Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 62

62
10010245
Evaluating Hurst Parameters and Fractal Dimensions of Surveyed Dataset of Tailings Dam Embankment
Abstract:
In the mining environment, tailings dam embankment is among the hazards and risk areas. The tailings dam embankment could fail and result to damages to facilities, human injuries or even fatalities. Periodic monitoring of the dam embankment is needed to help assess the safety of the tailings dam embankment. Artificial intelligence techniques such as fractals can be used to analyse the stability of the monitored dataset from survey measurement techniques. In this paper, the fractal dimension (D) was determined using D = 2-H. The Hurst parameters (H) of each monitored prism were determined by using a time domain of rescaled range programming in MATLAB software. The fractal dimensions of each monitored prism were determined based on the values of H. The results reveal that the values of the determined H were all within the threshold of 0 ≤ H ≤ 1 m. The smaller the H, the bigger the fractal dimension is. Fractal dimension values ranging from 1.359 x 10-4 m to 1.8843 x 10-3 m were obtained from the monitored prisms on the based on the tailing dam embankment dataset used. The ranges of values obtained indicate that the tailings dam embankment is stable.
61
10010081
Box Counting Dimension of the Union L of Trinomial Curves When α ≥ 1
Abstract:
In the present work, we consider one category of curves denoted by L(p, k, r, n). These curves are continuous arcs which are trajectories of roots of the trinomial equation zn = αzk + (1 − α), where z is a complex number, n and k are two integers such that 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 1 and α is a real parameter greater than 1. Denoting by L the union of all trinomial curves L(p, k, r, n) and using the box counting dimension as fractal dimension, we will prove that the dimension of L is equal to 3/2.
60
10008509
Trabecular Bone Radiograph Characterization Using Fractal, Multifractal Analysis and SVM Classifier
Abstract:
Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of micro-architectural bone tissue, which provokes an increased risk of fracture. This work treats the texture characterization of trabecular bone radiographs. The aim was to analyze according to clinical research a group of 174 subjects: 87 osteoporotic patients (OP) with various bone fracture types and 87 control cases (CC). To characterize osteoporosis, Fractal and MultiFractal (MF) methods were applied to images for features (attributes) extraction. In order to improve the results, a new method of MF spectrum based on the q-stucture function calculation was proposed and a combination of Fractal and MF attributes was used. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) was applied as a classifier to distinguish between OP patients and CC subjects. The features fusion (fractal and MF) allowed a good discrimination between the two groups with an accuracy rate of 96.22%.
59
10006285
Signal Processing Approach to Study Multifractality and Singularity of Solar Wind Speed Time Series
Abstract:
This paper investigates the nature of the fluctuation of the daily average Solar wind speed time series collected over a period of 2492 days, from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003. The degree of self-similarity and scalability of the Solar Wind Speed signal has been explored to characterise the signal fluctuation. Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) method has been implemented on the signal which is under investigation to perform this task. Furthermore, the singularity spectra of the signals have been also obtained to gauge the extent of the multifractality of the time series signal.
58
10005626
A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.
57
10005483
Parametric Analysis of Water Lily Shaped Split Ring Resonator Loaded Fractal Monopole Antenna for Multiband Applications
Abstract:
A coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed is presented, and comprising a split ring resonator (SRR) loaded fractal with water lily shape is used for multi band applications. The impedance matching of the antenna is determined by the number of Koch curve fractal unit cells. The antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with a permittivity of εr = 4.4 and size of 14 x 16 x 1.6 mm3 to generate multi resonant mode at 3.8 GHz covering S band, 8.68 GHz at X band, 13.96 GHz at Ku band, and 19.74 GHz at K band with reflection coefficient better than -10 dB. Simulation results show that the antenna exhibits the desired voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) level and radiation patterns across the wide frequency range. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as return loss, VSWR, good radiation pattern with reasonable gain across the operating bands are obtained.
56
10005392
The Effect of Directional Search Using Iterated Functional System for Matching Range and Domain Blocks
Abstract:
The effect of directional search using iterated functional system has been studied on four images taken from databases. The images are portioned successively towards smaller dimension. Presented method provides the faster rate of convergence with respect to processing time in the flat region, but the same has been found to be slower at the border of the images and edges. It has also been revealed that the PSNR is lower at the edges and border portions of the image, and it is found to be higher in the uniform gray region, under the same external illumination and external noise environment.
55
10003345
A Proposed Hybrid Color Image Compression Based on Fractal Coding with Quadtree and Discrete Cosine Transform
Abstract:

Fractal based digital image compression is a specific technique in the field of color image. The method is best suited for irregular shape of image like snow bobs, clouds, flame of fire; tree leaves images, depending on the fact that parts of an image often resemble with other parts of the same image. This technique has drawn much attention in recent years because of very high compression ratio that can be achieved. Hybrid scheme incorporating fractal compression and speedup techniques have achieved high compression ratio compared to pure fractal compression. Fractal image compression is a lossy compression method in which selfsimilarity nature of an image is used. This technique provides high compression ratio, less encoding time and fart decoding process. In this paper, fractal compression with quad tree and DCT is proposed to compress the color image. The proposed hybrid schemes require four phases to compress the color image. First: the image is segmented and Discrete Cosine Transform is applied to each block of the segmented image. Second: the block values are scanned in a zigzag manner to prevent zero co-efficient. Third: the resulting image is partitioned as fractals by quadtree approach. Fourth: the image is compressed using Run length encoding technique.

54
10002171
Trabecular Texture Analysis Using Fractal Metrics for Bone Fragility Assessment
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is the discrimination of 28 postmenopausal with osteoporotic femoral fractures from an agematched control group of 28 women using texture analysis based on fractals. Two pre-processing approaches are applied on radiographic images; these techniques are compared to highlight the choice of the pre-processing method. Furthermore, the values of the fractal dimension are compared to those of the fractal signature in terms of the classification of the two populations. In a second analysis, the BMD measure at proximal femur was compared to the fractal analysis, the latter, which is a non-invasive technique, allowed a better discrimination; the results confirm that the fractal analysis of texture on calcaneus radiographs is able to discriminate osteoporotic patients with femoral fracture from controls. This discrimination was efficient compared to that obtained by BMD alone. It was also present in comparing subgroups with overlapping values of BMD.
53
10001496
On the Design of Wearable Fractal Antenna
Abstract:
This paper is aimed at proposing a rhombus shaped wearable fractal antenna for wireless communication systems. The geometrical descriptors of the antenna have been obtained using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) for wide band operation. The method of moment based IE3D software has been used to simulate the antenna and observed that miniaturization of 13.08% has been achieved without degrading the resonating properties of the proposed antenna. An analysis with different substrates has also been done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical permittivity on the presented structure. The proposed antenna has low profile, light weight and has successfully demonstrated wideband and multiband characteristics for wearable electronic applications.
52
10001084
New Hybrid Method to Model Extreme Rainfalls
Abstract:

Modeling and forecasting dynamics of rainfall occurrences constitute one of the major topics, which have been largely treated by statisticians, hydrologists, climatologists and many other groups of scientists. In the same issue, we propose, in the present paper, a new hybrid method, which combines Extreme Values and fractal theories. We illustrate the use of our methodology for transformed Emberger Index series, constructed basing on data recorded in Oujda (Morocco). The index is treated at first by Peaks Over Threshold (POT) approach, to identify excess observations over an optimal threshold u. In the second step, we consider the resulting excess as a fractal object included in one dimensional space of time. We identify fractal dimension by the box counting. We discuss the prospect descriptions of rainfall data sets under Generalized Pareto Distribution, assured by Extreme Values Theory (EVT). We show that, despite of the appropriateness of return periods given by POT approach, the introduction of fractal dimension provides accurate interpretation results, which can ameliorate apprehension of rainfall occurrences.

51
10002045
A Methodological Test to Study the Concrete Workability with the Fractal Model
Abstract:
The main parameters affecting the workability are the water content, particle size, and the total surface of the grains, as long as the mixing water begins by wetting the surface of the grains and then fills the voids between the grains to form entrapped water, the quantity of water remaining is called free water. The aim of this study is to undertake a fractal approach through the relationship between the concrete formulation parameters and workability. To develop this approach a series of concrete taken from the literature was investigated by varying formulation parameters such as G/S, the quantity of cement C and the quantity of water W. We also call another model as the model of water layer thickness and model of paste layer thickness to judge their relevance, hence the following results: the relevance of the water layer thickness model is considered as a relevant when there is a variation in the water quantity. The model of the paste layer thickness is only applicable if we considered that the paste is made with the grain value Dmax = 2.85: value from which we see a stability of the model.
50
10002026
Online Optic Disk Segmentation Using Fractals
Abstract:
Optic disk segmentation plays a key role in the mass screening of individuals with diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma ailments. An efficient hardware-based algorithm for optic disk localization and segmentation would aid for developing an automated retinal image analysis system for real time applications. Herein, TMS320C6416DSK DSP board pixel intensity based fractal analysis algorithm for an automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disk is reported. The experiment has been performed on color and fluorescent angiography retinal fundus images. Initially, the images were pre-processed to reduce the noise and enhance the quality. The retinal vascular tree of the image was then extracted using canny edge detection technique. Finally, a pixel intensity based fractal analysis is performed to segment the optic disk by tracing the origin of the vascular tree. The proposed method is examined on three publicly available data sets of the retinal image and also with the data set obtained from an eye clinic. The average accuracy achieved is 96.2%. To the best of the knowledge, this is the first work reporting the use of TMS320C6416DSK DSP board and pixel intensity based fractal analysis algorithm for an automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disk. This will pave the way for developing devices for detection of retinal diseases in the future.
49
10000229
Design and Analysis of a New Dual-Band Microstrip Fractal Antenna
Abstract:

This paper presents a novel design of a microstrip fractal antenna based on the use of Sierpinski triangle shape, it’s designed and simulated by using FR4 substrate in the operating frequency bands (GPS, WiMAX), the design is a fractal antenna with a modified ground structure. The proposed antenna is simulated and validated by using CST Microwave Studio Software, the simulated results presents good performances in term of radiation pattern and matching input impedance.

48
10000230
Design of a Novel Fractal Multiband Planar Antenna with a CPW-Feed
Abstract:

This work presents a new planar multiband antenna based on fractal geometry. This structure is optimized and validated into simulation by using CST-MW Studio. To feed this antenna we have used a CPW line which makes it easy to be incorporated with integrated circuits. The simulation results presents a good matching input impedance and radiation pattern in the GSM band at 900 MHz and ISM band at 2.4 GHz. The final structure is a dual band fractal antenna with 70 x 70 mm² as a total area by using an FR4 substrate.

47
10000503
Design of a Novel CPW Fed Fractal Antenna for UWB
Abstract:

This paper presents a novel fractal antenna structure proposed for UWB (Ultra – Wideband) applications. The frequency band 3.1-10.6GHz released by FCC (Federal Communication Commission) as the commercial operation of UWB has been chosen as frequency range for this antenna based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed and circular shapes fulfilled according to fractal geometry. The proposed antenna is validated and designed by using an FR4 substrate with overall area of 34x43 mm2. The simulated results performed by CST-Microwave Studio and compared by ADS (Advanced Design System) show good matching input impedance with return loss less than -10dB between 2.9 GHz and 11 GHz.

46
9999663
Single Feed Circularly Polarized Poly Fractal Antenna for Wireless Applications
Abstract:

A circularly polarized fractal boundary microstrip antenna is presented. The sides of a square patch along x- axis, yaxis are replaced with Minkowski and Koch curves correspondingly. By using the fractal curves as edges, asymmetry in the structure is created to excite two orthogonal modes for circular polarization (CP) operation. The indentation factors of the fractal curves are optimized for pure CP. The simulated results of the novel polyfractal antenna are demonstrated.

45
10000066
Automatic Detection and Classification of Microcalcification, Mass, Architectural Distortion and Bilateral Asymmetry in Digital Mammogram
Abstract:

Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection of breast cancer. There are different lesions which are breast cancer characteristic such as microcalcifications, masses, architectural distortions and bilateral asymmetry. One of the major challenges of analysing digital mammogram is how to extract efficient features from it for accurate cancer classification. In this paper we proposed a hybrid feature extraction method to detect and classify all four signs of breast cancer. The proposed method is based on multiscale surrounding region dependence method, Gabor filters, multi fractal analysis, directional and morphological analysis. The extracted features are input to self adaptive resource allocation network (SRAN) classifier for classification. The validity of our approach is extensively demonstrated using the two benchmark data sets Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammograph (DDSM) and the results have been proved to be progressive.

44
10001373
Colour Image Compression Method Based On Fractal Block Coding Technique
Abstract:

Image compression based on fractal coding is a lossy compression method and normally used for gray level images range and domain blocks in rectangular shape. Fractal based digital image compression technique provide a large compression ratio and in this paper, it is proposed using YUV colour space and the fractal theory which is based on iterated transformation. Fractal geometry is mainly applied in the current study towards colour image compression coding. These colour images possesses correlations among the colour components and hence high compression ratio can be achieved by exploiting all these redundancies. The proposed method utilises the self-similarity in the colour image as well as the cross-correlations between them. Experimental results show that the greater compression ratio can be achieved with large domain blocks but more trade off in image quality is good to acceptable at less than 1 bit per pixel.

43
9999124
Fractal - Wavelet Based Techniques for Improving the Artificial Neural Network Models
Abstract:

Natural resources management including water resources requires reliable estimations of time variant environmental parameters. Small improvements in the estimation of environmental parameters would result in grate effects on managing decisions. Noise reduction using wavelet techniques is an effective approach for preprocessing of practical data sets. Predictability enhancement of the river flow time series are assessed using fractal approaches before and after applying wavelet based preprocessing. Time series correlation and persistency, the minimum sufficient length for training the predicting model and the maximum valid length of predictions were also investigated through a fractal assessment.

42
9999733
Dual Band Fractal Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Application
Abstract:

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a collection of sensor nodes organized into a cooperative network. These nodes communicate through a wireless antenna. Reduction in physical size and multiband operation is an important requirement of WSN antenna. Fractal antenna is used for miniaturization and multiband operation. The self-similar or self-affine and space filling property of fractal geometry increases the effective electrical length of the antenna, reduces the size and make them frequency independent. This paper elaborates on Dual band fractal antenna with Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) feed for WSN. The proposed antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with the dimension of 27mm x 28.5mm x 1.6mm, resonates at 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz with a return loss less than -10dB. The design and simulation process is carried out using IE3D simulation software. The simulated and measured results are found in good agreement.

41
9998712
Physical and Electrical Characterization of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method
Abstract:

In this paper, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel method. The ZnO thin films with well defined orientation were acquired by spin coating of zinc acetate dehydrate monoethanolamine (MEA), de-ionized water and isopropanol alcohol. These films were pre-heated at 275°C for 10 min and then annealed at 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 80 min. The effect of annealing temperature and different thickness on structure and surface morphology of the thin films were verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It was found that there was a significant effect of annealing temperature on the structural parameters of the films such as roughness exponent, fractal dimension and interface width. Thin films also were characterizied by X-ray Diffractometery (XRD) method. XRD analysis revealed that the annealed ZnO thin films consist of single phase ZnO with wurtzite structure and show the c-axis grain orientation. Increasing annealing temperature increased the crystallite size and the c-axis orientation of the film after 450°C. Also In this study, ZnO thin films in different thickness have been prepared by sol-gel method on the glass substrate at room temperature. The thicknesses of films are 100, 150 and 250 nm. Using fractal analysis, morphological characteristics of surface films thickness in amorphous state were investigated. The results show that with increasing thickness, surface roughness (RMS) and lateral correlation length (ξ) are decreased. Also, the roughness exponent (α) and growth exponent (β) were determined to be 0.74±0.02 and 0.11±0.02, respectively.

40
9996723
A Novel Antenna Design for Telemedicine Applications
Abstract:

To develop a reliable and cost effective communication platform for the telemedicine applications, novel antenna design has been presented using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) technique. The proposed antenna geometry is achieved by etching a modified Koch curve fractal shape at the edges and a square shape slot at the center of the radiating element of a patch antenna. It has been found that the new antenna has achieved 43.79% size reduction and better resonating characteristic than the original patch. Representative results for both simulations and numerical validations are reported in order to assess the effectiveness of the developed methodology.

39
9997751
An Iterated Function System for Reich Contraction in Complete b Metric Space
Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce R Iterated Function System and employ the Hutchinson Barnsley theory (HB) to construct a fractal set as its unique fixed point by using Reich contractions in a complete b metric space. We discuss about well posedness of fixed point problem for b metric space.

38
9996958
Active Segment Selection Method in EEG Classification Using Fractal Features
Abstract:

BCI (Brain Computer Interface) is a communication machine that translates brain massages to computer commands. These machines with the help of computer programs can recognize the tasks that are imagined. Feature extraction is an important stage of the process in EEG classification that can effect in accuracy and the computation time of processing the signals. In this study we process the signal in three steps of active segment selection, fractal feature extraction, and classification. One of the great challenges in BCI applications is to improve classification accuracy and computation time together. In this paper, we have used student’s 2D sample t-statistics on continuous wavelet transforms for active segment selection to reduce the computation time. In the next level, the features are extracted from some famous fractal dimension estimation of the signal. These fractal features are Katz and Higuchi. In the classification stage we used ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) classifier, FKNN (Fuzzy K-Nearest Neighbors), LDA (Linear Discriminate Analysis), and SVM (Support Vector Machines). We resulted that active segment selection method would reduce the computation time and Fractal dimension features with ANFIS analysis on selected active segments is the best among investigated methods in EEG classification.

37
10120
Parameter Estimation for Viewing Rank Distribution of Video-on-Demand
Abstract:

Video-on-demand (VOD) is designed by using content delivery networks (CDN) to minimize the overall operational cost and to maximize scalability. Estimation of the viewing pattern (i.e., the relationship between the number of viewings and the ranking of VOD contents) plays an important role in minimizing the total operational cost and maximizing the performance of the VOD systems. In this paper, we have analyzed a large body of commercial VOD viewing data and found that the viewing rank distribution fits well with the parabolic fractal distribution. The weighted linear model fitting function is used to estimate the parameters (coefficients) of the parabolic fractal distribution. This paper presents an analytical basis for designing an optimal hierarchical VOD contents distribution system in terms of its cost and performance.

36
5833
Evaluation of Ultrasonic C-Scan Images by Fractal Dimension
Abstract:
In this paper, quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic Cscan images through estimation of their Fractal Dimension (FD) is discussed. Necessary algorithm for evaluation of FD of any 2-D digitized image is implemented by developing a computer code. For the evaluation purpose several C-scan images of the Kevlar composite impacted by high speed bullet and glass fibre composite having flaw in the form of inclusion is used. This analysis automatically differentiates a C-scan image showing distinct damage zone, from an image that contains no such damage.
35
12534
Analysis on Fractals in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric Spaces
Abstract:
This paper investigates the fractals generated by the dynamical system of intuitionistic fuzzy contractions in the intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces by generalizing the Hutchinson-Barnsley theory. We prove some existence and uniqueness theorems of fractals in the standard intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces by using the intuitionistic fuzzy Banach contraction theorem. In addition to that, we analyze some results on intuitionistic fuzzy fractals in the standard intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces with respect to the Hausdorff intuitionistic fuzzy metrics.
34
1008
Simulation Design of Separator for the Treatment of Emulsions
Abstract:
A prototype model of an emulsion separator was designed and manufactured. Generally, it is a cylinder filled with different fractal modules. The emulsion was fed into the reactor by a peristaltic pump through an inlet placed at the boundary between the two phases. For hydrodynamic design and sizing of the reactor the assumptions of the theory of filtration were used and methods to describe the separation process were developed. Based on this methodology and using numerical methods and software of Autodesk the process is simulated in different operating modes. The basic hydrodynamic characteristics - speed and performance for different types of fractal systems and decisions to optimize the design of the reactor were also defined.
33
6725
The Relations between the Fractal Properties of the River Networks and the River Flow Time Series
Abstract:
All the geophysical phenomena including river networks and flow time series are fractal events inherently and fractal patterns can be investigated through their behaviors. A non-linear system like a river basin can well be analyzed by a non-linear measure such as the fractal analysis. A bilateral study is held on the fractal properties of the river network and the river flow time series. A moving window technique is utilized to scan the fractal properties of them. Results depict both events follow the same strategy regarding to the fractal properties. Both the river network and the time series fractal dimension tend to saturate in a distinct value.
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