Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 7

7
10008443
Shear Modulus Degradation of a Liquefiable Sand Deposit by Shaking Table Tests
Abstract:

Strength and deformability characteristics of a liquefiable sand deposit including the development of earthquake-induced shear stress and shear strain as well as soil softening via the progressive degradation of shear modulus were studied via shaking table experiments. To do so, a model of a liquefiable sand deposit was constructed and densely instrumented where accelerations, pressures, and displacements at different locations were continuously monitored. Furthermore, the confinement effects on the strength and deformation characteristics of the liquefiable sand deposit due to an external surcharge by placing a heavy concrete slab (i.e. the model of an actual structural rigid pavement) on the ground surface were examined. The results indicate that as the number of seismic-loading cycles increases, the sand deposit softens progressively as large shear strains take place in different sand elements. Liquefaction state is reached after the combined effects of the progressive degradation of the initial shear modulus associated with the continuous decrease in the mean principal stress, and the buildup of the excess of pore pressure takes place in the sand deposit. Finally, the confinement effects given by a concrete slab placed on the surface of the sand deposit resulted in a favorable increasing in the initial shear modulus, an increase in the mean principal stress and a decrease in the softening rate (i.e. the decreasing rate in shear modulus) of the sand, thus making the onset of liquefaction to take place at a later stage. This is, only after the sand deposit having a concrete slab experienced a higher number of seismic loading cycles liquefaction took place, in contrast to an ordinary sand deposit having no concrete slab.

6
10008375
Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test
Abstract:

In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

5
10006414
Experimental Investigations on Nanoclay (Cloisite-15A) Modified Bitumen
Abstract:
This study investigated the influence of Cloisite-15A nanoclay on the physical, performance, and mechanical properties of bitumen binder. Cloisite-15A was blended in the bitumen in variegated percentages from 1% to 9% with increment of 2%. The blended bitumen was characterized using penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity using rotational viscometer, and compared with unmodified bitumen equally penetration grade 60/70. The rheological parameters were investigated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and mechanical properties were investigated by using Marshall Stability test. The results indicated an increase in softening point, dynamic viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. Rheological properties of bitumen increase complex modulus, decrease phase angle and improve rutting resistances as well. There was significant improvement in Marshall Stability, rather marginal improvement in flow value. The best improvement in the modified binder was obtained with 5% Cloisite-15A nanoclay.
4
10003911
Computational Feasibility Study of a Torsional Wave Transducer for Tissue Stiffness Monitoring
Abstract:
A torsional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer design is proposed to measure shear moduli in soft tissue with direct access availability, using shear wave elastography technique. The measurement of shear moduli of tissues is a challenging problem, mainly derived from a) the difficulty of isolating a pure shear wave, given the interference of multiple waves of different types (P, S, even guided) emitted by the transducers and reflected in geometric boundaries, and b) the highly attenuating nature of soft tissular materials. An immediate application, overcoming these drawbacks, is the measurement of changes in cervix stiffness to estimate the gestational age at delivery. The design has been optimized using a finite element model (FEM) and a semi-analytical estimator of the probability of detection (POD) to determine a suitable geometry, materials and generated waves. The technique is based on the time of flight measurement between emitter and receiver, to infer shear wave velocity. Current research is centered in prototype testing and validation. The geometric optimization of the transducer was able to annihilate the compressional wave emission, generating a quite pure shear torsional wave. Currently, mechanical and electromagnetic coupling between emitter and receiver signals are being the research focus. Conclusions: the design overcomes the main described problems. The almost pure shear torsional wave along with the short time of flight avoids the possibility of multiple wave interference. This short propagation distance reduce the effect of attenuation, and allow the emission of very low energies assuring a good biological security for human use.
3
10003733
Effect of Subsequent Drying and Wetting on the Small Strain Shear Modulus of Unsaturated Soils
Abstract:
Evaluation of the seismic-induced settlement of an unsaturated soil layer depends on several variables, among which the small strain shear modulus, Gmax, and soil’s state of stress have been demonstrated to be of particular significance. Recent interpretation of trends in Gmax revealed considerable effects of the degree of saturation and hydraulic hysteresis on the shear stiffness of soils in unsaturated states. Accordingly, the soil layer is expected to experience different settlement behaviors depending on the soil saturation and seasonal weathering conditions. In this study, a semi-empirical formulation was adapted to extend an existing Gmax model to infer hysteretic effects along different paths of the SWRC including scanning curves. The suitability of the proposed approach is validated against experimental results from a suction-controlled resonant column test and from data reported in literature. The model was observed to follow the experimental data along different paths of the SWRC, and showed a slight hysteresis in shear modulus along the scanning curves.
2
10002620
Physical-Mechanical Characteristics of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex (x≤0,02) Solid Solutions
Abstract:
Si-Ge solid solutions (bulk poly- and mono-crystalline samples, thin films) are characterized by high perspectives for application in semiconductor devices, in particular, optoelectronics and microelectronics. From this point of view, complex studying of structural state of the defects and structural-sensitive physical properties of Si-Ge solid solutions depending on the contents of Si and Ge components is very important. Present work deals with the investigations of microstructure, microhardness, internal friction and shear modulus of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) bulk monocrystals conducted at room temperature. Si-Ge bulk crystals were obtained by Czochralski method in [111] crystallographic direction. Investigated monocrystalline Si-Ge samples are characterized by p-type conductivity and carriers’ concentration 5.1014-1.1015cm-3. Microhardness was studied on Dynamic Ultra Micro hardness Tester DUH-201S with Berkovich indenter. Investigate samples are characterized with 0,5x0,5x(10-15)mm3 sizes, oriented along [111] direction at torsion oscillations ≈1Hz, multistage changing of internal friction and shear modulus has been revealed in an interval of strain amplitude of 10-5-5.10-3. Critical values of strain amplitude have been determined at which hysteretic changes of inelastic characteristics and microplasticity are observed. The critical strain amplitude and elasticity limit values are also determined. Dynamic mechanical characteristics decreasing trend is shown with increasing Ge content in Si-Ge solid solutions. Observed changes are discussed from the point of view of interaction of various dislocations with point defects and their complexes in a real structure of Si-Ge solid solutions.
1
9997590
Longitudinal Shear Modulus of Single Aramid, Carbon and Glass Fibres by Torsion Pendulum Tests
Abstract:

The longitudinal shear moduli of a single aramid, carbon and glass fibres are measured in the present study. A popularly known concept of freely oscillating torsion pendulum has been used to characterize the torsional modulus. A simple freely oscillating torsional pendulum setup is designed with two different types of plastic discs: horizontal and vertical, as the known mass of the pendulum. The time period of the torsional oscillation is measured to determine the torsional rigidity of the fibre. Then the shear modulus of the fibre is calculated from its torsional rigidity. The mean shear modulus of aramid, carbon and glass fibres  measured are 6.22±0.09, 18.5±0.91, 38.1±3.55 GPa by horizontal disc pendulum and 6.19±0.13, 18.1±1.34 and 39.5±1.83 GPa by vertical disc pendulum, respectively. The results obtained by both pendulums differed by less than 5% and agreed well with the results reported in literature for these three types of fibres. A detailed uncertainty calculations are carried out for the measurements. It is seen that scatter as well as uncertainty (or error) in the measured shear modulus of these fibres is less than 10%. For aramid fibres the effect of gauge length on the shear modulus value is also studied. It is verified that the scatter in measured shear modulus value increases with gauge length and scatter in fibre diameter.

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