|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 14|
In the present work, a remediation bioprocess based on the use of a local isolate of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in alginate beads is proposed. This process was shown to be effective for the reduction of several chemical and microbial contaminants present in Cildáñez stream, a water course that is part of the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The bioprocess, involving the culture of the microalga in autotrophic conditions in a stirred-tank bioreactor supplied with a marine propeller for 6 days, allowed a significant reduction of Escherichia coli and total coliform numbers (over 95%), as well as of ammoniacal nitrogen (96%), nitrates (86%), nitrites (98%), and total phosphorus (53%) contents. Pb content was also significantly diminished after the bioprocess (95%). Standardized cytotoxicity tests using Allium cepa seeds and Cildáñez water pre- and post-remediation were also performed. Germination rate and mitotic index of onion seeds imbibed in Cildáñez water subjected to the bioprocess was similar to that observed in seeds imbibed in distilled water and significantly superior to that registered when untreated Cildáñez water was used for imbibition. Our results demonstrate the potential of this simple and cost-effective technology to remove urban-water contaminants, offering as an additional advantage the possibility of an easy biomass recovery, which may become a source of alternative energy.
Nowadays, the progressive decrease of primary natural resources and ongoing upward trend in terms of energy demand, have resulted in development of new generation technological processes which are focused on step-wise production and residues utilization. Thus, microalgae-based 3rd generation bioeconomy is considered one of the most promising approaches that allow production of value-added products and sophisticated utilization of residues biomass. In comparison to conventional biomass, microalgae can be cultivated in wide range of conditions without compromising food and feed production, and thus, addressing issues associated with negative social and environmental impacts. However, one of the most challenging tasks is to undergo seasonal variations and to achieve optimal growing conditions for indoor closed systems that can cover further demand for material and energetic utilization of microalgae. For instance, outdoor cultivation in St. Petersburg (Russia) is only suitable within rather narrow time frame (from mid-May to mid-September). At earlier and later periods, insufficient sunlight and heat for the growth of microalgae were detected. On the other hand, without additional physical effects, the biomass increment in summer is 3-5 times per week, depending on the solar radiation and the ambient temperature. In order to increase biomass production, scientists from all over the world have proposed various technical solutions for cultivators and have been studying the influence of various physical factors affecting biomass growth namely: magnetic field, radiation impact, and electric field, etc. In this paper, the influence of infrared radiation (IR) and fluorescent light on the growth rate of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana has been studied. The cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana was carried out in 500 ml cylindrical glass vessels, which were constantly aerated. To accelerate the cultivation process, the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at 500 rpm following 120 minutes of rest time. At the same time, the metabolic needs in nutrients were provided by the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients in the microalgae growing medium. Lighting was provided by fluorescent lamps with the intensity of 2500 ± 300 lx. The influence of IR was determined using IR lamps with a voltage of 220 V, power of 250 W, in order to achieve the intensity of 13 600 ± 500 lx. The obtained results show that under the influence of fluorescent lamps along with the combined effect of active aeration and variable mixing, the biomass increment on the 2nd day was three times, and on the 7th day, it was eight-fold. The growth rate of microalgae under the influence of IR radiation was lower and has reached 22.6·106 cells·mL-1. However, application of IR lamps for the biomass growth allows maintaining the optimal temperature of microalgae suspension at approximately 25-28°C, which might especially be beneficial during the cold season in extreme climate zones.
The commercial production of biodiesel using microalgae demands a high-energy input for harvesting biomass, making production economically unfeasible. Methods currently used involve mechanical, chemical, and biological procedures. In this work, a flocculation system is presented as a cost and energy effective process to increase biomass production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This diatom is the only species of the genus that present fast growth and lipid accumulation ability that are of great interest for biofuel production. The algae, selected from the Bank of Microalgae, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil), have been bred in tubular reactor with photoperiod of 12 h (clear/dark), providing luminance of about 35 μmol photons m-2s-1, and temperature of 22 °C. The medium used for growing cells was the Conway medium, with addition of silica. The seaweed growth curve was accompanied by cell count in Neubauer camera and by optical density in spectrophotometer, at 680 nm. The precipitation occurred at the end of the stationary phase of growth, 21 days after inoculation, using two methods: centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min, and electro-flocculation at 19 EPD and 95 W. After precipitation, cells were frozen at -20 °C and, subsequently, lyophilized. Biomass obtained by electro-flocculation was approximately four times greater than the one achieved by centrifugation. The benefits of this method are that no addition of chemical flocculants is necessary and similar cultivation conditions can be used for the biodiesel production and pharmacological purposes. The results may contribute to improve biodiesel production costs using marine microalgae.
Microalgae are tiny photosynthetic plants. Nowadays, microalgae are being used as nutrient-dense foods and sources of fine chemicals. They have significant amounts of lipid, carotenoids, vitamins, protein, minerals, chlorophyll, and pigments. Oil extraction from algae is a hotly debated topic currently because introducing an efficient method could decrease the process cost. This can determine the sustainability of algae-based foods. Scientific research works show that solvent extraction using chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture is one of the efficient methods for oil extraction from algal cells, but both methanol and chloroform are toxic solvents, and therefore, the extracted oil will not be suitable for food application. In this paper, the effect of two food grade solvents (hexane and hexane/ isopropanol) on oil extraction yield from microalgae Dunaliella sp. was investigated and the results were compared with chloroform/methanol (2:1) extraction yield. It was observed that the oil extraction yield using hexane, hexane/isopropanol (3:2) and chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture were 5.4, 13.93, and 17.5 (% w/w, dry basis), respectively. The fatty acid profile derived from GC illustrated that the palmitic (36.62%), oleic (18.62%), and stearic acids (19.08%) form the main portion of fatty acid composition of microalgae Dunalliela sp. oil. It was concluded that, the addition of isopropanol as polar solvent could increase the extraction yield significantly. Isopropanol solves cell wall phospholipids and enhances the release of intercellular lipids, which improves accessing of hexane to fatty acids.
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a technique for obtaining clean biofuel from biomass in the presence of heat and pressure in an aqueous medium which leads to a decomposition of this biomass to the formation of various products. A role of operating conditions is essential for the bio-oil and other products’ yield and also quality of the products. The effects of these parameters were investigated in regards to the composition and yield of the products. Chlorellaceae microalgae were tested under different HTL conditions to clarify suitable conditions for extracting bio-oil together with value-added co-products. Firstly, different microalgae loading rates (5-30%) were tested and found that this parameter has not much significant to product yield. Therefore, 10% microalgae loading rate was selected as a proper economical solution for conditioned schedule at 250oC and 30 min-reaction time. Next, a range of temperature (210-290oC) was applied to verify the effects of each parameter by keeping the reaction time constant at 30 min. The results showed no linkage with the increase of the reaction temperature and some reactions occurred that lead to different product yields. Moreover, some nutrients found in the aqueous product are possible to be utilized for nutrient recovery.
Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. The features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums were determined. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids accounts from 18 to 34%, while the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 62% of the total number of unsaturated fatty acids fraction. Among the unsaturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).
According to biodiesel from microalgae is an attractive fuel for several reasons such as renewable, biodegradable and environmental friendly. Thus, this study, green microalgae Scenedesmus acutus PPNK1 isolated from natural water, was selected based on high growth rates, easy cultivation and high lipid content. The Nile red fluorescence method has been successfully applied to the determination of lipids in S. acutus PPNK1. The combination of the method to the lipid composition in algal cells showed the yellow fluorescence under fluorescent microscope. Interestingly, maximum cell numbers and biomass concentration were obtained at 5.44´107 cells/mL and 1.60 g/L when it was cultivated in BG-11 medium while in case of BG-11 with nitrogen deprivation (N 0.25 g/L), accumulated lipid content in cells (44.67%) was achieved that was higher than that found in case of BG-11 medium at about 2 times (22.63%).
It was analyzed of fatty acid composition of 16 strains of microalgae lipid fractions isolated from different basins of Kazakhstan and characterized by stable active growth in the laboratory. Three species of green microalgae (Oocystis rhomboideus, Chlorococcum infusionum, Dictyochlorella globosa) and three species of diatoms (Synedra sp., Nitzshia sp., Pleurosigma attenuatum) are characterized by a high content of lipids and are promising for further study as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
At present, the severe oil crisis and greenhouse effect are booming, which is a growing worry for China. Over a long period of study, choosing the development of biological diesel is a feasible way in the desertification region in China. With considering the adaptability of Micro-algae in desertification region and analyzing energy consumption and carbon calculations of Micro-algae biodiesel produced by JJ company , this paper, make the microalgae our optimal choice to develop biological diesel in china's desertification region.