Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network
In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.
FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Clock Recovery for TDMoIP Systems
Circuit switched networks widely used until the end of the 20th century have been transformed into packages switched networks. Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol (TDMoIP) is a system that enables Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) traffic to be carried over packet switched networks (PSN). In TDMoIP systems, devices that send TDM data to the PSN and receive it from the network must operate with the same clock frequency. In this study, it was aimed to implement clock synchronization process in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips using time information attached to the packages received from PSN. The designed hardware is verified using the datasets obtained for the different carrier types and comparing the results with the software model. Field tests are also performed by using the real time TDMoIP system.
Finite Time Symplectic Synchronization between Two Different Chaotic Systems
In this paper, the finite-time symplectic synchronization
between two different chaotic systems is investigated. Based on the
finite-time stability theory, a simple adaptive feedback scheme is
proposed to realize finite-time symplectic synchronization for the
Lorenz and L¨u systems. Numerical examples are provided to show
the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Synchronization of Traveling Waves within a Hollow-Core Vortex
The present paper expands details and confirms the transition mechanism between two subsequent polygonal patterns of the hollow-core vortex. Using power spectral analysis, we confirm in this work that the transition from any N-gon to (N+1)-gon pattern observed within a hollow-core vortex of shallow rotating flows occurs in two steps. The regime was quasi-periodic before the frequencies lock (synchronization). The ratios of locking frequencies were found to be equal to (N-1)/N.
Balancing and Synchronization Control of a Two Wheel Inverted Pendulum Vehicle
A two wheel inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle is built with two hub DC motors for motion control evaluation. Arduino Nano micro-processor is chosen as the control kernel for this electric test plant. Accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are built in to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum vehicle. Since the TWIP has significantly hub motor dead zone and nonlinear system dynamics characteristics, the vehicle system is difficult to control by traditional model based controller. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm. Then, intelligent controllers are designed for TWIP balance control, and two wheels synchronization control purposes.
Coexistence of Two Different Types of Intermittency near the Boundary of Phase Synchronization in the Presence of Noise
Intermittent behavior near the boundary of phase
synchronization in the presence of noise is studied. In certain range of
the coupling parameter and noise intensity the intermittency of eyelet
and ring intermittencies is shown to take place. Main results are
illustrated using the example of two unidirectional coupled Rössler
systems. Similar behavior is shown to take place in two
hydrodynamical models of Pierce diode coupled unidirectional.
Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks
In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic
semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system
theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by
semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction
in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node.
An interest case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in
star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and
simulate by Matlab. These results are applicable to private
A Grid Synchronization Method Based on Adaptive Notch Filter for SPV System with Modified MPPT
This paper presents a grid synchronization technique based on adaptive notch filter for SPV (Solar Photovoltaic) system along with MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) techniques. An efficient grid synchronization technique offers proficient detection of various components of grid signal like phase and frequency. It also acts as a barrier for harmonics and other disturbances in grid signal. A reference phase signal synchronized with the grid voltage is provided by the grid synchronization technique to standardize the system with grid codes and power quality standards. Hence, grid synchronization unit plays important role for grid connected SPV systems. As the output of the PV array is fluctuating in nature with the meteorological parameters like irradiance, temperature, wind etc. In order to maintain a constant DC voltage at VSC (Voltage Source Converter) input, MPPT control is required to track the maximum power point from PV array. In this work, a variable step size P & O (Perturb and Observe) MPPT technique with DC/DC boost converter has been used at first stage of the system. This algorithm divides the dPpv/dVpv curve of PV panel into three separate zones i.e. zone 0, zone 1 and zone 2. A fine value of tracking step size is used in zone 0 while zone 1 and zone 2 requires a large value of step size in order to obtain a high tracking speed. Further, adaptive notch filter based control technique is proposed for VSC in PV generation system. Adaptive notch filter (ANF) approach is used to synchronize the interfaced PV system with grid to maintain the amplitude, phase and frequency parameters as well as power quality improvement. This technique offers the compensation of harmonics current and reactive power with both linear and nonlinear loads. To maintain constant DC link voltage a PI controller is also implemented and presented in this paper. The complete system has been designed, developed and simulated using SimPower System and Simulink toolbox of MATLAB. The performance analysis of three phase grid connected solar photovoltaic system has been carried out on the basis of various parameters like PV output power, PV voltage, PV current, DC link voltage, PCC (Point of Common Coupling) voltage, grid voltage, grid current, voltage source converter current, power supplied by the voltage source converter etc. The results obtained from the proposed system are found satisfactory.
Backstepping Design and Fractional Derivative Equation of Chaotic System
In this paper, Backstepping method is proposed to synchronize two fractional-order systems. The simulation results show that this method can effectively synchronize two chaotic systems.
Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion
In the paper, the predictive control method is proposed to control the synchronization of two perturbed satellites attitude motion. Based on delayed feedback control of continuous-time systems combines with the prediction-based method of discrete-time systems, this approach only needs a single controller to realize synchronization, which has considerable significance in reducing the cost and complexity for controller implementation.
Nonlinear Integral-Type Sliding Surface for Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters
This paper presents a new nonlinear integral-type sliding surface for synchronizing two different chaotic systems with parametric uncertainty. On the basis of Lyapunov theorem and average dwelling time method, we obtain the control gains of controllers which are derived to achieve chaos synchronization. In order to reduce the gains, the error system is modeled as a switching system. We obtain the sufficient condition drawn for the robust stability of the error dynamics by stability analysis. Then we apply it to guide the design of the controllers. Finally, numerical examples are used to show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Global Chaos Synchronization of Identical and Nonidentical Chaotic Systems Using Only Two Nonlinear Controllers
In chaos synchronization, the main goal is to design such controller(s) that synchronizes the states of master and slave system asymptotically globally. This paper studied and investigated the synchronization problem of two identical Chen, and identical Tigan chaotic systems and two non-identical Chen and Tigan chaotic systems using Non-linear active control algorithm. In this study, based on Lyapunov stability theory and using non-linear active control algorithm, it has been shown that the proposed schemes have excellent transient performance using only two nonlinear controllers and have shown analytically as well as graphically that synchronization is asymptotically globally stable.
Synchronization of Non-Identical Chaotic Systems with Different Orders Based On Vector Norms Approach
A new strategy of control is formulated for chaos synchronization of non-identical chaotic systems with different orders using the Borne and Gentina practical criterion associated with the Benrejeb canonical arrow form matrix, to drift the stability property of dynamic complex systems. The designed controller ensures that the state variables of controlled chaotic slave systems globally synchronize with the state variables of the master systems, respectively. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Distributed Frequency Synchronization for Global Synchronization in Wireless Mesh Networks
In this paper, our focus is to assure a global frequency synchronization in OFDMA-based wireless mesh networks with local information. To acquire the global synchronization in distributed manner, we propose a novel distributed frequency synchronization (DFS) method. DFS is a method that carrier frequencies of distributed nodes converge to a common value by repetitive estimation and averaging step and sharing step. Experimental results show that DFS achieves noteworthy better synchronization success probability than existing schemes in OFDMA-based mesh networks where the estimation error is presented.
Low Power Digital System for Reconfigurable Neural Recording System
A digital system is proposed for low power 100-
channel neural recording system in this paper, which consists of 100
amplifiers, 100 analog-to-digital converters (ADC), digital controller
and baseband, transceiver for data link and RF command link. The
proposed system is designed in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and 65 nm
A Side-Peak Cancellation Scheme for CBOC Code Acquisition
In this paper, we propose a side-peak cancellation
scheme for code acquisition of composite binary offset carrier
(CBOC) signals. We first model the family of CBOC signals in a
generic form, and then, propose a side-peak cancellation scheme
by combining correlation functions between the divided sub-carrier
and received signals. From numerical results, it is shown that the
proposed scheme removes the side-peak completely, and moreover,
the resulting correlation function demonstrates the better power ratio
performance than the CBOC autocorrelation.
Some Remarkable Properties of a Hopfield Neural Network with Time Delay
It is known that an analog Hopfield neural network
with time delay can generate the outputs which are similar to the
human electroencephalogram. To gain deeper insights into the
mechanisms of rhythm generation by the Hopfield neural networks
and to study the effects of noise on their activities, we investigated
the behaviors of the networks with symmetric and asymmetric
interneuron connections. The neural network under the study consists
of 10 identical neurons. For symmetric (fully connected) networks all
interneuron connections aij = +1; the interneuron connections for
asymmetric networks form an upper triangular matrix with non-zero
entries aij = +1. The behavior of the network is described by 10
differential equations, which are solved numerically. The results of
simulations demonstrate some remarkable properties of a Hopfield
neural network, such as linear growth of outputs, dependence of
synchronization properties on the connection type, huge
amplification of oscillation by the external uniform noise, and the
capability of the neural network to transform one type of noise to
A Robust Frequency Offset Estimation Scheme for OFDM System with Cyclic Delay Diversity
Cyclic delay diversity (CDD) is a simple technique to
intentionally increase frequency selectivity of channels for orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).This paper proposes a residual
carrier frequency offset (RFO) estimation scheme for OFDMbased
broadcasting system using CDD. In order to improve the RFO
estimation, this paper addresses a decision scheme of the amount of
cyclic delay and pilot pattern used to estimate the RFO. By computer
simulation, the proposed estimator is shown to benefit form propoerly
chosen delay parameter and perform robustly.
Low-complexity Integer Frequency Offset Synchronization for OFDMA System
This paper presents a integer frequency offset (IFO)
estimation scheme for the 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) downlink
system. Firstly, the conventional joint detection method for IFO and
sector cell index (CID) information is introduced. Secondly, an IFO
estimation without explicit sector CID information is proposed, which
can operate jointly with the proposed IFO estimation and reduce
the time delay in comparison with the conventional joint method.
Also, the proposed method is computationally efficient and has almost
similar performance in comparison with the conventional method over
the Pedestrian and Vehicular channel models.
H∞ Approach to Functional Projective Synchronization for Chaotic Systems with Disturbances
This paper presents a method for functional projective H∞ synchronization problem of chaotic systems with external disturbance. Based on Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) formulation, the novel feedback controller is established to not only guarantee stable synchronization of both drive and response systems but also reduce the effect of external disturbance to an H∞ norm constraint.
Concurrency without Locking in Parallel Hash Structures used for Data Processing
Various mechanisms providing mutual exclusion and
thread synchronization can be used to support parallel processing
within a single computer. Instead of using locks, semaphores, barriers
or other traditional approaches in this paper we focus on alternative
ways for making better use of modern multithreaded architectures
and preparing hash tables for concurrent accesses. Hash structures
will be used to demonstrate and compare two entirely different
approaches (rule based cooperation and hardware synchronization
support) to an efficient parallel implementation using traditional
locks. Comparison includes implementation details, performance
ranking and scalability issues. We aim at understanding the effects
the parallelization schemes have on the execution environment with
special focus on the memory system and memory access
Synchronization for Impulsive Fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Time Delays under Noise Perturbation
In this paper, we investigate a class of fuzzy Cohen- Grossberg neural networks with time delays and impulsive effects. By virtue of stochastic analysis, Halanay inequality for stochastic differential equations, we find sufficient conditions for the global exponential square-mean synchronization of the FCGNNs under noise perturbation. In particular, the traditional assumption on the differentiability of the time-varying delays is no longer needed. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the results in this paper.
GPI Observer-based Tracking Control and Synchronization of Chaotic Systems
Based on general proportional integral (GPI) observers and sliding mode control technique, a robust control method is proposed for the master-slave synchronization of chaotic systems in the presence of parameter uncertainty and with partially measurable output signal. By using GPI observer, the master dynamics are reconstructed by the observations from a measurable output under the differential algebraic framework. Driven by the signals provided by GPI observer, a sliding mode control technique is used for the tracking control and synchronization of the master-slave dynamics. The convincing numerical results reveal the proposed method is effective, and successfully accommodate the system uncertainties, disturbances, and noisy corruptions.
Bidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Non-Autonomous Circuit and its Application for Secure Communication
The nonlinear chaotic non-autonomous fourth order
system is algebraically simple but can generate complex chaotic
attractors. In this paper, non-autonomous fourth order chaotic
oscillator circuits were designed and simulated. Also chaotic nonautonomous
Attractor is addressed suitable for chaotic masking
communication circuits using Matlab® and MultiSIM® programs.
We have demonstrated in simulations that chaos can be synchronized
and applied to signal masking communications. We suggest that this
phenomenon of chaos synchronism may serve as the basis for little
known chaotic non-autonomous Attractor to achieve signal masking
communication applications. Simulation results are used to visualize
and illustrate the effectiveness of non-autonomous chaotic system in
signal masking. All simulations results performed on nonautonomous
chaotic system are verify the applicable of secure
Mean Square Exponential Synchronization of Stochastic Neutral Type Chaotic Neural Networks with Mixed Delay
This paper studies the mean square exponential synchronization problem of a class of stochastic neutral type chaotic neural networks with mixed delay. On the Basis of Lyapunov stability theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the mean square exponential synchronization of two identical chaotic neural networks are obtained by using stochastic analysis and inequality technique. These conditions are expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), whose feasibility can be easily checked by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. The feedback controller used in this paper is more general than those used in previous literatures. One simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived results.
Synchronization of Oestrus in Goats with Progestogen Sponges and Short Term Combined FGA, PGF2α Protocols
The study aimed to evaluated the reproductive performance response to short term oestrus synchronization during the transition period. One hundred and sixty-five indigenous multiparous non-lactating goats were subdivided into the following six treatment groups for oestrus synchronization: NT control Group (N= 30), Fe-21d, FGA vaginal sponge for 21days+eCG at 19thd; FPe- 11d, FGA 11d + PGF2α and eCG at 9th d; FPe-10d, FGA 10d+ PGF2α and eCG at 8th d; FPe-9d, FGA 9d +PGF2α and eCG at 7thd; PFe-5d, PGF2α at d0 + FGA 5d + eCG at 5thd. The goats were natural mated (1 male/6 females). Fecundity rates (n. births /n. females treated x 100) were statistically higher (P < 0.05) in short term FPe-9d (157.9%), FPe- 11d (115.4%), FPe-10d (111.1%) and PFe-5d (107.7%) groups compared to the NT control Group (66.7%).
Projective Synchronization of a Class of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems
This paper at first presents approximate analytical
solutions for systems of fractional differential equations using the
differential transform method. The application of differential
transform method, developed for differential equations of integer
order, is extended to derive approximate analytical solutions of
systems of fractional differential equations. The solutions of our
model equations are calculated in the form of convergent series with
easily computable components. After that a drive-response
synchronization method with linear output error feedback is
presented for “generalized projective synchronization" for a class of
fractional-order chaotic systems via a scalar transmitted signal.
Genesio_Tesi and Duffing systems are used to illustrate the
effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method.
The Effect of Body Condition Score on Hormonal and Vaginal Histological Changes During Estrus of Synchronized Etawah Cross Bred Does
Eight Etawah cross bred does were divided into two
groups based on body condition score (BCS). Group I (BSC 2, body
weight 25-30 kg; n = 4), and Group II (BSC 3, body weight, 35-40 kg, n=4). All does received intravaginal controlled internal drug
release devices (CIDR) for 10 days, and a prostaglandin F2α at 48 h before CIDR removal. Estrus detection was carried out using
vasectomized buck. Vaginal epithelium was taken to determine estrus cycle. Blood samples were taken every 3-6 hours, started from
moment of CIDR removal until the end of estrus. The results showed vaginal histological indicated estrus occurred at the hours of 25 to 60
and 30 to 70 post CIDR removal in BCS 2 and 3, respectively. Progesterone peak of BCS 2 and BCS 3 were 0.18±0.31 and
0.48±0.31 ng/mL on the hour 0 post CIDR removal. Estradiol -17ß
peak of each group was 53.25±35.08 and 89.91±92.84 pg/mL at 48
post CIDR removal. LH surge only occurred on BCS 3 groups, the LH concentrations were 9.9± 9.1; 4.5± 4.0; and 18.2± 9.1 ng/mL at
45, 48 and 51 hours post CIDR removal, respectively. It was concluded that the BCS had effects on vaginal histological changes
and LH surge.
Synchronization of 0.1 Hz Oscillations in Heart Rate and Blood Pressure: Application to Treatment of Myocardial Infarction Patients
Synchronization between 0.1 Hz oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure is studied and its change during vertical tilt is evaluated in 37 myocardial infarction patients. Two groups of patients are identified with decreased and increased, respectively, synchronization of the studied oscillations as a response to a tilt test. It is shown that assessment of synchronization of 0.1 Hz oscillations as a response to vertical tilt can be used as a guideline for selecting optimal dose of beta-blocker treatment in post-myocardial infarction patients.
Controlled Synchronization of an Array of Nonlinear System with Time Delays
In this paper, we propose synchronization of an array of nonlinear systems with time delays. The array of systems is decomposed into isolated systems to establish appropriate Lyapunov¬Krasovskii functional. Using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a sufficient condition for the synchronization is derived in terms of LMIs(Linear Matrix Inequalities). Delayed feedback control gains are obtained by solving the sufficient condition. Numerical examples are given to show the validity the proposed method.