Image Segmentation and Contour Recognition Based on Mathematical Morphology
In image segmentation contour detection is one of the important pre-processing steps in recent days. Contours characterize boundaries and contour detection is one of the most difficult tasks in image processing. Hence it is a problem of fundamental importance in image processing. Contour detection of an image decreases the volume of data considerably and useless information is removed, but the structural properties of the image remain same. In this research, a robust and effective contour detection technique has been proposed using mathematical morphology. Three different contour detection results are obtained by using morphological dilation and erosion. The comparative analyses of three different results also have been done.
A Robust Hybrid Blind Digital Image Watermarking System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Contourlet Transform
In this paper, a hybrid blind digital watermarking system using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT) has been implemented and tested. The implemented combined digital watermarking system has been tested against five common types of image attacks. The performance evaluation shows improved results in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and high tolerance against these attacks; accordingly, the system is very effective and applicable.
Numerical Simulations of Fire in Typical Air Conditioned Railway Coach
Railways in India remain primary mode of transport
having one of the largest networks in the world and catering to
billions of transits yearly. Catastrophic economic damage and loss
to life is encountered over the past few decades due to fire to
locomotives. Study of fire dynamics and fire propagation plays an
important role in evacuation planning and reducing losses. Simulation
based study of propagation of fire and soot inside an air conditioned
coach of Indian locomotive is done in this paper. Finite difference
based solver, Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) version 6 has been
used for analysis. A single air conditioned 3 tier coupe closed to
ambient surroundings by glass windows having occupancy for 8
people is the basic unit of the domain. A system of three such
coupes combined is taken to be fundamental unit for the entire
study to resemble effect to an entire coach. Analysis of flame and
soot contours and concentrations is done corresponding to variations
in heat release rate per unit volume (HRRPUA) of fire source,
variations in conditioned air velocity being circulated inside coupes
by vents and an alternate fire initiation and propagation mechanism
via ducts. Quantitative results of fractional area in top and front
view of the three coupes under fire and smoke are obtained using
MATLAB (IMT). Present simulations and its findings will be useful
for organizations like Commission of Railway Safety and others in
designing and implementing safety and evacuation measures.
Study of Fire Propagation and Soot Flow in a Pantry Car of Railway Locomotive
Fire accidents in trains bring huge disaster to human
life and property. Evacuation becomes a major challenge in such
incidents owing to confined spaces, large passenger density and
trains moving at high speeds. The pantry car in Indian Railways
trains carry inflammable materials like cooking fuel and LPG and
electrical fittings. The pantry car is therefore highly susceptible to
fire accidents. Numerical simulations have been done in a pantry car
of Indian locomotive train using computational fluid dynamics based
software. Different scenarios of a fire outbreak have been explored
by varying Heat Release Rate per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the fire
source, introduction of exhaust in the cooking area, and taking a
case of an air conditioned pantry car. Temporal statures of flame and
soot have been obtained for each scenario and differences have been
studied and reported. Inputs from this study can be used to assess
casualties in fire accidents in locomotive trains and development of
smoke control/detection systems in Indian trains.
Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering
The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.
Manipulation of Image Segmentation Using Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony Approach
Image segmentation is the concept of splitting the images into several images. Image Segmentation algorithm is used to manipulate the process of image segmentation. The advantage of ABC is that it conducts every worldwide exploration and inhabitant exploration for iteration. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) encompass a number of search problems. Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony algorithm has been imposed to increase the performance of a neighborhood search. The simulation results clearly show that the presented ABC methods outperform the existing methods. The result shows that the algorithms can be used to implement the manipulator for grasping of colored objects. The efficiency of the presented method is improved a lot by comparing to other methods.
A General Framework for Knowledge Discovery Using High Performance Machine Learning Algorithms
The aim of this paper is to propose a general
framework for storing, analyzing, and extracting knowledge from
two-dimensional echocardiographic images, color Doppler images,
non-medical images, and general data sets. A number of high
performance data mining algorithms have been used to carry out this
task. Our framework encompasses four layers namely physical
storage, object identification, knowledge discovery, user level.
Techniques such as active contour model to identify the cardiac
chambers, pixel classification to segment the color Doppler echo
image, universal model for image retrieval, Bayesian method for
classification, parallel algorithms for image segmentation, etc., were
employed. Using the feature vector database that have been
efficiently constructed, one can perform various data mining tasks
like clustering, classification, etc. with efficient algorithms along
with image mining given a query image. All these facilities are
included in the framework that is supported by state-of-the-art user
interface (UI). The algorithms were tested with actual patient data
and Coral image database and the results show that their performance
is better than the results reported already.
CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet
One of the most important challenging factors in
medical images is nominated as noise. Image denoising refers to the
improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by
Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image
or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are
impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography
(CT) images are subjects to low quality due to the noise. Quality of
CT images is dependent on absorbed dose to patients directly in such
a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed
dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this
manner, noise reduction techniques on purpose of images quality
enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the
challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise
reduction in CT images was performed using two different
directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and
Contourlet and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) thresholding
methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other
and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only
noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed
method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result good
visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two
criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure
Evolutionary Program Based Approach for Manipulator Grasping Color Objects
Image segmentation and color identification is an
important process used in various emerging fields like intelligent
robotics. A method is proposed for the manipulator to grasp and place
the color object into correct location. The existing methods such as
PSO, has problems like accelerating the convergence speed and
converging to a local minimum leading to sub optimal performance.
To improve the performance, we are using watershed algorithm and
for color identification, we are using EPSO. EPSO method is used to
reduce the probability of being stuck in the local minimum. The
proposed method offers the particles a more powerful global
exploration capability. EPSO methods can determine the particles
stuck in the local minimum and can also enhance learning speed as
the particle movement will be faster.
Grid Independence Study of Flow Past a Square Cylinder Using the Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Method
Numerical calculations of flow around a square cylinder are presented using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method at Reynolds number 150. The effects of upstream locations, downstream locations and blockage are investigated systematically. A detail analysis are given in terms of time-trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients, power spectra analysis of lift coefficient, vorticity contours visualizations and phase diagrams. A number of physical quantities mean drag coefficient, drag coefficient, Strouhal number and root-mean-square values of drag and lift coefficients are calculated and compared with the well resolved experimental data and numerical results available in open literature. The results had shown that the upstream, downstream and height of the computational domain are at least 7.5, 37.5 and 12 diameters of the cylinder, respectively.
A Spatial Point Pattern Analysis to Recognize Fail Bit Patterns in Semiconductor Manufacturing
The yield management system is very important to produce high-quality semiconductor chips in the semiconductor manufacturing process. In order to improve quality of semiconductors, various tests are conducted in the post fabrication (FAB) process. During the test process, large amount of data are collected and the data includes a lot of information about defect. In general, the defect on the wafer is the main causes of yield loss. Therefore, analyzing the defect data is necessary to improve performance of yield prediction. The wafer bin map (WBM) is one of the data collected in the test process and includes defect information such as the fail bit patterns. The fail bit has characteristics of spatial point patterns. Therefore, this paper proposes the feature extraction method using the spatial point pattern analysis. Actual data obtained from the semiconductor process is used for experiments and the experimental result shows that the proposed method is more accurately recognize the fail bit patterns.
Comparative Analysis of Turbulent Plane Jets from a Sharp-Edged Orifice, a Beveled-Edge Orifice and a Radially Contoured Nozzle
This article investigates through experiments the flow characteristics of plane jets from sharp-edged orifice-plate, beveled-edge and radially contoured nozzle. The first two configurations exhibit saddle-backed velocity profiles while the third shows a top-hat. A vena contracta is found for the jet emanating from orifice at x/h » 3 while the contoured case displays a potential core extending to the range x/h = 5. A spurt in jet pressure on the centerline supports vena contracta for the orifice-jet. Momentum thicknesses and integral length scales elongate linearly with x although the growth of the shear-layer and large-scale eddies for the orifice are greater than the contoured case. The near-field spectrum exhibits higher frequency of the primary eddies that concur with enhanced turbulence intensity. Importantly, highly “turbulent” state of the orifice-jet prevails in the far-field where the spectra confirm more energetic secondary eddies associated with greater flapping amplitude of the orifice-jet.
Probabilistic Bhattacharya Based Active Contour Model in Structure Tensor Space
Object identification and segmentation application requires extraction of object in foreground from the background. In this paper the Bhattacharya distance based probabilistic approach is utilized with an active contour model (ACM) to segment an object from the background. In the proposed approach, the Bhattacharya histogram is calculated on non-linear structure tensor space. Based on the histogram, new formulation of active contour model is proposed to segment images. The results are tested on both color and gray images from the Berkeley image database. The experimental results show that the proposed model is applicable to both color and gray images as well as both texture images and natural images. Again in comparing to the Bhattacharya based ACM in ICA space, the proposed model is able to segment multiple object too.
Distributed Motion Control Real-Time Contouring Algorithm Implementation and Performance Test
This paper presents an implementation and performance test of a distributed motion control system based on a master-slave configuration used to move a plasma-cutting torch over a predefined trajectory. The master is a general-purpose computer running on an open source operating system platform and software developer. Software running in the master computer generates commands on real time and we measure performance based on a selected set of differences between expected and observed distances. We are testing the null hypothesis that the outcome trajectory is identical to the input against the alternative hypothesis that there is a shift to the right or left of the input one. We used the Wilcoxon signed ranks test method for the hypothesis test.
Automatic Segmentation of Retina Vessels by Using Zhang Method
Image segmentation is an important step in image
processing. Major developments in medical imaging allow
physicians to use potent and non-invasive methods in order to
evaluate structures, performance and to diagnose human diseases. In
this study, an active contour was used to extract vessel networks
from color retina images. Automatic analysis of retina vessels
facilitates calculation of arterial index which is required to diagnose
some certain retinopathies.
An Implicit Region-Based Deformable Model with Local Segmentation Applied to Weld Defects Extraction
This paper is devoted to present and discuss a model that allows a local segmentation by using statistical information of a given image. It is based on Chan-Vese model, curve evolution, partial differential equations and binary level sets method. The proposed model uses the piecewise constant approximation of Chan-Vese model to compute Signed Pressure Force (SPF) function, this one attracts the curve to the true object(s)-s boundaries. The implemented model is used to extract weld defects from weld radiographic images in the aim to calculate the perimeter and surfaces of those weld defects; encouraged resultants are obtained on synthetic and real radiographic images.
Forces Association-Based Active Contour
A welded structure must be inspected to guarantee that the weld quality meets the design requirements to assure safety and reliability. However, X-ray image analyses and defect recognition with the computer vision techniques are very complex. Most difficulties lie in finding the small, irregular defects in poor contrast images which requires pre processing to image, extract, and classify features from strong background noise. This paper addresses the issue of designing methodology to extract defect from noisy background radiograph with image processing. Based on the use of actives contours this methodology seems to give good results
CFD Modeling of a Radiator Axial Fan for Air Flow Distribution
The fluid mechanics principle is used extensively in
designing axial flow fans and their associated equipment. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air flow
distribution from a radiator axial flow fan used in an acid pump truck Tier4 (APT T4) Repower. This axial flow fan augments the transfer
of heat from the engine mounted on the APT T4.
CFD analysis was performed for an area weighted average static pressure difference at the inlet and outlet of the fan. Pressure contours, velocity vectors, and path lines were plotted for detailing
the flow characteristics for different orientations of the fan blade. The results were then compared and verified against known theoretical observations and actual experimental data. This study
shows that a CFD simulation can be very useful for predicting and understanding the flow distribution from a radiator fan for further
Development of a Simple laser-based 2D Compensating System for the Contouring Accuracy of Machine Tools
The dynamical contouring error is a critical element for the accuracy of machine tools. The contouring error is defined as the difference between the processing actual path and commanded path, which is implemented by following the command curves from feeding driving system in machine tools. The contouring error is resulted from various factors, such as the external loads, friction, inertia moment, feed rate, speed control, servo control, and etc. Thus, the study proposes a 2D compensating system for the contouring accuracy of machine tools. Optical method is adopted by using stable frequency laser diode and the high precision position sensor detector (PSD) to performno-contact measurement. Results show the related accuracy of position sensor detector (PSD) of 2D contouring accuracy compensating system was ±1.5 μm for a calculated range of ±3 mm, and improvement accuracy is over 80% at high-speed feed rate.
Feature Point Detection by Combining Advantages of Intensity-based Approach and Edge-based Approach
In this paper, a novel corner detection method is
presented to stably extract geometrically important corners.
Intensity-based corner detectors such as the Harris corner can detect
corners in noisy environments but has inaccurate corner position and
misses the corners of obtuse angles. Edge-based corner detectors such
as Curvature Scale Space can detect structural corners but show
unstable corner detection due to incomplete edge detection in noisy
environments. The proposed image-based direct curvature estimation
can overcome limitations in both inaccurate structural corner detection
of the Harris corner detector (intensity-based) and the unstable corner
detection of Curvature Scale Space caused by incomplete edge
detection. Various experimental results validate the robustness of the
Constraint Active Contour Model with Application to Automated Three-Dimensional Airway Wall Segmentation
For evaluating the severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), one is interested in inspecting the airway wall thickening due to inflammation. Although airway segmentations have being well developed to reconstruct in high order, airway wall segmentation remains a challenge task. While tackling such problem as a multi-surface segmentation, the interrelation within surfaces needs to be considered. We propose a new method for three-dimensional airway wall segmentation using spring structural active contour model. The method incorporates the gravitational field of the image and repelling force field of the inner lumen as the soft constraint and the geometric spring structure of active contour as the hard constraint to approximate a three-dimensional coupled surface readily for thickness measurements. The results show the preservation of topology constraints of coupled surfaces. In conclusion, our springy, soft-tissue-like structure ensures the globally optimal solution and waives the shortness following by the inevitable improper inner surface constraint.
Active Contours with Prior Corner Detection
Deformable active contours are widely used in
computer vision and image processing applications for image
segmentation, especially in biomedical image analysis. The active
contour or “snake" deforms towards a target object by controlling the
internal, image and constraint forces. However, if the contour
initialized with a lesser number of control points, there is a high
probability of surpassing the sharp corners of the object during
deformation of the contour. In this paper, a new technique is
proposed to construct the initial contour by incorporating prior
knowledge of significant corners of the object detected using the
Harris operator. This new reconstructed contour begins to deform, by
attracting the snake towards the targeted object, without missing the
corners. Experimental results with several synthetic images show the
ability of the new technique to deal with sharp corners with a high
accuracy than traditional methods.
Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region
In this work, stationary hot-wire measurements are
carried out to investigate the characteristics of a round free jet in its
potential core region (0 ≤ x/d ≤ 10). Measurements are carried out on
an incompressible round jet for a range of Reynolds numbers from
4000 to 8000, calculated based on the jet exit mean velocity and the
nozzle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the development
characteristics of the jet in the core region is analyzed. Timeaveraged
statistics, spectra of velocity and its higher order moments
are presented and explained.
Simulating Gradient Contour and Mesh of a Scalar Field
This research paper is based upon the simulation of
gradient of mathematical functions and scalar fields using MATLAB.
Scalar fields, their gradient, contours and mesh/surfaces are
simulated using different related MATLAB tools and commands for
convenient presentation and understanding. Different mathematical
functions and scalar fields are examined here by taking their
gradient, visualizing results in 3D with different color shadings and
using other necessary relevant commands. In this way the outputs of
required functions help us to analyze and understand in a better way
as compared to just theoretical study of gradient.
Speckle Reducing Contourlet Transform for Medical Ultrasound Images
Speckle noise affects all coherent imaging systems
including medical ultrasound. In medical images, noise suppression
is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A tradeoff between noise
reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made
in a way that enhances the diagnostically relevant image content.
Even though wavelets have been extensively used for denoising
speckle images, we have found that denoising using contourlets gives
much better performance in terms of SNR, PSNR, MSE, variance and
correlation coefficient. The objective of the paper is to determine the
number of levels of Laplacian pyramidal decomposition, the number
of directional decompositions to perform on each pyramidal level and
thresholding schemes which yields optimal despeckling of medical
ultrasound images, in particular. The proposed method consists of the
log transformed original ultrasound image being subjected to contourlet
transform, to obtain contourlet coefficients. The transformed
image is denoised by applying thresholding techniques on individual
band pass sub bands using a Bayes shrinkage rule. We quantify the
achieved performance improvement.
Study of Aluminum, Copper and Molybdenum Pollution in Groundwater Sources Surrounding (Miduk) Shahr-E- Babak Copper Complex Tailings Dam
Interpolated contour maps drawn for aluminum,
copper and molybdenum in downstream monitoring boreholes of
water dam in Miduk Copper Complex and the values of pH, redox
potential (Eh) and distance from water dam indicate different trends
of variation and behavior of these three elements in downward
groundwater resources. As these maps exhibit, aluminum is dominant
in the most alkaline (pH = 9-11) borehole (MB5) to water dam. The
highest concentration of molybdenum is found in the nearest
borehole (MB6) to water dam. Main concentration of copper is
observed in the most oxidized borehole (MB3 with Eh=293.2mV).
The spatial difference among sampling stations can be attributed to
the existence of faults and diaclases in the geologic structure of
Miduk region which causes the groundwater sampling sites to be
impressed by different contamination sources (toe seepage and upper
seepage water originated from different zones of tailings dump).
Efficient Feature-Based Registration for CT-M R Images Based on NSCT and PSO
Feature-based registration is an effective technique for clinical use, because it can greatly reduce computational costs. However, this technique, which estimates the transformation by using feature points extracted from two images, may cause misalignments. To handle with this limitation, we propose to extract the salient edges and extracted control points (CP) of medical images by using efficiency of multiresolution representation of data nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) that finds the best feature points. The MR images were first decomposed using the NSCT, and then Edge and CP were extracted from bandpass directional subband of NSCT coefficients and some proposed rules. After edge and CP extraction, mutual information was adopted for the registration of feature points and translation parameters are calculated by using particle swarm optimization (PSO). The experimental results showed that the proposed method produces totally accurate performance for registration medical CT-MR images.
The Performance Analysis of Valveless Micropump with Contoured Nozzle/Diffuser
The operation performance of a valveless micro-pump
is strongly dependent on the shape of connected nozzle/diffuser and
Reynolds number. The aims of present work are to compare the
performance curves of micropump with the original straight
nozzle/diffuser and contoured nozzle/diffuser under different back
pressure conditions. The tested valveless micropumps are assembled
of five pieces of patterned PMMA plates with hot-embracing
technique. The structures of central chamber, the inlet/outlet
reservoirs and the connected nozzle/diffuser are fabricated with laser
cutting machine. The micropump is actuated with circular-type PZT
film embraced on the bottom of central chamber. The deformation of
PZT membrane with various input voltages is measured with a
displacement laser probe. A simple testing facility is also constructed
to evaluate the performance curves for comparison.
In order to observe the evaluation of low Reynolds number
multiple vortex flow patterns within the micropump during suction
and pumping modes, the unsteady, incompressible laminar
three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are
solved. The working fluid is DI water with constant thermo-physical
properties. The oscillating behavior of PZT film is modeled with the
moving boundary wall in way of UDF program. With the dynamic
mesh method, the instants pressure and velocity fields are obtained
and discussed.Results indicated that the volume flow rate is not
monotony increased with the oscillating frequency of PZT film,
regardless of the shapes of nozzle/diffuser. The present micropump
can generate the maximum volume flow rate of 13.53 ml/min when
the operation frequency is 64Hz and the input voltage is 140 volts.
The micropump with contoured nozzle/diffuser can provide 7ml/min
flow rate even when the back pressure is up to 400 mm-H2O. CFD
results revealed that the flow central chamber was occupied with
multiple pairs of counter-rotating vortices during suction and
pumping modes. The net volume flow rate over a complete
oscillating periodic of PZT
Wind Load Characteristics in Libya
Recent trends in building constructions in Libya are
more toward tall (high-rise) building projects. As a consequence, a
better estimation of the lateral loading in the design process is
becoming the focal of a safe and cost effective building industry. Byin-
large, Libya is not considered a potential earthquake prone zone,
making wind is the dominant design lateral loads. Current design
practice in the country estimates wind speeds on a mere random
bases by considering certain factor of safety to the chosen wind
speed. Therefore, a need for a more accurate estimation of wind
speeds in Libya was the motivation behind this study. Records of
wind speed data were collected from 22 metrological stations in
Libya, and were statistically analysed. The analysis of more than four
decades of wind speed records suggests that the country can be
divided into four zones of distinct wind speeds. A computer “survey"
program was manipulated to draw design wind speeds contour map
for the state of Libya.
The paper presents the statistical analysis of Libya-s recorded
wind speed data and proposes design wind speed values for a 50-year
return period that covers the entire country.
Contourlet versus Wavelet Transform for a Robust Digital Image Watermarking Technique
In this paper, a watermarking algorithm that uses the wavelet transform with Multiple Description Coding (MDC) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) concepts is introduced. Also, the paper investigates the role of Contourlet Transform (CT) versus Wavelet Transform (WT) in providing robust image watermarking. Two measures are utilized in the comparison between the waveletbased and the contourlet-based methods; Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC). Experimental results reveal that the introduced algorithm is robust against different attacks and has good results compared to the contourlet-based algorithm.