Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network
In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.
An Active Rectifier with Time-Domain Delay Compensation to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency
This paper presents an active rectifier with time-domain delay compensation to enhance the efficiency. A delay calibration circuit is designed to convert delay time to voltage and adaptive control on/off delay in variable input voltage. This circuit is designed in 0.18 mm CMOS process. The input voltage range is from 2 V to 3.6 V with the output voltage from 1.8 V to 3.4 V. The efficiency can maintain more than 85% when the load from 50 Ω ~ 1500 Ω for 3.6 V input voltage. The maximum efficiency is 92.4 % at output power to be 38.6 mW for 3.6 V input voltage.
Automatic Thresholding for Data Gap Detection for a Set of Sensors in Instrumented Buildings
Building systems are highly vulnerable to different
kinds of faults and failures. In fact, various faults, failures and human
behaviors could affect the building performance. This paper tackles
the detection of unreliable sensors in buildings. Different literature
surveys on diagnosis techniques for sensor grids in buildings have
been published but all of them treat only bias and outliers. Occurences
of data gaps have also not been given an adequate span of attention
in the academia. The proposed methodology comprises the automatic thresholding
for data gap detection for a set of heterogeneous sensors in
instrumented buildings. Sensor measurements are considered to be
regular time series. However, in reality, sensor values are not
uniformly sampled. So, the issue to solve is from which delay each
sensor become faulty? The use of time series is required for detection of abnormalities on
the delays. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on measurements
obtained from a real power plant: an office at Grenoble Institute of
technology equipped by 30 sensors.
Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation
Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.
Effect of Addition Rate of Expansive Additive on Autogenous Shrinkage and Delayed Expansion of Ultra-High Strength Mortar
In this study, the effect of expansive additives on autogenous shrinkage and delayed expansion of ultra-high strength mortar was explored. The specimens made for the study were composed of ultra-high strength mortar, which was mixed with ettringite-lime composite type expansive additive. Two series of experiments were conducted with the specimens. The experimental results confirmed that the autogenous shrinkage of specimens was effectively decreased by increasing the proportion of the expansive additive. On the other hand, for the specimens, which had 7% expansive additive, and were cured for seven days at a constant temperature of 20°C, and then cured for a long time in either in an underwater, moist (Relative humidity: 100%) or dry air (Relative humidity: 60%) environment, excessively large expansion strain occurred. Specifically, typical turtle shell-like swelling expansion cracks were confirmed in the specimens that underwent long-term curing in an underwater and moist environment. According to the result of hydration analysis, the formation of expansive substances, calcium hydroxide and alumina, ferric oxide, tri-sulfate contribute to the occurrence of delayed expansion.
The Excess Loop Delay Calibration in a Bandpass Continuous-Time Delta Sigma Modulators Based on Q-Enhanced LC Filter
The Q-enhanced LC filters are the most used
architecture in the Bandpass (BP) Continuous-Time (CT)
Delta-Sigma (ΣΔ) modulators, due to their: high frequencies
operation, high linearity than the active filters and a high quality
factor obtained by Q-enhanced technique. This technique consists
of the use of a negative resistance that compensate the ohmic
losses in the on-chip inductor. However, this technique introduces a
zero in the filter transfer function which will affect the modulator
performances in term of Dynamic Range (DR), stability and in-band
noise (Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)). In this paper, we study the
effect of this zero and we demonstrate that a calibration of the
excess loop delay (ELD) is required to ensure the best performances
of the modulator. System level simulations are done for a 2ndorder
BP CT (ΣΔ) modulator at a center frequency of 300MHz. Simulation
results indicate that the optimal ELD should be reduced by 13% to
achieve the maximum SNR and DR compared to the ideal LC-based
Development and Psychometric Properties of the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian Population
This study aims to develop the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian population and to investigate its psychometric properties. New items of the scale were created taking into account the Indonesian population which consists of two parallel forms (A and A’). This study uses 30 newly orchestrated items while keeping in mind the characteristics of the targeted population. The scale was administered to 433 public high school students in Malang, Indonesia. Construct validity of its factor structure was demonstrated using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The result exhibits that he model fits the data, and that the delayed alternate form method shows acceptable result. Results yielded that 21 items of the three-dimensional Relational Mobility Scale is suitable for measuring relational mobility in high school students of Indonesian population.
Exploratory Data Analysis of Passenger Movement on Delhi Urban Bus Route
Intelligent Transportation System is an integrated application of communication, control and monitoring and display process technologies for developing a user–friendly transportation system for urban areas in developing countries. In fact, the development of a country and the progress of its transportation system are complementary to each other. Urban traffic has been growing vigorously due to population growth as well as escalation of vehicle ownership causing congestion, delays, pollution, accidents, high-energy consumption and low productivity of resources. The development and management of urban transport in developing countries like India however, is at tryout stage with very few accumulations. Under the umbrella of ITS, urban corridor management strategy have proven to be one of the most successful system in accomplishing these objectives. The present study interprets and figures out the performance of the 27.4 km long Urban Bus route having six intersections, five flyovers and 29 bus stops that covers significant area of the city by causality analysis. Performance interpretations incorporate Passenger Boarding and Alighting, Dwell time, Distance between Bus Stops and Total trip time taken by bus on selected urban route.
Combined Effect of Heat Stimulation and Delayed Addition of Superplasticizer with Slag on Fresh and Hardened Property of Mortar
To obtain the high quality and essential workability of mortar, different types of superplasticizers are used. The superplasticizers are the chemical admixture used in the mix to improve the fluidity of mortar. Many factors influenced the superplasticizer to disperse the cement particle in the mortar. Nature and amount of replaced cement by slag, mixing procedure, delayed addition time, and heat stimulation technique of superplasticizer cause the varied effect on the fluidity of the cementitious material. In this experiment, the superplasticizers were heated for 1 hour under 60 °C in a thermostatic chamber. Furthermore, the effect of delayed addition time of heat stimulated superplasticizers (SP) was also analyzed. This method was applied to two types of polycarboxylic acid based ether SP (precast type superplasticizer (SP2) and ready-mix type superplasticizer (SP1)) in combination with a partial replacement of normal Portland cement with blast furnace slag (BFS) with 30% w/c ratio. On the other hands, the fluidity, air content, fresh density, and compressive strength for 7 and 28 days were studied. The results indicate that the addition time and heat stimulation technique improved the flow and air content, decreased the density, and slightly decreased the compressive strength of mortar. Moreover, the slag improved the flow of mortar by increasing the amount of slag, and the effect of external temperature of SP on the flow of mortar was decreased. In comparison, the flow of mortar was improved on 5-minute delay for both kinds of SP, but SP1 has improved the flow in all conditions. Most importantly, the transition points in both types of SP appear to be the same, at about 5±1 min. In addition, the optimum addition time of SP to mortar should be in this period.
Enhancing Seismic Performance of Ductile Moment Frames with Delayed Wire-Rope Bracing Using Middle Steel Plate
Moment frames have considerable ductility against cyclic lateral loads and displacements; however, if this feature causes the relative displacement to exceed the permissible limit, it can impose unfavorable hysteretic behavior on the frame. Therefore, adding a bracing system with the capability of preserving the capacity of high energy absorption and controlling displacements without a considerable increase in the stiffness is quite important. This paper investigates the retrofitting of a single storey steel moment frame through a delayed wire-rope bracing system using a middle steel plate. In this model, the steel plate lies where the wire ropes meet, and the model geometry is such that the cables are continuously under tension so that they can take the most advantage of the inherent potential they have in tolerating tensile stress. Using the steel plate also reduces the system stiffness considerably compared to cross bracing systems and preserves the ductile frame’s energy absorption capacity. In this research, the software models of delayed wire-rope bracing system have been studied, validated, and compared with other researchers’ laboratory test results.
Building Information Modelling for Construction Delay Management
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is not an exception in relying on the growth of its construction industry to support rapid population growth. However, its need for infrastructure development is constrained by low productivity levels and cost overruns caused by factors such as delays to project completion. Delays in delivering a construction project are a global issue and while theories such as Optimism Bias have been used to explain such delays, in KSA, client-related causes of delays are also significant. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework-based approach to explore how the country’s construction industry can manage and reduce delays in construction projects through building information modelling (BIM) in order to mitigate the cost consequences of such delays. It comprehensively and systematically reviewed the global literature on the subject and identified gaps, critical delay factors and the specific benefits that BIM can deliver for the delay management. A case study comprising of nine hospital projects that have experienced delay and cost overruns was also carried out. Five critical delay factors related to the clients were identified as candidates that can be mitigated through BIM’s benefits. These factors are: Ineffective planning and scheduling of the project; changes during construction by the client; delay in progress payment; slowness in decision making by the client; and poor communication between clients and other stakeholders. In addition, data from the case study projects strongly suggest that optimism bias is present in many of the hospital projects. Further validation via key stakeholder interviews and documentations are planned.
Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam Installation: Case Study
The time delay and the structural stability are major issues in big size projects due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes result in reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD, and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with the proper and revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.
Analysis of Delays during Initial Phase of Construction Projects and Mitigation Measures
A perfect start is a key factor for project completion on time. The study examined the effects of delayed mobilization of resources during the initial phases of the project. This paper mainly highlights the identification and categorization of all delays during the initial construction phase and their root cause analysis with corrective/control measures for the Kuwait Oil Company oil and gas projects. A relatively good percentage of the delays identified during the project execution (Contract award to end of defects liability period) attributed to mobilization/preliminary activity delays. Data analysis demonstrated significant increase in average project delay during the last five years compared to the previous period. Contractors had delays/issues during the initial phase, which resulted in slippages and progressively increased, resulting in time and cost overrun. Delays/issues not mitigated on time during the initial phase had very high impact on project completion. Data analysis of the delays for the past five years was carried out using trend chart, scatter plot, process map, box plot, relative importance index and Pareto chart. Construction of any project inside the Gathering Centers involves complex management skills related to work force, materials, plant, machineries, new technologies etc. Delay affects completion of projects and compromises quality, schedule and budget of project deliverables. Works executed as per plan during the initial phase and start-up duration of the project construction activities resulted in minor slippages/delays in project completion. In addition, there was a good working environment between client and contractor resulting in better project execution and management. Mainly, the contractor was on the front foot in the execution of projects, which had minimum/no delays during the initial and construction period. Hence, having a perfect start during the initial construction phase shall have a positive influence on the project success. Our research paper studies each type of delay with some real example supported by statistic results and suggests mitigation measures. Detailed analysis carried out with all stakeholders based on impact and occurrence of delays to have a practical and effective outcome to mitigate the delays. The key to improvement is to have proper control measures and periodic evaluation/audit to ensure implementation of the mitigation measures. The focus of this research is to reduce the delays encountered during the initial construction phase of the project life cycle.
A Low-Area Fully-Reconfigurable Hardware Design of Fast Fourier Transform System for 3GPP-LTE Standard
This paper presents a low-area and fully-reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) hardware design for 3GPP-LTE communication standard. It can fully support 32 different FFT sizes, up to 2048 FFT points. Besides, a special processing element is developed for making reconfigurable computing characteristics possible, while first-in first-out (FIFO) scheduling scheme design technique is proposed for hardware-friendly FIFO resource arranging. In a synthesis chip realization via TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, the hardware circuit only occupies core area of 0.2325 mm2 and dissipates 233.5 mW at maximal operating frequency of 250 MHz.
Empirical Study on Causes of Project Delays
Renowned offshore organizations are drifting towards collaborative exertion to win and implement international projects for business gains. However, devoid of financial constraints, with the availability of skilled professionals, and despite improved project management practices through state-of-the-art tools and techniques, project delays have become a norm these days. This situation calls for exploring the factor(s) affecting the bonding between project management performance and project success. In the context of the well-known 3M’s of project management (that is, manpower, machinery, and materials), machinery and materials are dependent upon manpower. Because the body of knowledge inveterate on the influence of national culture on men, hence, the realization of the impact on the link between project management performance and project success need to be investigated in detail to arrive at the possible cause(s) of project delays. This research initiative was, therefore, undertaken to fill the research gap. The unit of analysis for the proposed research excretion was the individuals who had worked on skyscraper construction projects. In reverent studies, project management is best described using construction examples. It is due to this reason that the project oriented city of Dubai was chosen to reconnoiter on causes of project delays. A structured questionnaire survey was disseminated online with the courtesy of the Project Management Institute local chapter to carry out the cross-sectional study. The Construction Industry Institute, Austin, of the United States of America along with 23 high-rise builders in Dubai were also contacted by email requesting for their contribution to the study and providing them with the online link to the survey questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was warranted using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.70. The appropriateness of sampling adequacy and homogeneity in variance was ensured by keeping Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s test of sphericity in the range ≥ 0.60 and < 0.05, respectively. Factor analysis was used to verify construct validity. During exploratory factor analysis, all items were loaded using a threshold of 0.4. Four hundred and seventeen respondents, including members from top management, project managers, and project staff, contributed to the study. The link between project management performance and project success was significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed), and 0.05 level (2-tailed) for Pearson’s correlation. Before initiating the moderator analysis test for linearity, multicollinearity, outliers, leverage points and influential cases, test for homoscedasticity and normality were carried out which are prerequisites for conducting moderator review. The moderator analysis, using a macro named PROCESS, was performed to verify the hypothesis that national culture has an influence on the said link. The empirical findings, when compared with Hofstede's results, showed high power distance as the cause of construction project delays in Dubai. The research outcome calls for the project sponsors and top management to reshape their project management strategy and allow for low power distance between management and project personnel for timely completion of projects.
Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay
Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension
system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model
is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the
passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise
due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is
also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding
mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator
time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of
the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.
Performance Evaluation of a ‘Priority-Controlled’ Intersection Converted to Signal-Controlled Intersection
There is a call to ensure that the issues of safety and efficient throughput are considered during design; the solutions to these issues can also be retrofitted at locations where they were not captured during design, but have become problems to road users over time. This paper adopts several methods to analyze the performance of an intersection which was formerly a ‘priority-controlled’ intersection, but has now been converted to a ‘signal-controlled’ intersection. Extensive review of literature helped form the basis for result analysis and discussion. The Ikot-Ekpene/Anagha-Ezikpe intersection, located at the heart of Umuahia was adopted as case study; considering the high traffic volume on the route. Anecdotal evidence revealed that traffic signals imposed enormous delays at the intersection, especially for traffic on the major road. The major road has arrival flow which surpasses the saturation flow obtained from modelling of the isolated signalized intersection. Similarly, there were several geometric elements that did not agree with the specific function of the road. A roundabout, particularly flower roundabout was recommended as a better traffic control measure.
Application of 1-MCP on ‘Centro’ Melon at Different Days after Harvest
This study is aimed to investigate the influence of
postharvest delays of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on
prolonging the storage potential of melon. Melons were treated with
625-650 ppb 1-MCP at 10 °C for 24 hours on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day
after harvest. Decreased ethylene production and retarded softening
of melon fruits after 7 days of storage at 10 °C plus 3 days of shelflife
were obtained by 1-MCP applications. 1-MCP strongly affected
the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and hue angle values of
melon. After shelf-life, the peel color of treated melon was slow in
turning to yellow compared to the control. Additionally, firmness of
melons treated on the first day after harvest was 38% higher than that
of the control fruit. Results showed that fruits treated on the 1st and
the 3rd day after harvest could maintain the quality of melon.
A Hypercube Social Feature Extraction and Multipath Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks
Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) which have sufficient state information include trajectory and contact information, to protect routing efficiency. However, state information is dynamic and hard to obtain without a global and/or long-term collection process. To deal with these problems, the internal social features of each node are introduced in the network to perform the routing process. This type of application is motivated from several human contact networks where people contact each other more frequently if they have more social features in common. Two unique processes were developed for this process; social feature extraction and multipath routing. The routing method then becomes a hypercube–based feature matching process. Furthermore, the effectiveness of multipath routing is evaluated and compared to that of single-path routing.
Causes of Construction Delays in Qatar Construction Projects
Construction industry mainly focuses on the superstructure, infrastructure, and oil and gas industry. The development of infrastructure projects in developing countries attracted a lot of foreign construction contractors, consultants, suppliers and diversified workforce to interfere and to be evolved in such huge investment. Reducing worksite delays in such projects require knowledge and attention. Therefore, it is important to identify the influencing delay attributes affecting construction projects. The significant project factors affecting construction delays were investigated. Data collection was carried out through an online web survey system to capture significant factors. Significant factors were determined with importance index and relevant recommendations are made. The output of the data analysis would lead the industry experts better assess the impact of construction delays on construction projects.
Analysis of Time Delay Simulation in Networked Control System
The paper presents a PD controller for the Networked Control Systems (NCS) with delay. The major challenges in this networked control system (NCS) are the delay of the data transmission throughout the communication network. The comparative performance analysis is carried out for different delays network medium. In this paper, simulation is carried out on Ac servo motor control system using CAN Bus as communication network medium. The True Time toolbox of MATLAB is used for simulation to analyze the effect of different delays.
Performance Analysis of High Speed Adder for DSP Applications
The Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is a fast adder which improves the speed of addition. From the structure of the CSLA, it is clear that there is opportunity for reducing the area. The logic operations involved in conventional CSLA and binary to excess-1 converter (BEC) based CSLA are analyzed to make a study on the data dependence and to identify redundant logic operations. In the existing adder design, the carry select (CS) operation is scheduled before the final-sum, which is different from the conventional CSLA design. In the presented scheme, Kogge stone parallel adder approach is used instead of existing adder design it will generate fast carry for intermediate stages and also improves the speed of addition. When compared to existing adder design the delay is less in the proposed adder design.
Modified Scaling-Free CORDIC Based Pipelined Parallel MDC FFT and IFFT Architecture for Radix 2^2 Algorithm
An innovative approach to develop modified scaling free CORDIC based two parallel pipelined Multipath Delay Commutator (MDC) FFT and IFFT architectures for radix 22 FFT algorithm is presented. Multipliers and adders are the most important data paths in FFT and IFFT architectures. Multipliers occupy high area and consume more power. In order to optimize the area and power overhead, modified scaling-free CORDIC based complex multiplier is utilized in the proposed design. In general twiddle factor values are stored in RAM block. In the proposed work, modified scaling-free CORDIC based twiddle factor generator unit is used to generate the twiddle factor and efficient switching units are used. In addition to this, four point FFT operations are performed without complex multiplication which helps to reduce area and power in the last two stages of the pipelined architectures. The design proposed in this paper is based on multipath delay commutator method. The proposed design can be extended to any radix 2n based FFT/IFFT algorithm to improve the throughput. The work is synthesized using Synopsys design Compiler using TSMC 90-nm library. The proposed method proves to be better compared to the reference design in terms of area, throughput and power consumption. The comparative analysis of the proposed design with Xilinx FPGA platform is also discussed in the paper.
Contention Window Adjustment in IEEE 802.11-Based Industrial Wireless Networks
The use of wireless technology in industrial networks
has gained vast attraction in recent years. In this paper, we have
thoroughly analyzed the effect of contention window (CW) size on
the performance of IEEE 802.11-based industrial wireless networks
(IWN), from delay and reliability perspective. Results show that the
default values of CWmin, CWmax, and retry limit (RL) are far from
the optimum performance due to the industrial application
characteristics, including short packet and noisy environment. In this
paper, an adaptive CW algorithm (payload-dependent) has been
proposed to minimize the average delay. Finally a simple, but
effective CW and RL setting has been proposed for industrial
applications which outperforms the minimum-average-delay solution
from maximum delay and jitter perspective, at the cost of a little
higher average delay. Simulation results show an improvement of up
to 20%, 25%, and 30% in average delay, maximum delay and jitter
Performance Analysis of OQSMS and MDDR Scheduling Algorithms for IQ Switches
Due to the increasing growth of internet users, the emerging applications of multicast are growing day by day and there is a requisite for the design of high-speed switches/routers. Huge amounts of effort have been done into the research area of multicast switch fabric design and algorithms. Different traffic scenarios are the influencing factor which affect the throughput and delay of the switch. The pointer based multicast scheduling algorithms are not performed well under non-uniform traffic conditions. In this work, performance of the switch has been analyzed by applying the advanced multicast scheduling algorithm OQSMS (Optimal Queue Selection Based Multicast Scheduling Algorithm), MDDR (Multicast Due Date Round-Robin Scheduling Algorithm) and MDRR (Multicast Dual Round-Robin Scheduling Algorithm). The results show that OQSMS achieves better switching performance than other algorithms under the uniform, non-uniform and bursty traffic conditions and it estimates optimal queue in each time slot so that it achieves maximum possible throughput.
Delay-Independent Closed-Loop Stabilization of Neutral System with Infinite Delays
In this paper, the problem of stability and stabilization
for neutral delay-differential systems with infinite delay is
investigated. Using Lyapunov method, new delay-independent
sufficient condition for the stability of neutral systems with infinite
delay is obtained in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI).
Memory-less state feedback controllers are then designed for the
stabilization of the system using the feasible solution of the resulting
LMI, which are easily solved using any optimization algorithms.
Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results of the proposed
Effect of Submaximal Eccentric versus Maximal Isometric Contraction on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
is the most common symptom when ordinary individuals and athletes
are exposed to unaccustomed physical activity, especially eccentric
contraction which impairs athletic performance, ordinary people
work ability and physical functioning. Multitudes of methods have
been investigated to reduce DOMS. One of the valuable methods to
control DOMS is repeated bout effect (RBE) as a prophylactic
method. Purpose: To compare the repeated bout effect of
submaximal eccentric with maximal isometric contraction on induced
DOMS. Methods: Sixty normal male volunteers were assigned
randomly into three equal groups: Group A (first study group): 20
subjects received submaximal eccentric contraction on non-dominant
elbow flexors as a prophylactic exercise. Group B (second study
group): 20 subjects received maximal isometric contraction on nondominant
elbow flexors as a prophylactic exercise. Group C (control
group): 20 subjects did not receive any prophylactic exercises.
Maximal isometric peak torque of elbow flexors and patient related
elbow evaluation (PREE) scale were measured for each subject 3
times before, immediately after, and 48 hours after induction of
DOMS. Results: Post-hoc test for maximal isometric peak torque and
PREE scale immediately and 48 hours after induction of DOMS
revealed that group (A) and group (B) resulted in significant decrease
in maximal isometric strength loss and elbow pain and disability
rather than control group (C), but submaximal eccentric group (A)
was more effective than maximal isometric group (B) as it showed
more rapid recovery of functional strength and less degrees of elbow
pain and disability. Conclusion: Both submaximal eccentric
contraction and maximal isometric contraction were effective in
prevention of DOMS but submaximal eccentric contraction produced
a greater protective effect against muscle damage induced by
maximal eccentric exercise performed 2 days later.
Sampled-Data Control for Fuel Cell Systems
Sampled-data controller is presented for solid oxide
fuel cell systems which is expressed by a sector bounded nonlinear
model. The proposed control law is obtained by solving a convex
problem satisfying several linear matrix inequalities. Simulation
results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed design
Controller Design for Active Suspension System of ¼ Car with Unknown Mass and Time-Delay
The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and
control of a quarter-car active suspension system with unknown
mass, unknown time-delay and road disturbance. The objective of
designing the controller is to derive a control law to achieve stability
of the system and convergence that can considerably improve ride
comfort and road disturbance handling. This is accomplished by
using Routh-Hurwitz criterion based on defined parameters.
Mathematical proof is given to show the ability of the designed
controller to ensure the target of design, implementation with the
active suspension system and enhancement dispersion oscillation of
the system despite these problems. Simulations were also performed
to control quarter car suspension, where the results obtained from
these simulations verify the validity of the proposed design.
Monetary Evaluation of Dispatching Decisions in Consideration of Mode Choice Models
Microscopic simulation tool kits allow for
consideration of the two processes of railway operations and the
previous timetable production. Block occupation conflicts on both
process levels are often solved by using defined train priorities. These
conflict resolutions (dispatching decisions) generate reactionary
delays to the involved trains. The sum of reactionary delays is
commonly used to evaluate the quality of railway operations, which
describes the timetable robustness. It is either compared to an
acceptable train performance or the delays are appraised
economically by linear monetary functions. It is impossible to
adequately evaluate dispatching decisions without a well-founded
objective function. This paper presents a new approach for the
evaluation of dispatching decisions. The approach uses mode choice
models and considers the behaviour of the end-customers. These
models evaluate the reactionary delays in more detail and consider
other competing modes of transport. The new approach pursues the
coupling of a microscopic model of railway operations with the
macroscopic choice mode model. At first, it will be implemented for
railway operations process but it can also be used for timetable
production. The evaluation considers the possibility for the customer
to interchange to other transport modes. The new approach starts to
look at rail and road, but it can also be extended to air travel. The
result of mode choice models is the modal split. The reactions by the
end-customers have an impact on the revenue of the train operating
companies. Different purposes of travel have different payment
reserves and tolerances towards late running. Aside from changes to
revenues, longer journey times can also generate additional costs.
The costs are either time- or track-specific and arise from required
changes to rolling stock or train crew cycles. Only the variable values
are summarised in the contribution margin, which is the base for the
monetary evaluation of delays. The contribution margin is calculated
for different possible solutions to the same conflict. The conflict
resolution is optimised until the monetary loss becomes minimal. The
iterative process therefore determines an optimum conflict resolution
by monitoring the change to the contribution margin. Furthermore, a
monetary value of each dispatching decision can also be derived.