Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 6

6
10009894
Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy
Abstract:

Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

5
10008896
4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea
Abstract:
This paper introduces the applicability of underwater photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological excavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was being attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early as the 1970s’ and today the production of traditional 3D models is becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.  Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and when underwater visibility is > 1m, reducing its implementation on most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions. Recent years have seen significant development of better digital photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology, ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5, GoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age (3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions (< 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.
4
10004854
Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Pin on Disc Type of Contact
Abstract:

The present work aims at contributing to the study of the complex phenomenon of wear of pin on disc contact in dry sliding friction between two material couples (bronze/steel and unsaturated polyester virgin and charged with graphite powder/steel). The work consists of the determination of the coefficient of friction, the study of the influence of the tribological parameters on this coefficient and the determination of the mass loss and the wear rate of the pin. This study is also widened to the highlighting of the influence of the addition of graphite powder on the tribological properties of the polymer constituting the pin. The experiments are carried out on a pin-disc type tribometer that we have designed and manufactured. Tests are conducted according to the standards DIN 50321 and DIN EN 50324. The discs are made of annealed XC48 steel and quenched and tempered XC48 steel. The main results are described here after. The increase of the normal load and the sliding speed causes the increase of the friction coefficient, whereas the increase of the percentage of graphite and the hardness of the disc surface contributes to its reduction. The mass loss also increases with the normal load. The influence of the normal load on the friction coefficient is more significant than that of the sliding speed. The effect of the sliding speed decreases for large speed values. The increase of the amount of graphite powder leads to a decrease of the coefficient of friction, the mass loss and the wear rate. The addition of graphite to the UP resin is beneficial; it plays the role of solid lubricant.

3
10000046
Wear and Friction Analysis of Sintered Metal Powder Self Lubricating Bush Bearing
Abstract:

Powder metallurgy (P/M) is the only economic way to produce porous parts/products. P/M can produce near net shape parts hence reduces wastage of raw material and energy, avoids various machining operations. The most vital use of P/M is in production of metallic filters and self lubricating bush bearings and siding surfaces. The porosity of the part can be controlled by varying compaction pressure, sintering temperature and composition of metal powder mix. The present work is aimed for experimental analysis of friction and wear properties of self lubricating copper and tin bush bearing. Experimental results confirm that wear rate of sintered component is lesser for components having 10% tin by weight percentage. Wear rate increases for high tin percentage (experimented for 20% tin and 30% tin) at same sintering temperature. Experimental results also confirms that wear rate of sintered component is also dependent on sintering temperature, soaking period, composition of the preform, compacting pressure, powder particle shape and size. Interfacial friction between die and punch, between inter powder particles, between die face and powder particle depends on compaction pressure, powder particle size and shape, size and shape of component which decides size & shape of die & punch, material of die & punch and material of powder particles.

2
16129
Study of Mechanical Properties for the Aluminum Bronze Matrix Composites of Hot Pressing
Abstract:

The aluminum bronze matrix alumina composites using hot press and resin infiltration were investigated to study their porosities, hardness, bending strengths, and microstructures. The experiment results show that the hardness of the sintered composites with the decrease of porosity increases. The composites without and with resin infiltration have about HRF 42-61 of about 34-40% of porosity and about HRF 62-83 of about 30-36% of porosity, respectively. Besides, the alumina composites contain a more amount of iron and nickel powders would cause a lower bending strength due to forming some weaker bonding among the iron, nickel, copper, aluminum under this hot pressing of shorter time.

1
8731
Perfect Plastic Deformation of a Circular Thin Bronze Plate due to the Growth and Collapse of a Vapour Bubble
Abstract:

Dynamics of a vapour bubble generated due to a high local energy input near a circular thin bronze plate in the absence of the buoyancy forces is numerically investigated in this paper. The bubble is generated near a thin bronze plate and during the growth and collapse of the bubble, it deforms the nearby plate. The Boundary Integral Equation Method is employed for numerical simulation of the problem. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible, irrotational and inviscid and the surface tension on the bubble boundary is neglected. Therefore the fluid flow around the vapour bubble can be assumed as a potential flow. Furthermore, the thin bronze plate is assumed to have perfectly plastic behaviour. Results show that the displacement of the circular thin bronze plate has considerable effect on the dynamics of its nearby vapour bubble. It is found that by decreasing the thickness of the thin bronze plate, the growth and collapse rate of the bubble becomes higher and consequently the lifetime of the bubble becomes shorter.

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