpreted by VRML explorer in three-dimensional scene. VRML was created with aim to represent virtual reality on Internet easier. Development of 3D graphic is connected with Silicon Graphic Corporation. VRML 2.0 is the file format for describing interactive 3D scenes and objects. It can be used in collaboration with www, can be used for 3D complex representations creating of scenes, products or VR applications VRML 2.0 enables represent static and animated objects too. Interesting application of VRML is in area of manufacturing systems presentation.