The Impact of Financial Risks on Profitability of Malaysian Commercial Banks: 1996-2005
This paper examines the relationship between financial
risks and profitability of the conventional and Islamic banks in
Malaysia for the period between 1996 and 2005. The measures of
profitability that have been used in the study are the return on equity
(ROE) and return on assets (ROA) while the financial risks are credit
risk, interest rate risk and liquidity risks. This study employs panel
data regression analysis of Generalised Least Squares of fixed effects
and random effects models. It was found that credit risk has a
significant impact on ROA and ROE for the conventional as well as
the Islamic banks. The relationship between interest rate risk and ROE
were found to be weakly significant for the conventional banks and
insignificant for the Islamic banks. The effect of interest rate risk on
ROA is significant for the conventional banks. Liquidity risk was
found to have an insignificant impact on both profitability measures.
Strategies and Compromises: Towards an Integrated Energy and Climate Policy for Egypt
Until recently, energy security and climate change
were considered separate issues to be dealt with by policymakers.
The two issues are now converging, challenging the security and
climate communities to develop a better understanding of how to deal
with both issues simultaneously. Although Egypt is not a major
contributor to the world's total GHG emissions, it is particularly
vulnerable to the potential effects of global climate change such as
rising sea levels and changed patterns of rainfall in the Nile Basin.
Climate change is a major threat to sustainable growth and
development in Egypt, and the achievement of the Millennium
Development Goals. Egypt-s capacity to respond to the challenges of
climate instability will be expanded by improving overall resilience,
integrating climate change goals into sustainable development
strategies, increasing the use of modern energy systems with reduced
carbon intensity, and strengthening international initiatives. This
study seeks to establish a framework for considering the complex and
evolving links between energy security and climate change,
applicable to Egypt.
Development of Online Islamic Medication Expert System (OIMES)
This paper presents an overview of the design and
implementation of an online rule-based Expert Systems for Islamic
medication. T his Online Islamic Medication Expert System (OIMES)
focuses on physical illnesses only. Knowledge base of this Expert
System contains exhaustively the types of illness together with their
related cures or treatments/therapies, obtained exclusively from the
Quran and Hadith. Extensive research and study are conducted to
ensure that the Expert System is able to provide the most suitable
treatment with reference to the relevant verses cited in Quran or
Hadith. These verses come together with their related 'actions'
(bodily actions/gestures or some acts) to be performed by the patient
to treat a particular illness/sickness. These verses and the instructions
for the 'actions' are to be displayed unambiguously on the computer
screen. The online platform provides the advantage for patient getting
treatment practically anytime and anywhere as long as the computer
and Internet facility exist. Patient does not need to make appointment
to see an expert for a therapy.
Digital Hypertexts vs. Traditional Books: An Inquiry into Non-Linearity
The current study begins with an awareness that
today-s media environment is characterized by technological
development and a new way of reading caused by the introduction of
the Internet. The researcher conducted a meta analysis framed within
Technological Determinism to investigate the process of hypertext
reading, its differences from linear reading and the effects such
differences can have on people-s ways of mentally structuring their
world. The relationship between literacy and the comprehension
achieved by reading hypertexts is also investigated. The results show
hypertexts are not always user friendly. People experience hyperlinks
as interruptions that distract their attention generating comprehension
and disorientation. On one hand hypertextual jumping reading
generates interruptions that finally make people lose their
concentration. On the other hand hypertexts fascinate people who
would rather read a document in such a format even though the
outcome is often frustrating and affects their ability to elaborate and
Bridging the Green-Value-Gap: A South African Approach
Green- spaces might be very attractive, but
where are the economic benefits? What value do nature and
landscape have for us? What difference will it make to jobs,
health and the economic strength of areas struggling with
deprivation and social problems? .There is a need to consider
green spaces from a different perspective. Green planning is not just
about flora and fauna, but also about planning for economic benefits
. It is worth trying to quantify the value of green spaces since
nature and landscape are crucially important to our quality of life and
sustainable development. The reality, however, is that urban
development often takes place at the expense of green spaces.
Urbanization is an ongoing process throughout the world; however,
hyper-urbanization without environmental planning is destructive,
not constructive . Urban spaces are believed to be more valuable
than other land uses, particular green areas, simply because of the
market value connected to urban spaces. However, attractive
landscapes can help raise the quality and value of the urban market
even more. In order to reach these objectives of integrated planning,
the Green-Value-Gap needs to be bridged. Economists have to
understand the concept of Green-Planning and the spinoffs, and
Environmentalists have to understand the importance of urban
economic development and the benefits thereof to green planning. An
interface between Environmental Management, Economic
Development and sustainable Spatial Planning are needed to bridge
A New Measure of Herding Behavior: Derivation and Implications
If price and quantity are the fundamental building
blocks of any theory of market interactions, the importance of trading
volume in understanding the behavior of financial markets is clear.
However, while many economic models of financial markets have
been developed to explain the behavior of prices -predictability,
variability, and information content- far less attention has been
devoted to explaining the behavior of trading volume. In this article,
we hope to expand our understanding of trading volume by
developing a new measure of herding behavior based on a cross
sectional dispersion of volumes betas. We apply our measure to the
Toronto stock exchange using monthly data from January 2000 to
December 2002. Our findings show that the herd phenomenon
consists of three essential components: stationary herding, intentional
herding and the feedback herding.
Infrastructure Planning in Scania a Discourse Analytical Approach to the Concepts of Regional Development and Sustainability in the Planning Process
The paper applies a discourse analytical approach to investigate important concepts influencing the infrastructure planning process in the region of Scania in southern Sweden. Two discourses, one concerning regional development and one concerning sustainability are identified, discussed and contrasted. It is argued that the perceptions of problems and their suggested solutions related to transportation are based on specific ideas, in turn dependent on the importance given to certain concepts, such as regional enlargement, Scania as a transit region, the national environmental quality goals and regional attractiveness. These concepts, their underlying meaning structures and their relevance for the infrastructure planning process are analyzed. The handling of conflicting interests in the planning process, and the possible implications this may have is also discussed. The results indicate that the regional development discourse is dominant and although the solutions to the problems caused by transport are framed in similar ways in the two discourses a harmonization between conflicting goals is proving difficult to achieve.
Does the Polysemic Nature of Energy Security Make it a 'Wicked' Problem?
Governments around the world are expending
considerable time and resources framing strategies and policies to
deliver energy security. The term 'energy security' has quietly
slipped into the energy lexicon without any meaningful discourse
about its meaning or assumptions. An examination of explicit and
inferred definitions finds that the concept is inherently slippery
because it is polysemic in nature having multiple dimensions and
taking on different specificities depending on the country (or
continent), timeframe or energy source to which it is applied. But
what does this mean for policymakers? Can traditional policy
approaches be used to address the problem of energy security or does
its- polysemic qualities mean that it should be treated as a 'wicked'
problem? To answer this question, the paper assesses energy security
against nine commonly cited characteristics of wicked policy
problems and finds strong evidence of 'wickedness'.
Barriers to Knowledge Management: A Theoretical Framework and a Review of Industrial Cases
Firms have invested heavily in knowledge
management (KM) with the aim to build a knowledge capability and
use it to achieve a competitive advantage. Research has shown,
however, that not all knowledge management projects succeed. Some
studies report that about 84% of knowledge management projects
fail. This paper has integrated studies on the impediments to
knowledge management into a theoretical framework. Based on this
framework, five cases documenting failed KM initiatives were
analysed. The analysis gave us a clear picture about why certain KM
projects fail. The high failure rate of KM can be explained by the
gaps that exist between users and management in terms of KM
perceptions and objectives
Secret Communications Using Synchronized Sixth-Order Chuas's Circuits
In this paper, we use Generalized Hamiltonian systems approach to synchronize a modified sixth-order Chua's circuit, which generates hyperchaotic dynamics. Synchronization is obtained between the master and slave dynamics with the slave being given by an observer. We apply this approach to transmit private information (analog and binary), while the encoding remains potentially secure.
A Ring Segmented Bus Architecture for Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous System
Recently, most digital systems are designed as GALS (Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous) systems. Several architectures have been proposed as bus architectures for a GALS system : shared bus, segmented bus, ring bus, and so on. In this study, we propose a ring segmented bus architecture which is a combination of segmented bus and ring bus architecture with the aim of throughput enhancement. In a segmented bus architecture, segments are connected in series. By connecting the segments at the end of the bus and constructing the ring bus, it becomes possible to allocate a channel of the bus bidirectionally. The bus channel is allocated to the shortest path between segments. We consider a metastable operation caused by asynchronous communication between segments and a burst transfer between segments. According to the result of simulation, it is shown that the GALS system designed by the proposed method has the desired operations.
Selection of Best Band Combination for Soil Salinity Studies using ETM+ Satellite Images (A Case study: Nyshaboor Region,Iran)
One of the main environmental problems which affect extensive areas in the world is soil salinity. Traditional data collection methods are neither enough for considering this important environmental problem nor accurate for soil studies. Remote sensing data could overcome most of these problems. Although satellite images are commonly used for these studies, however there are still needs to find the best calibration between the data and real situations in each specified area. Neyshaboor area, North East of Iran was selected as a field study of this research. Landsat satellite images for this area were used in order to prepare suitable learning samples for processing and classifying the images. 300 locations were selected randomly in the area to collect soil samples and finally 273 locations were reselected for further laboratory works and image processing analysis. Electrical conductivity of all samples was measured. Six reflective bands of ETM+ satellite images taken from the study area in 2002 were used for soil salinity classification. The classification was carried out using common algorithms based on the best composition bands. The results showed that the reflective bands 7, 3, 4 and 1 are the best band composition for preparing the color composite images. We also found out, that hybrid classification is a suitable method for identifying and delineation of different salinity classes in the area.
Enhancement Throughput of Unplanned Wireless Mesh Networks Deployment Using Partitioning Hierarchical Cluster (PHC)
Wireless mesh networks based on IEEE 802.11
technology are a scalable and efficient solution for next generation
wireless networking to provide wide-area wideband internet access to
a significant number of users. The deployment of these wireless mesh
networks may be within different authorities and without any
planning, they are potentially overlapped partially or completely in
the same service area. The aim of the proposed model is design a new
model to Enhancement Throughput of Unplanned Wireless Mesh
Networks Deployment Using Partitioning Hierarchical Cluster
(PHC), the unplanned deployment of WMNs are determinates there
performance. We use throughput optimization approach to model the
unplanned WMNs deployment problem based on partitioning
hierarchical cluster (PHC) based architecture, in this paper the
researcher used bridge node by allowing interworking traffic between
these WMNs as solution for performance degradation.
A New Decision Making Approach based on Possibilistic Influence Diagrams
This paper proposes a new decision making approch
based on quantitative possibilistic influence diagrams which are
extension of standard influence diagrams in the possibilistic framework.
We will in particular treat the case where several expert
opinions relative to value nodes are available. An initial expert assigns
confidence degrees to other experts and fixes a similarity threshold
that provided possibility distributions should respect. To illustrate our
approach an evaluation algorithm for these multi-source possibilistic
influence diagrams will also be proposed.
Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines Technical Condition Identification System
In this paper is shown that the probability-statistic methods application, especially at the early stage of the aviation gas turbine engine (GTE) technical condition diagnosing, when the flight information has property of the fuzzy, limitation and uncertainty is unfounded. Hence is considered the efficiency of application of new technology Soft Computing at these diagnosing stages with the using of the Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks methods. Training with high accuracy of fuzzy multiple linear and non-linear models (fuzzy regression equations) which received on the statistical fuzzy data basis is made. Thus for GTE technical condition more adequate model making are analysed dynamics of skewness and kurtosis coefficients' changes. Researches of skewness and kurtosis coefficients values- changes show that, distributions of GTE work parameters have fuzzy character. Hence consideration of fuzzy skewness and kurtosis coefficients is expedient. Investigation of the basic characteristics changes- dynamics of GTE work parameters allows to draw conclusion on necessity of the Fuzzy Statistical Analysis at preliminary identification of the engines' technical condition. Researches of correlation coefficients values- changes shows also on their fuzzy character. Therefore for models choice the application of the Fuzzy Correlation Analysis results is offered. For checking of models adequacy is considered the Fuzzy Multiple Correlation Coefficient of Fuzzy Multiple Regression. At the information sufficiency is offered to use recurrent algorithm of aviation GTE technical condition identification (Hard Computing technology is used) on measurements of input and output parameters of the multiple linear and non-linear generalised models at presence of noise measured (the new recursive Least Squares Method (LSM)). The developed GTE condition monitoring system provides stage-bystage estimation of engine technical conditions. As application of the given technique the estimation of the new operating aviation engine temperature condition was made.
Control Improvement of a C Sugar Cane Crystallization Using an Auto-Tuning PID Controller Based on Linearization of a Neural Network
The industrial process of the sugar cane crystallization produces a residual that still contains a lot of soluble sucrose and the objective of the factory is to improve its extraction. Therefore, there are substantial losses justifying the search for the optimization of the process. Crystallization process studied on the industrial site is based on the “three massecuites process". The third step of this process constitutes the final stage of exhaustion of the sucrose dissolved in the mother liquor. During the process of the third step of crystallization (Ccrystallization), the phase that is studied and whose control is to be improved, is the growing phase (crystal growth phase). The study of this process on the industrial site is a problem in its own. A control scheme is proposed to improve the standard PID control law used in the factory. An auto-tuning PID controller based on instantaneous linearization of a neural network is then proposed.
Analyzing Convergence of IT and Energy Industry Based on Social System Framework
The purpose of this study is to analyze Green IT industry in major developed countries and to suggest overall directions for IT-Energy convergence industry. Recently, IT industry is pointed out as a problem such as environmental pollution, energy exhaustion, and high energy consumption. Therefore, Green IT gets focused which concerns as solution of these problems. However, since it is a beginning stage of this convergence area, there are only a few studies of IT-Energy convergence industry. According to this, this study examined the major developed countries in terms of institution arrangements, resources, markets and companies based on Van de Ven(1999)'s social system framework that shows relationship among key components of industrial infrastructure. Subsequently, the direction of the future study of convergence on IT and Energy industry is proposed.
Collaborative Education Practice in a Data Structure E-Learning Course
This paper presented a collaborative education model,
which consists four parts: collaborative teaching, collaborative
working, collaborative training and interaction. Supported by an
e-learning platform, collaborative education was practiced in a data
structure e-learning course. Data collected shows that most of students
accept collaborative education. This paper goes one step attempting to
determine which aspects appear to be most important or helpful in
Prototype for Enhancing Information Security Awareness in Industry
Human-related information security breaches within organizations are primarily caused by employees who have not been made aware of the importance of protecting the information they work with. Information security awareness is accordingly attracting more attention from industry, because stakeholders are held accountable for the information with which they work. The authors developed an Information Security Retrieval and Awareness model – entitled “ISRA" – that is tailored specifically towards enhancing information security awareness in industry amongst all users of information, to address shortcomings in existing information security awareness models. This paper is principally aimed at expounding a prototype for the ISRA model to highlight the advantages of utilizing the model. The prototype will focus on the non-technical, humanrelated information security issues in industry. The prototype will ensure that all stakeholders in an organization are part of an information security awareness process, and that these stakeholders are able to retrieve specific information related to information security issues relevant to their job category, preventing them from being overburdened with redundant information.
An Interactive 3D Experience for the Creation of Personalized Styling
This research proposes an Interactive 3D Experience to
enhance customer value in the fantasy era. As products reach maturity,
they become more similar in the range of functions that they provide.
This leads to competition via reduced retail price and ultimately
reduced profitability. A competitive design method is therefore
needed that can produce higher value products. An Enhanced Value
Experience has been identified that can assist designers to provide
quality products and to give them a unique positioning. On the basis of
this value opportunity, the method of Interactive 3D Experience has
been formulated and applied to the domain of retail furniture. Through
this, customers can create their own personalized styling via the
interactive 3D platform.
Enhanced Coagulation of Disinfection By-Products Precursors in Porsuk Water Resource, Eskisehir
Natural organic matter (NOM) is heterogeneous
mixture of organic compounds that enter the water media from
animal and plant remains, domestic and industrial wastes.
Researches showed that NOM is likely precursor material for
disinfection by products (DBPs). Chlorine very commenly used for
disinfection purposes and NOM and chlorine reacts then
Trihalomethane (THM) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs) which are
cancerogenics for human health are produced. The aim of the study is
to search NOM removal by enhanced coagulation from drinking
water source of Eskisehir which is supplied from Porsuk Dam.
Recently, Porsuk dam water is getting highly polluted and therefore
NOM concentration is increasing. Enhanced coagulation studies were
evaluated by measurement of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), UV
absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and different trihalomethane
formation potential (THMFP) tests. Results of jar test experiments
showed that NOM can be removed from water about 40-50 % of
efficiency by enhanced coagulation. Optimum coagulant type and
coagulant dosages were determined using FeCl3 and Alum.
The Impact of Trade on Social Development
Studies revealing the positive relationship between
trade and income are often criticized with the argument that
“development should mean more than rising incomes". Taking this
argument as a base and utilizing panel data, Davies and Quinlivan 
have demonstrated that increases in trade are positively associated
with future increases in social welfare as measured by the Human
Development Index (HDI). The purpose of this study is twofold:
Firstly, utilizing an income based country classification; it is aimed
to investigate whether the positive association between foreign trade
and HDI is valid within all country groups. Secondly, keeping the
same categorization as a base; it is aimed to reveal whether the
positive link between trade and HDI still exists when the income
components of the index are excluded. Employing a panel data
framework of 106 countries, this study reveals that the positive link
between trade and human development is valid only for high and
medium income countries. Moreover, the positive link between trade
and human development diminishes in lower-medium income
countries when only non-income components of the index are taken
Prerequisites to Increase the Purchase Intent fora Socially Responsible Company –Development of a Scale
Increasing attention has been given in academia to the concept of corporate social responsibility. Also, the number of companies that undertake social responsibility initiatives has been boosting day by day since behaving in a socially responsible manner brings a lot to the companies. Literature provides various benefits of social responsibility and under which situations these benefits could be realized. However, most of these studies focus on one aspect of the consequences of behaving in a socially responsible manner and there is no study that unifies the conditions that a company should fulfill to make customers prefer its brand. This study aims to fill this gap. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to identify the conditions that a socially responsible company should fulfill in order to attract customers. To this end, a scale is developed and its reliability and validity is assessed through the method of Multitrait- Multimethod Matrix.
Radiological Risk Assessment in Soil Samples of Western Haryana, India
The measurements of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using
gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates
measurements using solid state nuclear track (LR-115, Type-II
plastic) detectors are used to asses a first order exposure risk for the
persons residing in Fatehbad and Hissar districts of Western Haryana,
India. The concentration of Radium, Thorium and Potassium in the
soil samples varies from 13.37 Bq m-3 to 24.67 Bq m-3, 34.67 Bq m-3
to 67.34 Bq m-3 and 298.78 Bq m-3 to 405.67 Bq m-3 respectively
with average values of 18.78, 47.35 and 361.57 Bq m-3 respectively.
The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) calculated for the same soil
samples varies from 92.72 Bq m-3 to 140.6 Bq m-3 with an average
value of 111.80 Bq m-3. The values of absorbed dose and annual
effective dose (indoors and outdoors) are found to vary from 44.18
nGy h-1 to 65.23 nGy h-1, 0.22 mSv y-1 to 0.32 mSv y-1 and 0.05 mSv
y-1 to 0.08 mSv y-1 respectively. The radon concentration and
exhalation rates have also been reported. The radium equivalent
activities in all the soil samples were found to be lower than the limit
(370 Bq kg-1) set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) report and the value of Hex in all the samples
is less than unity.
How Can We Carry Out Green Incentives Most Efficiently?
Green incentives are included in the “American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" (ARRA). It is, however,
unclear how these government incentives can be carried out most
effectively according to market-based principles and if they can serve
as a catalyst for an accelerated green transformation and an ultimate
solution to the current U.S. and global economic and financial crisis.
The article will compare the existing U.S. green economic policies
with those in Germany, identify problems, and suggest improvements
to allow the green stimulus incentives to achieve the best results in
the process of an accelerated green transformation. The author argues
that the current U.S. green stimulus incentives can only be most
successful if they are carried out as part of a visionary,
comprehensive, long-term, and consistent strategy of the green
Rethinking the Analysis of Means-End Chain Data in Marketing Research
This paper proposes a new procedure for analyzing means-end chain data in marketing research. Most commonly the collected data is summarized in the Hierarchical Value Map (HVM) illustrating the main attribute-consequence-value linkages. This paper argues that traditionally constructed HVM may give an erroneous impression of the results of a means-end study. To justify the arguments, an alternative procedure to (1) determine the dominant attribute-consequence-value linkages and (2) construct HVM in a precise manner is presented. The current approach makes a contribution to means-end analysis, allowing marketers to address a set of marketing problems, such as advertising strategy.
Children and Advertising: Issues in Consumer Socialization Process
Today advertising is actively penetrating into many spheres of our lives. We cannot imagine the existence of a lot of economic activities without advertising. That mostly concerns trade and services. Everyone of us should look better into the everyday communication and carefully consider the amount and the quality of the information we receive as well as its influence on our behaviour. Special attention should be paid to the young generation. Theoretical and practical research has proved the ever growing influence of information (especially the one contained in advertising) on a society; on its economics, culture, religion, politics and even people-s private lives and behaviour. Children have plenty of free time and, therefore, see a lot of different advertising. Though education of children is in the hands of parents and schools, advertising makers and customers should think with responsibility about the selection of time and transmission channels of child targeted advertising. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the influence of advertising upon consumer views and behaviour of children in different age groups. The present investigation has clarified the influence of advertising as a means of information on a certain group of society, which in the modern information society is the most vulnerable – children. In this paper we assess children-s perception and their understanding of advertising.
Modeling Brand Alliance Effects Professional Services
Various formal and informal brand alliances are being formed in professional service firms. Professional service corporate brand is heavily dependent on brands of professional employees who comprise them, and professional employee brands are in turn dependent on the corporate brand. Prior work provides limited scientific evidence of brand alliance effects in professional service area – i.e., how professional service corporate-employee brand allies are affected by an alliance, what are brand attitude effects after alliance formation and how these effects vary with different strengths of an ally. Scientific literature analysis and theoretical modeling are the main methods of the current study. As a result, a theoretical model is constructed for estimating spillover effects of professional service corporate-employee brand alliances and for comparison among different professional service firm expertise practice models – from “brains" to “procedure" model. The resulting theoretical model lays basis for future experimental studies.
The Effect of Combining Real Experimentation With Virtual Experimentation on Students-Success
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect
of combining Real Experimentation (RE) With Virtual
Experimentation (VE) on students- conceptual understanding of
photo electric effect. To achieve this, a pre–post comparison study
design was used that involved 46 undergraduate students. Two
groups were set up for this study. Participants in the control group
used RE to learn photo electric effect, whereas, participants in the
experimental group used RE in the first part of the curriculum and
VE in another part. Achievement test was given to the groups
before and after the application as pre-test and post test. The
independent samples t- test, one way Anova and Tukey HSD test
were used for testing the data obtained from the study.
According to the results of analyzes, the experimental group
was found more successful than the control group.
Compensation Method Eliminating Voltage Distortions in PWM Inverter
The switching lag-time and the voltage drop across
the power devices cause serious waveform distortions and
fundamental voltage drop in pulse width-modulated inverter output.
These phenomenons are conspicuous when both the output frequency
and voltage are low. To estimate the output voltage from the PWM
reference signal it is essential to take account of these imperfections
and to correct them. In this paper, on-line compensation method is
presented. It needs three simple blocs to add at the ideal reference
voltages. This method does not require any additional hardware
circuit and off- line experimental measurement. The paper includes
experimental results to demonstrate the validity of the proposed
method. It is applied, finally, in case of indirect vector controlled
induction machine and implemented using dSpace card.
KM for Solving Economic Problem and Poverty in Community: a Case from Thailand
This paper aims to present knowledge management for solving economic problem and poverty in Thai community. A community in Thailand is studied as a case study for master plan or social and economic plan which derived form the research people conducted by themselves in their community. The result shows that community uses knowledge management in recording income and expense, analyzing their consumption, and then systematic planning of the production, distribution and consumption in the community. Besides, community enterprises, that people create as the by-products of master plan, can facilitate diverse economic activities which are able to reduce economic problem and poverty. The knowledge that people gain from solving their problem through building community enterprises are both tacit and explicit knowledge. Four styles of knowledge conversion: socialization,externalization, combination and internalization, are used. Besides, knowledge sharing inside the organization, between organizations and its environment are found. Keywordsknowledge management, community enterprise, Thailand.
Borderline Personality Organization and the Interpersonal Components of Perfectionism: A Review of Two Overlapping Personality Pathologies
This work represents the first review paper to explore the relationship between perfectionistic personality and borderline personality organization. The developmental origins, identity diffusion, interpersonal difficulties, and defense mechanisms that are common to both borderline personality and the interpersonal components of perfectionism are explored, and existing research on perfectionism and borderline personality is reviewed. The importance of the link between perfectionism and borderline features is discussed in terms of its contribution to the conceptual understanding of personality pathology as well as to applied clinical practices.
Globalisation, ICTs and National Identity: The Consequences of ICT Policy in Malaysia
For the past thirty years the Malaysian economy has been said to contribute well to the progress of the nations. However, the intensification of global economy activity and the extensive use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in recent years are challenging government-s effort to further develop Malaysian society. The competition posed by the low wage economies such as China and Vietnam have made the government realise the importance of engaging in high-skill and high technology industries. It is hoped this will be the basis of attracting more foreign direct investment (FDI) in order to help the country to compete in globalised world. Using Vision 2020 as it targeted vision, the government has decided to engage in the use of ICTs and introduce many policies pertaining to it. Mainly based on the secondary analysis approach, the findings show that policy pertaining to ICTs in Malaysia contributes to economic growth, but the consequences of this have resulted in greater division within society. Although some of the divisions such as gender and ethnicity are narrowing down, the gap in important areas such as regions and class differences is becoming wider. The widespread use of ICTs might contribute to the further establishment of democracy in Malaysia, but the increasing number of foreign entities such as FDI and foreign workers, cultural hybridisation and to some extent cultural domination are contributing to neocolonialism in Malaysia. This has obvious consequences for the government-s effort to create a Malaysian national identity. An important finding of this work is that there are contradictions within ICT policy between the effort to develop the economy and society.
Valuing Patents on Market Reaction to Patent Infringement Litigations
Innovation is more important in any companies.
However, it is not easy to measure the innovation performance
correctly. Patent is one of measuring index nowadays. This paper
wants to purpose an approach for valuing patents based on market
reaction to patent infringement litigations. The interesting
phenomenon is found from collection of patent infringement litigation
events. That is if any patent litigation event occurs the stock value will
follow changing. The plaintiffs- stock value raises some percentage.
According to this interesting phenomenon, the relationship between
patent litigation and stock value is tested and verified. And then, the
stock value variation is used to deduce the infringed patents- value.
The purpose of this study is providing another concept model to
evaluate the infringed patents. This study can provide a decision assist
system to help drafting patent litigation strategy and determine the
Synergies between Physical and Electronic Developments: A Case Study of Taipei City
It is claimed that a new style of urban planning and
policy intertwined with ICT is emerging and urban planning and ICT
policy are no longer considered as separate disciplines. The
interactions between electronic spaces and urban spaces are so
complex and uncertain that confront urban planners and policy makers
with great challenges. However, the assumption about the relationship
between ICT and urban planning is mainly based on North American
and European experiences. In the light of empirical evidence from
Taipei City, this paper shows that this new type of urban planning and
policy intertwined with ICT has existed in Asian city for a decade as
well. Based on these results, this paper further reviews how the Taipei
City government implements this new type of urban ICT planning and
the validity and realism of its underlying assumptions. Finally, it also
explores the extent to which urban ICT planning could promote
positive synergies between physical and electronic developments.
The Effect of Ultrasound Pre-Treatment on Froth Flotation Performance
The aim of this study is to compare the effect of the ultrasonic pre treatment on the removal of heavy metals (Iron, Zinc and Copper) from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) by Denver Cell flotation. Synthetic AMD and individual metal solutions are used in the initial experiments to optimise the process conditions for real AMD. Three different process methods, ultrasound treatment followed by Denver flotation cell, Denver flotation cell alone and ultrasonic treatments run simultaneously with the Denver flotation cell were tested for every sample. Precipitation of the metal solutions by using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and application of the optimum frother dosage followed by flotation significantly reduced the metal content of the AMD.
Landscape Visual Classification Using Land use and Contour Data for Tourism and Planning Decision Making in Cameron Highlands District
Cameron Highlands is known for upland tourism area
with vast natural wealth, mountainous landscape endowed with rich
diverse species as well as people traditions and cultures. With these
various resources, CH possesses an interesting visual and panorama
that can be offered to the tourist. However this benefit may not be
utilized without obtaining the understanding of existing landscape
structure and visual. Given a limited data, this paper attempts to
classify landscape visual of Cameron Highlands using land use and
contour data. Visual points of view were determined from the given
tourist attraction points in the CH Local Plan 2003-2015. The result
shows landscape visual and structure categories offered in the study
area. The result can be used for further analysis to determine the best
alternative tourist trails for tourism planning and decision making
using readily available data.
Balancing Tourism and Environment: The ETM Model
Environment both endowed and built are essential for
tourism. However tourism and environment maintains a complex
relationship, where in most cases environment is at the receiving end.
Many tourism development activities have adverse environmental
effects, mainly emanating from construction of general infrastructure
and tourism facilities. These negative impacts of tourism can lead to
the destruction of precious natural resources on which it depends.
These effects vary between locations; and its effect on a hill
destination is highly critical. This study aims at developing a
Sustainable Tourism Planning Model for an environmentally
sensitive tourism destination in Kerala, India. Being part of the
Nilgiri mountain ranges, Munnar falls in the Western Ghats, one of
the biological hotspots in the world. Endowed with a unique high
altitude environment Munnar inherits highly significant ecological
wealth. Giving prime importance to the protection of this ecological
heritage, the study proposes a tourism planning model with resource
conservation and sustainability as the paramount focus. Conceiving a
novel approach towards sustainable tourism planning, the study
proposes to assess tourism attractions using Ecological Sensitivity
Index (ESI) and Tourism Attractiveness Index (TAI). Integration of
these two indices will form the Ecology – Tourism Matrix (ETM),
outlining the base for tourism planning in an environmentally
sensitive destination. The ETM Matrix leads to a classification of
tourism nodes according to its Conservation Significance and
Tourism Significance. The spatial integration of such nodes based on
the Hub & Spoke Principle constitutes sub – regions within the STZ.
Ensuing analyses lead to specific guidelines for the STZ as a whole,
specific tourism nodes, hubs and sub-regions. The study results in a
multi – dimensional output, viz., (1) Classification system for tourism
nodes in an environmentally sensitive region/ destination (2)
Conservation / Tourism Development Strategies and Guidelines for
the micro and macro regions and (3) A Sustainable Tourism Planning
Tool particularly for Ecologically Sensitive Destinations, which can
be adapted for other destinations as well.
Design, Manufacture and Test of a Solar Powered Audible Bird Scarer
The most common domestic birds live in Turkey are: crows (Corvus corone), pigeons (Columba livia), sparrows (Passer domesticus), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and blackbirds (Turdus merula). These birds give damage to the agricultural areas and make dirty the human life areas. In order to send away these birds, some different materials and methods such as chemicals, treatments, colored lights, flash and audible scarers are used. It is possible to see many studies about chemical methods in the literatures. However there is not enough works regarding audible bird scarers are reported in the literature. Therefore, a solar powered bird scarer was designed, manufactured and tested in this experimental investigation. Firstly, to understand the sensitive level of these domestic birds against to the audible scarer, many series preliminary studies were conducted. These studies showed that crows are the most resistant against to the audible bird scarer when compared with pigeons, sparrows, starlings and blackbirds. Therefore the solar powered audible bird scarer was tested on crows. The scarer was tested about one month during April- May, 2007. 18 different common known predators- sounds (voices or calls) of domestic birds from Falcon (Falco eleonorae), Falcon (Buteo lagopus), Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Montagu-s harrier (Circus pygargus) and Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) were selected for test of the scarer. It was seen from the results that the reaction of the birds was changed depending on the predators- sound type, camouflage of the scarer, sound quality and volume, loudspeaker play and pause periods in one application. In addition, it was also seen that the sound from Falcon (Buteo lagopus) was most effective on crows and the scarer was enough efficient.
BPR Effect on ERP Implementation: a Comparative Case Study
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is an essential tool before an information system project implementation. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects definitely require the standardization and fixation of business processes from customer order to shipment. Therefore, ERP implementations are well proven to be coupled with BPR, although the extend and timing of BPR with respect to ERP implementation differ. This study aims at analyzing the effects of BPR on ERP implementation success. Basing on two Turkish ERP implementations in pharmaceutical sector, a comparative study is performed. One of the ERP implementations took place after a BPR implementation, whereas the other implementation was without a prior BPR application. Both implementations have been realized with the same consultant team, the case with prior BPR implementation going live first. The results of the case study reveal that if business processes are not optimized and improved before an ERP implementation, ERP live system would face with disharmony problems of processes and processes automated by ERP. This suggests a definite precedence relationship between BPR and ERP applications
Consistent Modeling of Functional Dependencies along with World Knowledge
In this paper we propose a method for vision systems
to consistently represent functional dependencies between different
visual routines along with relational short- and long-term knowledge
about the world. Here the visual routines are bound to visual properties
of objects stored in the memory of the system. Furthermore,
the functional dependencies between the visual routines are seen
as a graph also belonging to the object-s structure. This graph is
parsed in the course of acquiring a visual property of an object to
automatically resolve the dependencies of the bound visual routines.
Using this representation, the system is able to dynamically rearrange
the processing order while keeping its functionality. Additionally, the
system is able to estimate the overall computational costs of a certain
action. We will also show that the system can efficiently use that
structure to incorporate already acquired knowledge and thus reduce
the computational demand.
Telecommunications Access, Social Capital and Sustainable Development
This paper examines the role of telecommunications in sustainable development of urban, rural and remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia through the theoretical lens of Social Capital. Social Capital is a relatively new construct and is rapidly gaining interest among policy makers, politicians and researchers as a means to both describe and understand social and economic development. Increasingly, the concept of Social Capital, as opposed to the traditional economic indicators, is seen as a more accurate measure of well-being. Whilst the essence of Social Capital is quality social relations, the concept intersects with telecommunications and Information Communications Technology (ICT) in a number of ways. The potential of ICT to disseminate information quickly, to reach vast numbers of people simultaneously and to include the previously excluded, is immense. However, the exact nature of the relationship is not clearly defined. This paper examines the nexus between social relations of mutual benefit, telecommunications access and sustainable development. A mixed methodological approach was used to test the hypothesis that No relationship exists between Social Capital and access to telecommunications services and facilities. Four communities, which included two urban, a rural and a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia are the focus of this research paper.
Megalopolisation: An Effect of Large Scale Urbanisation in Post-Reform China
Megalopolis is a group of densely populated metropolitan areas that combine to form an urban complex. Since China introduced the economic reforms in late 1970s, the Chinese urban system has experienced unprecedented growth. The process of urbanisation prevailed in the 1980s, and the process of predominantly large city growth appeared to continue through 1990s and 2000s. In this study, the magnitude and pattern of urbanisation in China during 1990s were examined using remotely sensed imagery acquired by TM/ETM+ sensor onboard the Landsat satellites. The development of megalopolis areas in China was also studied based on the GIS analysis of the increases of urban and built-up area from 1990 to 2000. The analysis suggests that in the traditional agricultural zones in China, e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, Changjiang River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Sichuan Basin, the urban and built-up areas increased by 1.76 million hectares, of which 0.82 million hectares are expansion of urban areas, an increase of 24.78% compared with 1990 at the national scale. The Yellow River Delta, Changjiang River Delta and Pearl River Delta also saw an increase of urban and built-up area by 63.9%, 66.2% and 83.0% respectively. As a result, three major megalopolises were developed in China: the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong- Macau (Pearl River Delta: PRD) megalopolis area, the Shanghai- Nanjing-Hangzhou (Changjiang River Delta: CRD) megalopolis area and the Beijing-Tianjing-Tangshan-Qinhuangdao (Yellow River Delta-Bohai Sea Ring: YRD) megalopolis area. The relationship between the processed of megalopolisation and the inter-provincial population flow was also explored in the context of social-economic and transport infrastructure development in Post-reform China.
Mathematical Modelling of Single Phase Unity Power Factor Boost Converter
An optimal control strategy based on simple model, a
single phase unity power factor boost converter is presented with an
evaluation of first order differential equations. This paper presents an
evaluation of single phase boost converter having power factor
correction. The simple discrete model of boost converter is formed
and optimal control is obtained, digital PI is adopted to adjust control
error. The method of instantaneous current control is proposed in this
paper for its good tracking performance of dynamic response. The
simulation and experimental results verified our design.
Production of Milk Clotting Protease by Rhizopus Stolonifer through Optimization of Culture Conditions
The present study describes the biosynthesis of a milkclotting
protease by solid state fermentation (SSF) of a locally
isolated mould, Rhizopus stolonifer. The production medium was
prepared using wheat bran at 50% (w/v). The production conditions
are optimized by varying 7 parameters: carbon and nitrogen sources,
medium moisture, temperature, pH, fermentation time and
inoculum-s size. The maximum enzyme synthesis was measured after
96 h of incubation time at temperature of 28°C. The optimum pH
determined was 6 and the inoculum size was 3.106spores/ml. The
optimum initial moisture content is comprised between 50 to 70%.
The formation of milk clotting protease is enhanced when galactose
and peptone are used at 10% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) concentrations
respectively. The maximum production of milk clotting protease is
Effect of Chemical Pretreatments and Dehydration Methods on Quality Characteristics of Tomato Powder and Its Storage Stability
Dehydration process was carried out for tomato slices of var. Avinash after giving different pre-treatments such as calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium metabisulphite (KMS), calcium chloride and potassium metabisulphite (CaCl2 +KMS), and sodium chloride (NaCl). Untreated samples served as control. Solar drier and continuous conveyor (tunnel) drier were used for dehydration. Quality characteristics of tomato slices viz. moisture content, sugar, titratable acidity, lycopene content, dehydration ratio, rehydration ratio and non-enzymatic browning as affected by dehydration process were studied. Storage study was also carried out for a period of six months for tomato powder packed into different types of packaging materials viz. metalized polyester (MP) film and low density poly ethylene (LDPE). Changes in lycopene content and non-enzymatic browning (NEB) were estimated during storage at room temperature. Pretreatment of 5 mm thickness of tomato slices with calcium chloride in combination with potassium metabisulphite and drying using a tunnel drier with subsequent storage of product in metalized polyester bags was selected as the best process.
Academic Digital Library's Evaluation Criteria: User-Centered Approach
Academic digital libraries emerged as a result of advances in computing and information systems technologies, and had been introduced in universities and to public. As results, moving in parallel with current technology in learning and researching environment indeed offers myriad of advantages especially to students and academicians, as well as researchers. This is due to dramatic changes in learning environment through the use of digital library system which giving spectacular impact on these societies- way of performing their study/research. This paper presents a survey of current criteria for evaluating academic digital libraries- performance. The goal is to discuss criteria being applied so far for academic digital libraries evaluation in the context of user-centered design. Although this paper does not comprehensively take into account all previous researches in evaluating academic digital libraries but at least it can be a guide in understanding the evaluation criteria being widely applied.
On the Reliability of Low Voltage Network with Small Scale Distributed Generators
Since the 80s huge efforts have been made to utilize
renewable energy sources to generate electric power. This paper
reports some aspects of integration of the distributed generators into
the low voltage distribution networks. An assessment of impact of the
distributed generators on the reliability indices of low voltage
network is performed. Results obtained from case study using low
voltage network, are presented and discussed.
Ageing and Partial Discharge Patterns in Oil-Impregnated Paper and Pressboard Insulation at High Temperature
The power transformer is the most expensive, indispensable and arguably the most important equipment item in a power system Insulation failure in transformers can cause long term interruption to supply and loss of revenue and the condition assessment of the insulation is thus an important maintenance procedure. Oil-impregnated transformer insulation consists of mainly organic materials including mineral oil and cellulose-base paper and pressboard. The operating life of cellulose-based insulation, as with most organic insulation, depends heavily on its operating temperature rise above ambient. This paper reports results of a laboratory-based experimental investigation of partial discharge (PD) activity at high temperature in oil-impregnated insulation. The experiments reported here are part an on-going programme aimed at investigating the way in which insulation deterioration can be monitored and quantified by use of partial discharge diagnostics. Partial discharge patterns were recorded and analysed during increasing and decreasing phases of the temperature. The effect of ageing of the insulation on the PD patterns in oil and oil-impregnated insulation are also considered.
Using PFA in Feature Analysis and Selection for H.264 Adaptation
Classification of video sequences based on their contents is a vital process for adaptation techniques. It helps decide which adaptation technique best fits the resource reduction requested by the client. In this paper we used the principal feature analysis algorithm to select a reduced subset of video features. The main idea is to select only one feature from each class based on the similarities between the features within that class. Our results showed that using this feature reduction technique the source video features can be completely omitted from future classification of video sequences.
Does Perceived Organizational Virtuousness Explain Organizational Citizenship Behaviors?
The paper shows how the perceptions of five organizational virtuousness dimensions (optimism, trust, compassion, integrity, and forgiveness) explain organizational citizenship behaviors (altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy, conscientiousness, and civic virtue). A sample comprising 216 individuals from 14 industrial organizations was collected. Individuals reported their perceptions of organizational virtuousness, their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) being reported by their supervisors. The main findings are the following: (a) the perceptions of trust predict altruism; (b) the perceptions of integrity predict civic virtue.
Attachment Styles of Children Raised in Nursery vs. Those Who are Raised in the Family in Iran
In studies on psychological health and children-s personality development and in researches on emotional distresses, children-s behavioral disorders associated with mother deprivation, are known as the major cause of mental disorders. Therefore, for identification of children-s attachment styles in nursery-s children are of significant importance. For this purpose, to compare the attachment styles between children of nursery with those provided care by their families, the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT) of Slough and et al was administered on 72 children (36 in nursery and 36 family-cared). The results indicated, almost half of children in both groups have insecure attachment styles. Tendency ratio of both groups of children towards Secure and Ambivalent Insecure styles are almost the same. However the avoidant style of attachment in children of nursery is more than those provided care by their families. The children under family care compared to the children of nursery, in the situations of separation from their mothers in the first day of school and sleeping in their room, have shown more self reliance.
Antecedent Factors of Ethical Ideologies in Moral Judgment: Evidence from the Mixed Method Study
This research investigates the factors that influence moral judgments when dealing with ethical dilemmas in the organizational context. It also investigates the antecedents of individual ethical ideology (idealism and relativism). A mixed method study, which combines qualitative (field study) and quantitative (survey) approaches, was used in this study. An initial model was developed first, which was then fine-tuned based on field studies. Data were collected from managers in Malaysian large organizations. The results of this study reveal that in-group collectivism culture, power distance culture, parental values, and religiosity were significant as antecedents of ethical ideology. However, direct effects of these variables on moral judgment were not significant. Furthermore, the results of this study confirm the significant effects of ethical ideology on moral judgment. This study provides valuable insight into evaluating the validity of existing theory as proposed in the literature and offers significant practical implications.
A Comparative Study on the Creativity of Organizations in Office Management and Secretarial Work and the Assessment of Creativity among Students Training in This Field
Today, the working areas put forward the administration of change. In order to provide this; it is required from the organizations to be creative. Professional creativity in offices depends on an environment that enables the development of the organization only after the individual or collective exertions within the organization. By providing this environment, the organization will gain efficiency, productivity, and work pleasure. In order to bring up the workforce appropriate to the related expectations, the professional creativity of the office management and secretarial profession candidates should be evaluated, education programs appropriate to this and related directly with the service quality should be prepared and the future of this profession should be directed. The aim of this study is to ensure the attention to improve the prepared education program as well as the creative thoughts and their applications, when carrying out an office management and secretarial training. 144 students took place in this research and a questionnaire of 48 questions was carried out.
Devising and Assessing the Efficacy of Mobile-Assisted Instructional Modes in Mobile Learning
The assessment of the efficacy of devised Mobile-
Assisted Instructional Modes in Mobile Learning was the focus of
this research. The study adopted pre-test, post-test, control group
quasi-experimental design. Research instruments were developed,
validated and used for collecting data. Findings revealed that the
students exposed to Mobile Task Based Learning Mode (MTBLM) in
using Mobile-Assisted Instruction (MAI) performed significantly
better. The implication of these findings is that, the Audio tutorial
and Practice Mode (ATPM) (Stimulus instruments) of MAI had been
found better over the other modes used in the study.
Indonesian Store Loyalty Factors for Modern Retailing Market
Modern retailers such as hypermarket/supermarket
need to be more customer-oriented in order to survive in today-s
competitive business world. As a result, the investigation of
determinant factors of store loyalty becomes important issue for
modern retailing players. This study suggests that consumers- store
loyalty in the modern retailing market (hypermarkets and
supermarkets) is influenced by environmental factors (such as store
image, store personnel). Using a model of stimulus-organismresponse
(S-O-R), this research examines S-R relationship of store
loyalty. S-O-R framework is derived from the existence literature and
tested empirically based on Indonesian consumers- experience. The
stimuli for this study are store image, store personnel, satisfaction
and culture factors. Affect, or the consumers- liking to modern
retailing stores, mediates the chosen environmental factors on
consumer-s store loyalty. The findings showed that store image, store
satisfaction and culture have significant positive relationship to store
loyalty via affect.
Migration from Commercial to in-House Developed Learning Management Systems
The Learning Management Systems present learning
environment which offers a collection of e-learning tools in a
package that allows a common interface and information sharing
among the tools. South East European University initial experience
in LMS was with the usage of the commercial LMS-ANGEL. After a
three year experience on ANGEL usage because of expenses that
were very high it was decided to develop our own software. As part
of the research project team for the in-house design and development
of the new LMS, we primarily had to select the features that would
cover our needs and also comply with the actual trends in the area of
software development, and then design and develop the system. In
this paper we present the process of LMS in-house development for
South East European University, its architecture, conception and
strengths with a special accent on the process of migration and
integration with other enterprise applications.
Fuzzy Approach for Ranking of Motor Vehicles Involved in Road Accidents
Increasing number of vehicles and lack of awareness among road users may lead to road accidents. However no specific literature was found to rank vehicles involved in accidents based on fuzzy variables of road users. This paper proposes a ranking of four selected motor vehicles involved in road accidents. Human and non-human factors that normally linked with road accidents are considered for ranking. The imprecision or vagueness inherent in the subjective assessment of the experts has led the application of fuzzy sets theory to deal with ranking problems. Data in form of linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. The Multi Criteria Decision Making, fuzzy TOPSIS was applied in computational procedures. From the analysis, it shows that motorcycles vehicles yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.6225. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the motorcycles recorded the first rank.
Clubs Forming on Crazyvote -The Blurred Social Boundary Between Online Communities and the Real World
With the rapid growth and development of information and communication technology, the Internet has played a definite and irreplaceable role in people-s social lives in Taiwan like in other countries. In July 2008, on a general social website, an unexpected phenomenon was noticed – that there were more than one hundred users who started forming clubs voluntarily and having face-to-face gatherings for specific purposes. In this study, it-s argued whether or not teenagers- social contact on the Internet is involved in their life context, and tried to reveal the teenagers- social preferences, values, and needs, which merge with and influence teenagers- social activities. Therefore, the study conducts multiple user experience research methods, which include practical observations and qualitative analysis by contextual inquiries and in-depth interviews. Based on the findings, several design implications for software related to social interactions and cultural inheritance are offered. It is concluded that the inherent values of a social behaviors might be a key issue in developing computer-mediated communication or interaction designs in the future.
Comparison of the Garden City Conceptand Green Belt Concept in Major Asian and Oceanic Cities
The purpose of this study is to review representative
cases of green space development in order to compare the Garden City
concept and Green Belt concept as applied and to examine its direction
in major Asian and Oceanic cities. The results of previous studies and
this study show that there are two major directions in such
green-oriented city planning. One direction is toward Multi-Regional
Development, and the other focuses on an Environmentally Symbiotic
City based on the Garden City concept. In large cities and the suburbs
where extremely strong pressure to urbanize makes it impossible to
keep Green Belts, it is essential to strictly control land use and adopt
the Garden City concept to conserve the urban environment.
A Study on the Attractiveness of Heavy Duty Motorcycle
The culture of riding heavy motorcycles originates
from advanced countries and mainly comes from Europe, North
America, and Japan. Heavy duty motorcycle riders are different from
people who view motorcycles as a convenient mean of transportation.
They regard riding them as a kind of enjoyment and high-level taste.
The activities of riding heavy duty motorcycles have formes a
distinctive landscape in domestic land in Taiwan. Previous studies
which explored motorcycle culture in Taiwan still focused on the
objects of motorcycle engine displacement under 50 cc.. The study
aims to study the heavy duty motorcycles of engine displacement over
550 cc. and explores where their attractiveness is. For finding the
attractiveness of heavy duty motorcycle, the study chooses Miryoku
Engineering (Preference-Based Design) approach. Two steps are
adopted to proceed the research. First, through arranging the letters
obtained from interviewing experts, EGM (The Evaluation Grid
Method) was applied to find out the structure of attractiveness. The
attractive styles are eye-dazzling, leisure, classic, and racing
competitive styles. Secondarily, Quantification Theory Type I analysis
was adopted as a tool for analyzing the importance of attractiveness.
The relationship between style and attractive parts was also discussed.
The results could contribute to the design and research development of
heavy duty motorcycle industry in Taiwan.
Chronic Consumer States Influencing Compulsive Consumption
Consumer behaviour analysis represents an important
field of study in marketing. Particularly strategy development for
marketing and communications will be more focused and effective
when marketers have an understanding of the motivations, behaviour
and psychology of consumers. While materialism has been found to
be one of the important elements in consumer behaviour, compulsive
consumption represents another aspect that has recently attracted
more attention. This is because of the growing prevalence of
dysfunctional buying that has raised concern in consumer societies.
Present studies and analyses on origins and motivations of
compulsive buying have mainly focused on either individual factors
or groups of related factors and hence a need for a holistic view
exists. This paper provides a comprehensive perspective on
compulsive consumption and establishes relevant propositions
keeping the family life cycle stages as a reference for the incidence of
chronic consumer states and their influence on compulsive
High Performance VLSI Architecture of 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform with Scalable Lattice Structure
In this paper, we propose a fully-utilized, block-based 2D DWT (discrete wavelet transform) architecture, which consists of four 1D DWT filters with two-channel QMF lattice structure. The proposed architecture requires about 2MN-3N registers to save the intermediate results for higher level decomposition, where M and N stand for the filter length and the row width of the image respectively. Furthermore, the proposed 2D DWT processes in horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously without an idle period, so that it computes the DWT for an N×N image in a period of N2(1-2-2J)/3. Compared to the existing approaches, the proposed architecture shows 100% of hardware utilization and high throughput rates. To mitigate the long critical path delay due to the cascaded lattices, we can apply the pipeline technique with four stages, while retaining 100% of hardware utilization. The proposed architecture can be applied in real-time video signal processing.
The Link between Financial and Overall Corporate Strategies
Company strategy expresses a basic idea of how to reach company objectives. A whole range of models of strategic management are used in practice. The concept of strategic management should fulfill some basic requirements to make it applicable for both the typical, but also more specific company environment. The financial strategy plays an important role in corporate strategy. The paper develops a methodology of strategic model implementing into the category of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Furthermore, the methodology recommends procedures while solving an up-to-date worldwide task of the definition of the company strategy and its financial strategy.
Do Cultural Differences in Successful ERP Implementations Exist?
Using a methodology grounded in business process
change theory, we investigate the critical success factors that affect
ERP implementation success in United States and India.
Specifically, we examine the ERP implementation at two case study
companies, one in each country. Our findings suggest that certain
factors that affect the success of ERP implementations are not
culturally bound, whereas some critical success factors depend on the
national culture of the country in which the system is being
implemented. We believe that the understanding of these critical
success factors will deepen the understanding of ERP
implementations and will help avoid implementation mistakes,
thereby increasing the rate of success in culturally different contexts.
Implications of the findings and future research directions for both
academicians and practitioners are also discussed.
Characteristics of Corporate Social Responsibility Indicators
The aim of the study is to investigate a number of characteristics of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) indicators that should be adopted by CSR assessment methodologies. For the purpose of this paper, a survey among the Greek companies that belong to FTSE 20 in Athens Exchange (FTSE/Athex-20) has been conducted, as these companies are expected to pioneer in the field of CSR. The results show consensus as regards the characteristics of indicators such as the need for the adoption of general and specific sector indicators, financial and non-financial indicators, the origin and the weight rate. However, the results are contradictory concerning the appropriate number of indicators for the assessment of CSR and the unit of measurement. Finally, the company-s sector is a more important dimension of CSR than the size and the country where the company operates. The purpose of this paper is to standardize the main characteristics of CSR indicators.
Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility Concept in Greece
This study attempts to clarify major perspectives of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Greek market related to companies that have sufficient CSR. An empirical analysis was undertaken, based on literature review and previous observations and surveys, in order to provide a general analysis of the CSR concept in Greece. The results of Accountability Rating institution were used in order to identify companies that adopt an integrated social responsibility approach. Companies that responded to the survey are both regional and international and belong to different industrial fields. Some of the main survey results reveal: multiple aspects for the CSR concept, weak consensus as regards the importance of stakeholders and benefits from the CSR implementation, the important role of CSR in the decision procedure and CSR practices concerning social issues that affect mostly company-s competitiveness. Sharing companies- experience could address common social issues through CSR best practices and develop new knowledge.
Computer - based Systems for High Speed Vessels Navigators – Engineers Training
With high speed vessels getting ever more sophisti-cated, travelling at higher and higher speeds and operating in With high speed vessels getting ever more sophisticated,
travelling at higher and higher speeds and operating in areas of
high maritime traffic density, training becomes of the highest priority
to ensure that safety levels are maintained, and risks are adequately
mitigated. Training onboard the actual craft on the actual route still
remains the most effective way for crews to gain experience. However,
operational experience and incidents during the last 10 years
demonstrate the need for supplementary training whether in the area
of simulation or man to man, man/ machine interaction. Training and
familiarisation of the crew is the most important aspect in preventing
incidents. The use of simulator, computer and web based training
systems in conjunction with onboard training focusing on critical
situations will improve the man machine interaction and thereby
reduce the risk of accidents. Today, both ship simulator and bridge
teamwork courses are now becoming the norm in order to improve
further emergency response and crisis management skills. One of the
main causes of accidents is the human factor. An efficient way to
reduce human errors is to provide high-quality training to the personnel
and to select the navigators carefully.areas of high maritime traffic density, training becomes of the highest priority to ensure that safety levels are maintained, and risks are adequately mitigated. Training onboard the actual craft on the actual route still remains the most effective way for crews to gain experience. How-ever, operational experience and incidents during the last 10 years demonstrate the need for supplementary training whether in the area of simulation or man to man, man/ machine interaction. Training and familiarisation of the crew is the most important aspect in preventing incidents. The use of simulator, computer and web based training systems in conjunction with onboard training focusing on critical situations will improve the man machine interaction and thereby reduce the risk of accidents. Today, both ship simulator and bridge teamwork courses are now becoming the norm in order to improve further emergency response and crisis management skills. One of the main causes of accidents is the human factor. An efficient way to reduce human errors is to provide high-quality training to the person-nel and to select the navigators carefully. KeywordsCBT - WBT systems, Human factors.
Teacher Professionalisation and Career Commitment
Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that
teachers have low to moderate levels of professionalisation, high
level of career identity and moderate levels of career resilience, and
career planning. From the T-tests and F-tests conducted, it was found
that gender has a significant impact on career identity whereas age
and marital status have significant impact on career planning and also
on career identity. The results indicate that there is a higher
possibility of male teachers to leave the teaching profession than the
female teachers. The result of the T-test on career identity in relation
to gender supports this deduction in which female teachers have
significantly higher career identity than their male counterparts.
Marital status was also found to have a significant impact on career
Effects of Human Capital and Openness on Economic Growth of Developed and Developing Countries: A Panel Data Analysis
Technology transfer by international trade and
foreign direct investment is the most important positive
outcome of open economy. It is widely accepted that new
technology and knowledge have an important role in
enhancing economic growth. Human capital is the other
important factor assisting economic growth. In this study, the
role of human capital in the growth process is examined in a
view of new endogenous growth theory emphasizing on the
technology transfer resulting from international trade. Using
the panel data of 10 developed and 10 developing countries,
impact of human capital and openness on the rate of economic
growth of different countries is analysed. Evidence suggests
the view that human capital and openness contribute to the
economic growth in both developing and developed countries,
but with different rates.
Poverty, Inequality and Growth: A Survey of the Literature and Some Facts from Turkey
This survey of recent literature examines the link between growth and poverty. It is widely accepted that economic growth is a necessary condition for sustainable poverty reduction. But it is the fact that the economic growth of some countries has been pro-poor while others not. Some factors such as labor market, policies and demographic factors may lead to a weak relationship between economic performance and poverty rate. In this sense pro-growth policies should be pro-poor to increase the poverty alleviation effects of the growth. The purpose of this study is to review the recent studies on the effects of macroeconomic policies on poverty and inequality and to review the poverty analyses which examine the relationship between growth, poverty and inequality. Also this study provides some facts about the relationship between economic growth, inequality and poverty from Turkey. Keywordseconomic growth, inequality, macroeconomic policy, poverty
Performance Evaluation Standards and Innovation: An Empirical Investigation
In this empirical research, how marketing managers evaluate their firms- performances and decide to make innovation is examined. They use some standards which are past performance of the firm, target performance of the firm, competitor performance, and average performance of the industry to compare and evaluate the firms- performances. It is hypothesized that marketing managers and owners of the firm compare the firms- current performance with these four standards at the same time to decide when to make innovation relating to any aspects of the firm, either management style or products. Relationship between the comparison of the firm-s performance with these standards and innovation are searched in the same regression model. The results of the regression analysis are discussed and some recommendations are made for future studies and applicants.
Virtual Environments...Vehicle for Pedagogical Advancement
Virtual environments are a hot topic in academia and more importantly in courses offered via distance education. Today-s gaming generation view virtual worlds as strong social and interactive mediums for communicating and socializing. And while institutions of higher education are challenged with increasing enrollment while balancing budget cuts, offering effective courses via distance education become a valid option. Educators can utilize virtual worlds to offer students an enhanced learning environment which has the power to alleviate feelings of isolation through the promotion of communication, interaction, collaboration, teamwork, feedback, engagement and constructivists learning activities. This paper focuses on the use of virtual environments to facilitate interaction in distance education courses so as to produce positive learning outcomes for students. Furthermore, the instructional strategies were reviewed and discussed for use in virtual worlds to enhance learning within a social context.
Digital Scholarship and Disciplinary Culture: An Investigation of Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
The emergence of networked information and communication has transformed the accessibility and delivery of scholarly information and fundamentally impacted on the processes of research and scholarly communication. The purpose of this study is to investigate disciplinary differences in the use of networked information for research and scholarly communication at Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. This study has produced quantitative data about how and why academics within different disciplines utilize networked information that is made available either internally through the university library, or externally through networked services accessed by the Internet. The results indicate some significant differences between the attitudes and practice of academics in the science disciplines when compared to those from the social sciences and humanities. While respondents from science disciplines show overall longer and more frequent use of networked information, respondents from humanities and social sciences indicated more positive attitudes and a greater degree of satisfaction toward library networked services.
Introducing Successful Financial Innovations: Rewriting the Rules in Light of the Global Financial Crisis
Since the 1980s, banks and financial service institutions have been running in an endless race of innovation to cope with the advancing technology, the fierce competition, and the more sophisticated and demanding customers. In order to guide their innovation efforts, several researches were conducted to identify the success and failure factors of new financial services. These mainly included organizational factors, marketplace factors and new service development process factors. They almost all emphasized the importance of customer and market orientation as a response to the highly perceptual and intangible characteristics of financial services. However, they deemphasized the critical characteristics of high involvement of risk and close correlation with the economic conditions, a factor that heavily contributed to the Global financial Crisis of 2008. This paper reviews the success and failure factors of new financial services. It then adds new perspectives emerging from the analysis of the role of innovation in the global financial crisis.
A Study of Factors Influencing the Improvement of Technology Business Incubator's Effectiveness: An Explanatory Model
In Both developed and developing countries,
governments play a basic role in making policies, programs and
instruments which support the development of micro, small and
medium enterprises. One of the mechanisms employed to nurture
small firms for more than two decades is business incubation. One of
the mechanisms employed to nurture small firms for more than two
decades is technology business incubation. The main aim of this
research was to establish influencing factors in Technology Business
Incubator's effectiveness and their explanatory model. Therefore,
among 56 Technology Business Incubators in Iran, 32 active
incubators were selected and by stratified random sampling, 528
start-ups were chosen. The validity of research questionnaires
was determines by expert consensus, item analysis and factor
analysis; and their reliability calculated by Cronbach-s alpha.
Data analysis was then made through SPSS and LISREL soft wares.
Both organizational procedures and entrepreneurial behaviors were
the meaningful mediators. Organizational procedures with (P < .01, β
=0.45) was stronger mediator for the improvement of Technology
Business Incubator's effectiveness comparing to entrepreneurial
behavior with (P < .01, β =0.36).
Examining Organizational Improvisation: The Role of Strategic Reasoning and Managerial Factors
Recent environmental turbulence including financial
crisis, intensified competitive forces, rapid technological change and
high market turbulence have dramatically changed the current
business climate. The managers firms have to plan and decide what
the best approaches that best fit their firms in order to pursue superior
performance. This research aims to examine the influence of strategic
reasoning and top level managers- individual characteristics on the
effectiveness of organizational improvisation and firm performance.
Given the lack of studies on these relationships in the previous
literature, there is significant contribution to the body of knowledge
as well as for managerial practices. 128 responses from top
management of technology-based companies in Malaysia were used
as a sample. Three hypotheses were examined and the findings
confirm that (a) there is no relationship between intuitive reasoning
and organizational improvisation but there is a link between rational
reasoning and organizational improvisation, (b) top level managers-
individual characteristics as a whole affect organizational
improvisation; and (c) organizational improvisation positively affects
firm performance. The theoretical and managerial implications were
discussed in the conclusions.
The Urban Development Boundary as a Planning Tool for Sustainable Urban Form: The South African Situation
It is the living conditions in the cities that determine the future of our livelihood. “To change life, we must first change space"- Henri Lefebvre. Sustainable development is a utopian aspiration for South African cities (especially the case study of the Gauteng City Region), which are currently characterized by unplanned growth and increasing urban sprawl. While the reasons for poor environmental quality and living conditions are undoubtedly diverse and complex, having political, economical and social dimensions, it is argued that the prevailing approach to layout planning in South Africa is part of the problem. This article seeks a solution to the problem of sustainability, from a spatial planning perspective. The spatial planning tool, the urban development boundary, is introduced as the concept that will ensure empty talk being translated into a sustainable vision. The urban development boundary is a spatial planning tool that can be used and implemented to direct urban growth towards a more sustainable form. The urban development boundary aims to ensure planned urban areas, in contrast to the current unplanned areas characterized by urban sprawl and insufficient infrastructure. However, the success of the urban development boundary concept is subject to effective implementation measures, as well as adequate and efficient management. The concept of sustainable development can function as a driving force underlying societal change and transformation, but the interface between spatial planning and environmental management needs to be established (as this is the core aspects underlying sustainable development), and authorities needs to understand and implement this interface consecutively. This interface can, however, realize in terms of the objectives of the planning tool – the urban development boundary. The case study, the Gauteng City Region, is depicted as a site of economic growth and innovation, but there is a lack of good urban and regional governance, impacting on the design (layout) and function of urban areas and land use, as current authorities make uninformed decisions in terms of development applications, leading to unsustainable urban forms and unsustainable nodes. Place and space concepts are thus critical matters applicable to planning of the Gauteng City Region. The urban development boundary are thus explored as a planning tool to guide decision-making, and create a sustainable urban form, leading to better environmental and living conditions, and continuous sustainability.
Energy Resources Management for Sustainable Development in Nigeria Niger Delta Region: Women Issues and the Environment
There is an urgent need to conserve the biological diversity of the Nigerian Environment for the future and present generation in the face of current energy resources development. This paper gives an in-depth analysis of the impact of oil and gas activities on the biological diversity of the Nigerian Niger Delta area and its consequences on the sustainable development of the host communities as it relates to their social, economic and environmental issues, particularly on the womenfolk who are the key managers of environmental resources. Also reviewed is the frustration of these communities that is reflected in unending conflicts.
Educational Values of Virtual Reality: The Case of Spatial Ability
The use of Virtual Reality (VR) in schools and higher education is proliferating. Due to its interactive and animated features, it is regarded as a promising technology to increase students- spatial ability. Spatial ability is assumed to have a prominent role in science and engineering domains. However, research concerning individual differences such as spatial ability in the context of VR is still at its infancy. Moreover, empirical studies that focus on the features of VR to improve spatial ability are to date rare. Thus, this paper explores the possible educational values of VR in relation to spatial ability to call for more research concerning spatial ability in the context of VR based on studies in computerbased learning. It is believed that the incorporation of state-of-the-art VR technology for educational purposes should be justified by the enhanced benefits for the target learners.
Evaluation of Risks in New Product Innovation
In highly competitive environments, a growing
number of companies must regularly launch new products speedily
and successfully. A company-s success is based on the systematic,
conscious product designing method which meets the market
requirements and takes risks as well as resources into consideration.
Research has found that developing and launching new products are
inherently risky endeavors. Hence in this research, we aim at
introducing a risk evaluation framework for the new product
innovation process. Our framework is based on the fuzzy analytical
hierarchy process (FAHP) methodology. We have applied all the
stages of the framework on the risk evaluation process of a
Determining the Principles Affecting Perceptions of Strategic Quality Management Implementation: A Study of the Turkish Large Scale Firms
The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles, which have the highest impact on determining the Strategic Quality Management (SQM) implementation perceptions of managers. In order to accomplish this goal, first of all, a factor analysis is conducted on the attitudes of managers at 80 large-scale firms in Turkey for SQM principles. Secondly, utilizing t tests and discriminant analysis, the most effective items are determined. The results show that “process improvement" and “assessment of competitiveness" are the management principles, which have the highest impact on determining the SQM implementation perceptions of Turkish managers.
Development of a Performance Measurement System for Forwarders
Performance Measurement is still a difficult task for forwarding companies. This is caused on the one hand by missing resources and on the other hand by missing tools. The research project “Management Information System for Logistics Service Providers" aims for closing the gap between needed and disposable solutions. Core of the project is the development
Optimization of Methods for Development of Fermented-Distillate of Passion Fruit Beverage
Fermented beverages have high expression in the
market for beverages in general, is increasingly valued in situations
where the characteristic aroma and flavor of the material that gave
rise to them are kept after processing. This study aimed to develop a
distilled beverage from passion fruit, and assess, by sensory tests and
chromatographic profile, the influence of different treatments (FM1-
spirit with pulp addiction and FM2 – spirit with bigger ratio of pulp
in must) in the setting of volatiles in the fruit drink, and performing
chemical characterization taking into account the main parameters of
quality established by the legislation. The chromatograms and the
first sensorial tests had indicated that sample FM1 possess better
characteristics of aroma, as much of how much quantitative the
qualitative point of view. However, it analyzes it sensorial end
(preference test) disclosed the biggest preference of the cloth provers
for sample FM2-2 (note 7.93), being the attributes of decisive color
and flavor in this reply, confirmed for the observed values lowest of
fixed and total acidity in the samples of treatment FM2.
Barriers and Conflicts in Relationships of Small Firms – Insights from Central Europe
This paper contributes to our knowledge about buyerseller
relations by identifying barriers and conflict situations
associated with maintaining and developing durable business
relationships by small companies. The contribution of prior studies
with regard to negative aspects of marketing relationships is
presented in the first section. The international research results are
discussed with regard to the existing conceptualizations and main
research implications identified at the end.
Digital Paradoxes in Learning Theories
As a learning theory tries to borrow from science a framework to found its method, it shows paradoxes and paralysing contraddictions. This results, on one hand, from adopting a learning/teaching model as it were a mere “transfer of data" (mechanical learning approach), and on the other hand from borrowing the complexity theory (an indeterministic and non-linear model), that risks to vanish every educational effort. This work is aimed at describing existing criticism, unveiling the antinomic nature of such paradoxes, focussing on a view where neither the mechanical learning perspective nor the chaotic and nonlinear model can threaten and jeopardize the educational work. Author intends to go back over the steps that led to these paradoxes and to unveil their antinomic nature. Actually this could serve the purpose to explain some current misunderstandings about the real usefulness of Ict within the youth-s learning process and growth.
Design and Social Innovation: A Systemic Approach
Design, as an area of knowledge, is subject to changes that affect it through different approaches, both theoretical and practical; its include matters related with responsibility, environment, social worries, and things alike. Commensurately, such contemporary aspects open room for social initiatives. This scenario begins to be looked at, especially in creative communities. Such proposal for a systemic approach of design is seen as a way to involve the stakeholders in the processes of investigation and of social innovation, which can decisively contribute for the development of traditional local communities. As a theoretical basis for the research, this paper outlines some especial features of design and social innovation, in their particular and in their complementary aspects, as well as in the way they relate with each other.
Places of Tourist Attraction: Planning Sustainable Fruition by Preserving Place Identity
Massive use of places with strong tourist attraction
with the consequent possibility of losing place-identity produces
harmful effects on cities and their users. In order to mitigate this risk,
areas close to such places can be identified so as to widen the
visitor-s range of action and offer alternative activities integrated
with the main site. The cultural places and appropriate activities can
be identified using a method of analysis and design able to trace the
identity of the places, their characteristics and potential, and to
provide a sustainable improvement. The aim of this work is to
propose PlaceMaker as a method of urban analysis and design which
both detects elements that do not feature in traditional mapping and
which constitute the contemporary identity of the places, and
identifies appropriate project interventions. Two final complex maps
– the first of analysis and the second of design – respectively
represent the identity of places and project interventions. In order to
illustrate the method-s potential; the results of the experimentation
carried out in the Trevi-Pantheon route in Rome and the appropriate
interventions to decongest the area are illustrated.
Trends in IT Consulting in Austria
IT consultants often take over an important role as an
interface between technological, organizational and managerial
structures. As a result, the services offered are in many cases
assigned to different disciplines which can cause a lack of
transparency on the market for consulting services. However, not all
consulting products are suitable for every company because of
different frameworks and business processes. In this context the
questions arises as to what consulting products are currently offered
and how they can be compared as well as how the market for IT
consulting services is structured on the supply side. The presented
study aims to shed light on the IT consulting market by giving an
overview of the current structure of the supply-side for IT consulting
services as well as proposing a categorization of the currently
available consulting services (consulting fields) in order to provide a
theoretical background for the empirical study. Apart from these
theoretical considerations, the empirical results of field surveys on
the Austrian IT consulting market are presented and analyzed.
Empirical Analyses of Determinants of D.J.S.I.US Mean Returns
This study investigates the relationship between 10
year bond value, Yen/U.S dollar exchange rate, non-farm payrolls (all
employs) and crude oil to U.S. Dow Jones Sustainability Index. A
GARCH model is used to test these relationships for the period
January 1st 1999 to January 31st 2008 using monthly data. Results
show that an increase of the 10 year bond and non farm payrolls (all
employs) lead to an increase of the D.J.S.I returns. On the contrary
the volatility of the Yen/U.S dollar exchange rates as well as the
increase of crude oil returns has negative effects on the U.S D.J.S.I
returns. This study aims at assisting investors to understand the
influences certain macroeconomic indicators have on the companies-
stock returns as reported by the D.J.S.I.
Goal Based Episodic Processing in Implicit Learning
Research has suggested that implicit learning tasks
may rely on episodic processing to generate above chance
performance on the standard classification tasks. The current
research examines the invariant features task (McGeorge and Burton,
1990) and argues that such episodic processing is indeed important.
The results of the experiment suggest that both rejection and
similarity strategies are used by participants in this task to
simultaneously reject unfamiliar items and to accept (falsely) familiar
items. Primarily these decisions are based on the presence of low or
high frequency goal based features of the stimuli presented in the
incidental learning phase. It is proposed that a goal based analysis of
the incidental learning task provides a simple step in understanding
which features of the episodic processing are most important for
explaining the match between incidental, implicit learning and test
Scenarios for a Sustainable Energy Supply Results of a Case Study for Austria
A comprehensive discussion of feasible strategies for sustainable energy supply is urgently needed to achieve a turnaround of the current energy situation. The necessary fundamentals required for the development of a long term energy vision are lacking to a great extent due to the absence of reasonable long term scenarios that fulfill the requirements of climate protection and sustainable energy use. The contribution of the study is based on a search for sustainable energy paths in the long run for Austria. The analysis makes use of secondary data predominantly. The measures developed to avoid CO2 emissions and other ecological risk factors vary to a great extent among all economic sectors. This is shown by the calculation of CO2 cost of abatement curves. In this study it is demonstrated that the most effective technical measures with the lowest CO2 abatement costs yield solutions to the current energy problems. Various scenarios are presented concerning the question how the technological and environmental options for a sustainable energy system for Austria could look like in the long run. It is shown how sustainable energy can be supplied even with today-s technological knowledge and options available. The scenarios developed include an evaluation of the economic costs and ecological impacts. The results are not only applicable to Austria but demonstrate feasible and cost efficient ways towards a sustainable future.
Mega Projects and Governmentality
Mega urban transport projects (MUTPs) are
increasingly being used in urban environments to ameliorate the
problem of congestion. However, a number of problems with regard
to mega projects have been identified. In particular the seemingly
institutionalised over estimation of economic benefits and persistent
cost over runs, could mean that the wrong projects are selected, and
that the projects that are selected cost more than they should. Studies
to date have produced a number of solutions to these problems,
perhaps most notably, the various methods for the inclusion of the
private sector in project provision. However the problems have
shown significant intractability in the face of these solutions. This
paper provides a detailed examination of some of the problems
facing mega projects and then examines Foucault-s theory of
'governmentality' as a possible frame of analysis which might shed
light on the intractability of the problems that have been identified,
through an identification of the art of government in which MUTPs
High-Speed Train Planning in France, Lessons from Mediterranean TGV-Line
To fight against the economic crisis, French
Government, like many others in Europe, has decided to give a boost
to high-speed line projects. This paper explores the implementation
and decision-making process in TGV projects, their evolutions,
especially since the Mediterranean TGV-line. This project was
probably the most controversial, but paradoxically represents today a
huge success for all the actors involved.
What kind of lessons we can learn from this experience? How to
evaluate the impact of this project on TGV-line planning? How can
we characterize this implementation and decision-making process
regards to the sustainability challenges?
The construction of Mediterranean TGV-line was the occasion to
make several innovations: to introduce more dialog into the decisionmaking
process, to take into account the environment, to introduce a
new project management and technological innovations. That-s why
this project appears today as an example in terms of integration of
In this paper we examine the different kinds of innovations
developed in this project, by using concepts from sociology of
innovation to understand how these solutions emerged in a
controversial situation. Then we analyze the lessons which were
drawn from this decision-making process (in the immediacy and a
posteriori) and the way in which procedures evolved: creation of new
tools and devices (public consultation, project management...).
Finally we try to highlight the impact of this evolution on TGV
projects governance. In particular, new methods of implementation
and financing involve a reconfiguration of the system of actors. The
aim of this paper is to define the impact of this reconfiguration on
negotiations between stakeholders.
“FGM is with us Everyday“ Women and Girls Speak out about Female Genital Mutilation in the UK
There is inadequate information on the practice of
female genital mutilation (FGM) in the UK, and there are often
myths and perceptions within communities that influence the
effectiveness of prevention programmes. This means it is difficult to
address the trends and changes in the practice in the UK.
To this end, FORWARD undertook novel and innovative research
using the Participatory Ethnographic and Evaluative Research
(PEER) method to explore the views of women from Eritrea, Sudan,
Somalia and Ethiopia that live in London and Bristol (two UK cities).
Women-s views, taken from PEER interviews, reflected reasons for
continued practice of FGM: marriageability, the harnessing and
control of female sexuality, and upholding traditions from their
countries of origin. It was also clear that the main supporters of the
practice were believed to be older women within families and
Women described the impact FGM was having on their lives as
isolating. And although it was clearly considered a private and
personal matter, they developed a real sense of connection with their
peers within the research process.
The women were overwhelmingly positive about combating the
practice, although they believed it would probably take a while
before it ends completely. They also made concrete
recommendations on how to improve support services for women
affected by FGM: Training for professionals (particularly in
healthcare), increased engagement with, and outreach to,
communities, culturally appropriate materials and information made
available and accessible to communities, and more consequent
implementation of legislation.
Finally, the women asked for more empathy and understanding,
particularly from health professionals. Rather than presenting FGM
as a completely alien and inconceivable practice, it may help for
those looking into these women-s lives and working with them to
understand the social and economic context in which the practice
Fault Classification of a Doubly FED Induction Machine Using Neural Network
Rapid progress in process automation and tightening
quality standards result in a growing demand being placed on fault
detection and diagnostics methods to provide both speed and
reliability of motor quality testing. Doubly fed induction generators
are used mainly for wind energy conversion in MW power plants.
This paper presents a detection of an inter turn stator and an open
phase faults, in a doubly fed induction machine whose stator and
rotor are supplied by two pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters.
The method used in this article to detect these faults, is based on
Park-s Vector Approach, using a neural network.
Cellular Phone Users- Willingness to Shop Online
This study aims to identify cellular phone users- shopping motivating factors towards online shopping. 100 university students located in Klang Valley, Malaysia were involved as the respondents. They were required to complete a set of questionnaire and had to own a cellular phone in order to be selected as sample in this study. Three from five proposed hypotheses were supported: purchasing information, shopping utilities and service quality. As a result, marketers and retailers should concentrate more on the less important factors in order to encourage and create willingness of the consumers to purchase online. Recommendation for future research is also presented.
Travel Time Evaluation of an Innovative U-Turn Facility on Urban Arterial Roadways
Signalized intersections on high-volume arterials are
often congested during peak hours, causing a decrease in through
movement efficiency on the arterial. Much of the vehicle delay
incurred at conventional intersections is caused by high left-turn
demand. Unconventional intersection designs attempt to reduce
intersection delay and travel time by rerouting left-turns away from
the main intersection and replacing it with right-turn followed by Uturn.
The proposed new type of U-turn intersection is geometrically
designed with a raised island which provides a protected U-turn
movement. In this study several scenarios based on different
distances between U-turn and main intersection, traffic volume of
major/minor approaches and percentage of left-turn volumes were
simulated by use of AIMSUN, a type of traffic microsimulation
software. Subsequently some models are proposed in order to
compute travel time of each movement. Eventually by correlating
these equations to some in-field collected data of some implemented
U-turn facilities, the reliability of the proposed models are approved.
With these models it would be possible to calculate travel time of
each movement under any kind of geometric and traffic condition. By
comparing travel time of a conventional signalized intersection with
U-turn intersection travel time, it would be possible to decide on
converting signalized intersections into this new kind of U-turn
facility or not. However comparison of travel time is not part of the
scope of this research. In this paper only travel time of this innovative
U-turn facility would be predicted. According to some before and
after study about the traffic performance of some executed U-turn
facilities, it is found that commonly, this new type of U-turn facility
produces lower travel time. Thus, evaluation of using this type of
unconventional intersection should be seriously considered.
A Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Using Ad Hoc Wireless Network
In this paper, a Cooperative Multi-robot for Carrying
Targets (CMCT) algorithm is proposed. The multi-robot team
consists of three robots, one is a supervisor and the others are
workers for carrying boxes in a store of 100×100 m2. Each robot has
a self recharging mechanism. The CMCT minimizes robot-s worked
time for carrying many boxes during day by working in parallel. That
is, the supervisor detects the required variables in the same time
another robots work with previous variables. It works with
straightforward mechanical models by using simple cosine laws. It
detects the robot-s shortest path for reaching the target position
avoiding obstacles by using a proposed CMCT path planning
(CMCT-PP) algorithm. It prevents the collision between robots
during moving. The robots interact in an ad hoc wireless network.
Simulation results show that the proposed system that consists of
CMCT algorithm and its accomplished CMCT-PP algorithm
achieves a high improvement in time and distance while performing
the required tasks over the already existed algorithms.
Comparing Data Analysis, Communication and Information Technologies Expertise Levels in Undergraduate Psychology Students
Aims for this study: first, to compare the expertise
level in data analysis, communication and information technologies
in undergraduate psychology students. Second, to verify the factor
structure of E-ETICA (Escala de Experticia en Tecnologias de la Informacion, la Comunicacion y el Análisis or Data Analysis,
Communication and Information'Expertise Scale) which had shown
an excellent internal consistency (α= 0.92) as well as a simple factor
structure. Three factors, Complex, Basic Information and
Communications Technologies and E-Searching and Download
Abilities, explains 63% of variance. In the present study, 260
students (119 juniors and 141 seniors) were asked to respond to
ETICA (16 items Likert scale of five points 1: null domain to 5: total
domain). The results show that both junior and senior students report
having very similar expertise level; however, E-ETICA presents a
different factor structure for juniors and four factors explained also
63% of variance: Information E-Searching, Download and Process;
Data analysis; Organization; and Communication technologies.
Enhancing Competition in Public Procurement for Sustained Growth: Applying a Double Selection Model to Road Procurement Auctions
Limited competition has been a serious concern in infrastructure procurement. Importantly, however, there are normally a number of potential bidders initially showing interest in proposed projects. This paper focuses on tackling the question why these initially interested bidders fade out. An empirical problem is that no bids of fading-out firms are observable. They could decide not to enter the process at the beginning of the tendering or may be technically disqualified at any point in the selection process. The paper applies the double selection model to procurement data from road development projects in developing countries and shows that competition ends up restricted, because bidders are self-selective and auctioneers also tend to limit participation depending on the size of contracts.Limited competition would likely lead to high infrastructure procurement costs, threatening fiscal sustainability and economic growth.
Evaluation of University Technology Malaysia on Campus Transport Access Management
Access Management is the proactive management of
vehicular access points to land parcels adjacent to all manner of
roadways. Good access management promotes safe and efficient use
of the transportation network. This study attempts to utilize archived
data from the University Technology of Malaysia on-campus area to
assess the accuracy with which access management display some
benefits. Results show that usage of access management reduces
delay and fewer crashes. Clustered development can improve
walking, cycling and transit travel, reduce parking requirements and
improve emergency responses. Effective Access Management
planning can also reduce total roadway facility costs by reducing the
number of driveways and intersections. At the end after presenting
recommendations some of the travel impact, and benefits that
can be derived if these suggestions are implemented have
been summarized with the related comments.
Enhancing Operational Effectiveness in the Norwegian Army through Simulation-Based Training
The Norwegian Military Academy (Army) has
initiated a project with the main ambition to explore possible avenues
to enhancing operational effectiveness through an increased use of
simulation-based training and exercises. Within a cost/benefit
framework, we discuss opportunities and limitations of vertical and
horizontal integration of the existing tactical training system. Vertical
integration implies expanding the existing training system to span the
full range of training from tactical level (platoon, company) to
command and staff level (battalion, brigade). Horizontal integration
means including other domains than army tactics and staff
procedures in the training, such as military ethics, foreign languages,
leadership and decision making. We discuss each of the integration
options with respect to purpose and content of training, "best
practice" for organising and conducting simulation-based training,
and suggest how to evaluate training procedures and measure
learning outcomes. We conclude by giving guidelines towards further
explorative work and possible implementation.
Optimal Design of Flat – Gain Wide-Band Discrete Raman Amplifiers
In this paper, a wide band gain–flattened discrete
Raman amplifiers utilizing four optimum pump wavelengths is
Some Aspects of the Sustainable Development in Romania
The paper presents the Romanian realities and perspectives from the point of view of reaching the sustainable development model in the context of the recent accession to the European Union, based on the analysis of the indicators listed in the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. The analysis of the economic-social potential for sustainable development and of the environment aspects show that the objectives stipulated in the renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy of 2006 can be reached, but an extra effort must be put-in in order to overcome the existing substantial gaps in several areas in relation to the developed countries of the EU. The paper-s conclusions show that even if sustainable development is not an easy target to reach in Romania, there are resources and a growing potential, which can lead to sustainable development if used rationally.
How Team Efficacy Beliefs Impact Project Performance: An Empirical Investigation of Team Potency in Capital Projects in the Process Industries
Team efficacy beliefs show promise in enhancing
team performance. Using a model-based quantitative research design,
we investigated the antecedents and performance consequences of
generalized team efficacy (potency) in a sample of 56 capital projects
executed by 15 Fortune 500 companies in the process industries.
Empirical analysis of our field survey identified that generalized
team efficacy beliefs were positively associated with an objective
measure of project cost performance. Regression analysis revealed
that team competence, empowering leadership, and performance
feedback all predicted generalized team efficacy beliefs. Tests of
mediation revealed that generalized team efficacy fully mediated
between these three inputs and project cost performance.
The Consumer Private Space: What is and How it can be Approached without Affecting the Consumer's Privacy
The concept of privacy, seen in connection to the consumer's private space and personalization, has recently gained a higher importance as a consequence of the increasing marketing efforts of the organizations based on the capturing, processing and usage of consumer-s personal data.Paper intends to provide a definition of the consumer-s private space based on the types of personal data the consumer is willing to disclose, to assess the attitude toward personalization and to identify the means preferred by consumers to control their personal data and defend their private space. Several implications generated through the definition of the consumer-s private space are identified and weighted from both the consumers- and organizations- perspectives.
The Capacity of Government to Deliver Sustainable and Integrated Transport: The Case of Transit Oriented Development in Perth, Australia
There is a renewed interest in land use transport integration as a means of achieving sustainable accessibility. Such accessibility requires designing more than simply the transport network; it also requires attention to place (built form). Transitoriented development would appear to capture many of the criteria deemed important in land use transport integration. In Perth, Australia, there have been planning policies for the past 20 years requiring transit-oriented development around railway stations throughout the metropolitan area. While the policy intent, particularly at the State level, is clear the implementation of policy has been fairly ineffective. The first part of this paper provides an examination of state and local government planning and transport policies, evaluating them using a set of land use transport integration criteria considered all encompassing. This provides some insight into the extent of state and local government capacity to deliver land use transport integration. The second part of this paper examines the extent of implementation by examining existing and proposed land use around station precincts throughout metropolitan Perth. The findings of this research suggest that the capacity of state and local government to deliver land use transport integration is reasonable in a planning policy sense. Implementation, despite long policy lead times, has been lacking. It appears to be more effective where local planning controls have been suspended with new redevelopment authorities given powers to develop land around railway stations.
Senior Citizens- Satisfaction on Continuing Education
This research is to explore the satisfaction for senior
citizens on continuing education in Taiwan. The purpose of this
research aims at the difference on teacher-s teaching, personal
relationship, learning result, materials and environment. Through
different sexual and living area as the background variables, a
questionnaire is adopted as the methodology in this research. Three
results are found in this research. In overall, senior citizens taking
continuing education put the most important attention on personal
relationship but materials and leaning environment put the least. There
is a significant difference on personal relationship, teacher-s teaching
and research result between different sexes. Female senior citizens
attach more importance to teacher-s teaching and learning results but
male senior citizens value on personal relationship. Another
significant difference is shown on teacher-s teaching and personal
relationship because of senior citizens living area. Urban senior
citizens put importance on personal relationship and rural senior
citizens respect teacher-s teaching more.
Influencing Attitude Change for Sustainability through Persuasion
Food mileage is one of the important issues concerning environmental sustainability. In this research we have utilized a prototype platform with iterative user-centered testing. With these findings we successfully demonstrate the use of the context of persuasive methods to influence users- attitudes towards the sustainable concept.
Workplace Learners- Perceptions towards a Blended Learning Approach
The current paper presents the findings of a research
study on learners- barriers and motivators engaged into blended
programs in a workplace context. In this study, the participants were
randomly assigned to one of four parallel e-learning courses, each of
which was delivered using a different learning strategy. Data were
collected through web-based and telephone surveys developed by the
researchers. The results showed that vague instruction, time
management, and insufficient feedback were the top-most barriers to
blended learning. The major motivators for blended learning included
content relevance, flexibility in time, and the ability to work at own
Energy Efficiency: An Engineering Pathway towards Sustainability
Today global warming, climate change and energy supply are of greater concern as it is widely realized that the planet earth does not provide an infinite capacity for absorbing human industrialization in the 21st century. The aim of this paper is to analyze upstream and downstream electricity production in selected case studies: a coal power plant, a pump system and a microwave oven covering and consumption to explore the position of energy efficiency in engineering sustainability. Collectively, the analysis presents energy efficiency as a major pathway towards sustainability that requires an inclusive and a holistic supply chain response in the engineering design process.
Effect of Flaying Capacitors on Improving the 4 Level Three-Cell Inverter
With the rapid advanced of technology, the industrial processes become increasingly demanding, from the point of view, power quality and controllability. The advent of multi levels inverters responds partially to these requirements. But actually, the new generation of multi-cells inverters permits to reach more performances, since, it offers more voltage levels. The disadvantage in the increase of voltage levels by the number of cells in cascades is on account of series igbts synchronisation loss, from where, a limitation of cells in cascade to 4. Regarding to these constraints, a new topology is proposed in this paper, which increases the voltage levels of the three-cell inverter from 4 to 8; with the same number of igbts, and using less stored energy in the flaying capacitors. The details of operation and modelling of this new inverter structure are also presented, then tested thanks to a three phase induction motor. KeywordsFlaying capacitors, Multi-cells inverter, pwm, switchers, modelling.
Determining the Best Method of Stability Landslide by Using of DSS (Case Study: Landslide in Hasan Salaran, Kurdistan Province in Iran)
One of the processes of slope that occurs every year in Iran and some parts of world and cause a lot of criminal and financial harms is called landslide. They are plenty of method to stability landslide in soil and rock slides. The use of the best method with the least cost and in the shortest time is important for researchers. In this research, determining the best method of stability is investigated by using of Decision Support systems. DSS is made for this purpose and was used (for Hasan Salaran area in Kurdistan). Field study data from topography, slope, geology, geometry of landslide and the related features was used. The related data entered decision making managements programs (DSS) (ALES).Analysis of mass stability indicated the instability potential at present. Research results show that surface and sub surface drainage the best method of stabilizing. Analysis of stability shows that acceptable increase in security coefficient is a consequence of drainage.
Are Lecturers- Ready for Usage of Mobile Technology for Teaching?
Descriptive statistics was performed with the aim to achieve research objective of to investigate lecturers- usage of the mobile technology for teaching. A representative sample of 20 lecturers from the Faculty of Industrial Art & Design Technology of Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL), Malaysia was selected as the respondents. The result attested that lecturers fully accept the concept of mobility in learning and game play is appealing concept to support classroom learning. Subsequently, analogous experience on small size of keypad, screen resolution, and navigation could be the major problematic factors to students and affect their mobile learning process. Recommendation for future research is also presented.
Climate Change Policies in Australia: Gender Equality, Power and Knowledge
This paper examines the link between gender equality
and climate change policies in Australia. It critically analyses the
extent to which gender mainstreaming and gender dimensions have
been taken into account in the national policy processes for climate
change in Australia. The paper argues that climate change adaptation
and mitigation policies in Australia neglect gender dimensions. This
endangers the advances made in gender equality and works against
socially equitable and effective climate change strategies.
Reform Framework for Urban Land Management in Serbia in the Period of Transition
A preliminary evaluation of the urban land system is
presented in the article together with the instruments of land policy in
Serbia. The main reason for the analysis is demand for
definition of reform framework for urban land management in
Serbia in the period of transition towards market-led system. It
is concluded that due to the limitations of the current regulation it
will be impossible in the future to apply market principles in the
urban land policy (supply and demand of land, land capitalization,
investment efficiency, et al.). Based on the estimation that the urban
land system and land policy are key factors of competitiveness
between regions and towns in Serbia, it is necessary to initiate
changes in this field. There are indicated on an option of privatization
of urban public land and possible establishment of leasehold land. A
comparative analysis of the possibilities of the reform urban land
system in Serbia has been carried out in relation to two approaches of
market systems: (a) with dominant private ownership of urban land
(neo/liberal approach) and (b) with dominant public ownership of
urban land (system of leasehold)whose findings can be a basis for
further study of the new system in Serbia.. The attanied results are
part of studies matter for the making of Strategy of territorial
development of Serbia.
Technological Deep Assessment of Automotive Parts Manufacturers Case of Iranian Manufacturers
In order to develop any strategy, it is essential to first
identify opportunities, threats, weak and strong points. Assessment of
technology level provides the possibility of concentrating on weak
and strong points. The results of technology assessment have a direct
effect on decision making process in the field of technology transfer
or expansion of internal research capabilities so it has a critical role
in technology management. This paper presents a conceptual model
to analyze the technology capability of a company as a whole and in
four main aspects of technology. This model was tested on 10
automotive parts manufacturers in IRAN. Using this model,
capability level of manufacturers was investigated in four fields of
managing aspects, hard aspects, human aspects, and information and
knowledge aspects. Results show that these firms concentrate on hard
aspect of technology while others aspects are poor and need to be
supported more. So this industry should develop other aspects of
technology as well as hard aspect to have effective and efficient use
of its technology. These paper findings are useful for the technology
planning and management in automotive part manufactures in IRAN
and other Industries which are technology followers and transport
their needed technologies.
The Global Crisis, Remittance Transfers, and Livelihoods of the Poor
With the global financial crisis turning into what more
and more appears to be a prolonged “Great Recession", we are
witnessing marked reductions in remittance transfers to developing
countries with the likely possibility that overall flows will decline
even further in the near future. With countless families reliant on
remittance inflows as a source of income maintaining their economic
livelihood, a reduction would put many at risk of falling below or
deeper into poverty. Recognizing the importance of remittance
inflows as a lifeline to the poor, policy should aim to (1) reduce the
barriers to remit in both sending and receiving nations thus easing the
decline in transfers; (2) leverage the development impacts of
remittances; and (3) buffer vulnerable groups dependent on
remittance transfers as a source of livelihood through sound countercyclical
Generic Filtering of Infinite Sets of Stochastic Signals
A theory for optimal filtering of infinite sets of random
signals is presented. There are several new distinctive features of the
proposed approach. First, a single optimal filter for processing any
signal from a given infinite signal set is provided. Second, the filter is
presented in the special form of a sum with p terms where each term
is represented as a combination of three operations. Each operation
is a special stage of the filtering aimed at facilitating the associated
numerical work. Third, an iterative scheme is implemented into the
filter structure to provide an improvement in the filter performance at
each step of the scheme. The final step of the scheme concerns signal
compression and decompression. This step is based on the solution of
a new rank-constrained matrix approximation problem. The solution
to the matrix problem is described in this paper. A rigorous error
analysis is given for the new filter.
A Case Study on Appearance Based Feature Extraction Techniques and Their Susceptibility to Image Degradations for the Task of Face Recognition
Over the past decades, automatic face recognition has become a highly active research area, mainly due to the countless application possibilities in both the private as well as the public sector. Numerous algorithms have been proposed in the literature to cope with the problem of face recognition, nevertheless, a group of methods commonly referred to as appearance based have emerged as the dominant solution to the face recognition problem. Many comparative studies concerned with the performance of appearance based methods have already been presented in the literature, not rarely with inconclusive and often with contradictory results. No consent has been reached within the scientific community regarding the relative ranking of the efficiency of appearance based methods for the face recognition task, let alone regarding their susceptibility to appearance changes induced by various environmental factors. To tackle these open issues, this paper assess the performance of the three dominant appearance based methods: principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis and independent component analysis, and compares them on equal footing (i.e., with the same preprocessing procedure, with optimized parameters for the best possible performance, etc.) in face verification experiments on the publicly available XM2VTS database. In addition to the comparative analysis on the XM2VTS database, ten degraded versions of the database are also employed in the experiments to evaluate the susceptibility of the appearance based methods on various image degradations which can occur in "real-life" operating conditions. Our experimental results suggest that linear discriminant analysis ensures the most consistent verification rates across the tested databases.
Capacity Building for Hazmat Transport Emergency Preparedness: 'Hotspot Impact Zone' Mapping from Flammable and Toxic Releases
Hazardous Material transportation by road is coupled
with inherent risk of accidents causing loss of lives, grievous injuries,
property losses and environmental damages. The most common type
of hazmat road accident happens to be the releases (78%) of
hazardous substances, followed by fires (28%), explosions (14%) and
vapour/ gas clouds (6 %.).
The paper is discussing initially the probable 'Impact Zones'
likely to be caused by one flammable (LPG) and one toxic (ethylene
oxide) chemicals being transported through a sizable segment of a
State Highway connecting three notified Industrial zones in Surat
district in Western India housing 26 MAH industrial units. Three
'hotspots' were identified along the highway segment depending on
the particular chemical traffic and the population distribution within
500 meters on either sides. The thermal radiation and explosion
overpressure have been calculated for LPG / Ethylene Oxide BLEVE
scenarios along with toxic release scenario for ethylene oxide.
Besides, the dispersion calculations for ethylene oxide toxic release
have been made for each 'hotspot' location and the impact zones
have been mapped for the LOC concentrations. Subsequently, the
maximum Initial Isolation and the protective zones were calculated
based on ERPG-3 and ERPG-2 values of ethylene oxide respectively
which are estimated taking the worst case scenario under worst
weather conditions. The data analysis will be helpful to the local
administration in capacity building with respect to rescue /
evacuation and medical preparedness and quantitative inputs to
augment the District Offsite Emergency Plan document.
Modeling Spatial Distributions of Point and Nonpoint Source Pollution Loadings in the Great Lakes Watersheds
A physically based, spatially-distributed water quality model is being developed to simulate spatial and temporal distributions of material transport in the Great Lakes Watersheds of the U.S. Multiple databases of meteorology, land use, topography, hydrography, soils, agricultural statistics, and water quality were used to estimate nonpoint source loading potential in the study watersheds. Animal manure production was computed from tabulations of animals by zip code area for the census years of 1987, 1992, 1997, and 2002. Relative chemical loadings for agricultural land use were calculated from fertilizer and pesticide estimates by crop for the same periods. Comparison of these estimates to the monitored total phosphorous load indicates that both point and nonpoint sources are major contributors to the total nutrient loads in the study watersheds, with nonpoint sources being the largest contributor, particularly in the rural watersheds. These estimates are used as the input to the distributed water quality model for simulating pollutant transport through surface and subsurface processes to Great Lakes waters. Visualization and GIS interfaces are developed to visualize the spatial and temporal distribution of the pollutant transport in support of water management programs.
Strategies for Connectivity Configuration to Access e-Learning Resources: Case of Rural Secondary Schools in Tanzania
In response to address different development challenges, Tanzania is striving to achieve its fourth attribute of the National Development Vision, i.e. to have a well educated and learned society by the year 2025. One of the most cost effective methods that can reach a large part of the society in a short time is to integrate ICT in education through e-learning initiatives. However, elearning initiatives are challenged by limited or lack of connectivity to majority of secondary schools, especially those in rural and remote areas. This paper has explores the possibility for rural secondary school to access online e-Learning resources from a centralized e- Learning Management System (e-LMS). The scope of this paper is limited to schools that have computers irrespective of internet connectivity, resulting in two categories schools; those with internet access and those without. Different connectivity configurations have been proposed according to the ICT infrastructure status of the respective schools. However, majority of rural secondary schools in Tanzania have neither computers nor internet connection. Therefore this is a challenge to be addressed for the disadvantaged schools to benefit from e-Learning initiatives.
Is Cognitive Dissonance an Intrinsic Property of the Human Mind? An Experimental Solution to a Half-Century Debate
Cognitive Dissonance can be conceived both as a concept related to the tendency to avoid internal contradictions in certain situations, and as a higher order theory about information processing in the human mind. In the last decades, this last sense has been strongly surpassed by the former, as nearly all experiment on the matter discuss cognitive dissonance as an output of motivational contradictions. In that sense, the question remains: is cognitive dissonance a process intrinsically associated with the way that the mind processes information, or is it caused by such specific contradictions? Objective: To evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance in the absence of rewards or any mechanisms to manipulate motivation. Method: To solve this question, we introduce a new task, the hypothetical social arrays paradigm, which was applied to 50 undergraduate students. Results: Our findings support the perspective that the human mind shows a tendency to avoid internal dissonance even when there are no rewards or punishment involved. Moreover, our findings also suggest that this principle works outside the conscious level.
Classification of Soil Aptness to Establish of Panicum virgatum in Mississippi using Sensitivity Analysis and GIS
During the last decade Panicum virgatum, known as
Switchgrass, has been broadly studied because of its remarkable
attributes as a substitute pasture and as a functional biofuel source.
The objective of this investigation was to establish soil suitability for
Switchgrass in the State of Mississippi. A linear weighted additive
model was developed to forecast soil suitability. Multicriteria
analysis and Sensitivity analysis were utilized to adjust and optimize
the model. The model was fit using seven years of field data
associated with soils characteristics collected from Natural Resources
Conservation System - United States Department of Agriculture
(NRCS-USDA). The best model was selected by correlating
calculated biomass yield with each model's soils-based output for
Switchgrass suitability. Coefficient of determination (r2) was the
decisive factor used to establish the 'best' soil suitability model.
Coefficients associated with the 'best' model were implemented
within a Geographic Information System (GIS) to create a map of
relative soil suitability for Switchgrass in Mississippi. A Geodatabase
associated with soil parameters was built and is available for future
Geographic Information System use.
Roadmapping as a Collaborative Strategic Decision-Making Process: Shaping Social Dialogue Options for the European Banking Sector
The new status generated by technological advancements and changes in the global economy raises important issues on how communities and organisations need to innovate upon their traditional processes in order to adapt to the challenges of the Knowledge Society. The DialogoS+ European project aims to study the role of and promote social dialogue in the banking sector, strengthen the link between old and new members and make social dialogue at the European level a force for innovation and change, also given the context of the international crisis emerging in 2008- 2009. Under the scope of DialogoS+, this paper describes how the community of Europe-s banking sector trade unions attempted to adapt to the challenges of the Knowledge Society by exploiting the benefits of new channels of communication, learning, knowledge generation and diffusion focusing on the concept of roadmapping. Important dimensions of social dialogue such as collective bargaining and working conditions are addressed.
Changing of Macroeconomics under Influence by Internal and External Powers
This paper shows that the economy of any country
can be presented as three different shells such as: economic shell of a
big, a medium and a small business. The new concepts were
introduced such as: volume of an economic shell, coefficient of
shell-s expansion (compression) etc. These shells can expansion or
compress under action by internal or external powers and when shell
expansions - it means the rising of a business activity and
compression shows us that economy goes on recession. This process
of an expansion or a compression can develop in the various ways
like linear, logarithm or any other mathematical laws.
Correlating Site-Specific Meteorological Data and Power Availability for Small-Scale, Multi-Source Renewable Energy Systems
The paper presents a modelling methodology for
small scale multi-source renewable energy systems. Using historical
site-specific weather data, the relationships of cost, availability and
energy form are visualised as a function of the sizing of photovoltaic
arrays, wind turbines, and battery capacity. The specific dependency
of each site on its own particular weather patterns show that unique
solutions exist for each site. It is shown that in certain cases the
capital component cost can be halved if the desired theoretical
demand availability is reduced from 100% to 99%.
Evaluation of Optimal Transfer Capability in Power System Interconnection
As the electrical power industry is restructured, the electrical power exchange is becoming extended. One of the key information used to determine how much power can be transferred through the network is known as available transfer capability (ATC). To calculate ATC, traditional deterministic approach is based on the severest case, but the approach has the complexity of procedure. Therefore, novel approach for ATC calculation is proposed using cost-optimization method in this paper, and is compared with well-being method and risk-benefit method. This paper proposes the optimal transfer capability of HVDC system between mainland and a separated island in Korea through these three methods. These methods will consider production cost, wheeling charge through HVDC system and outage cost with one depth (N-1 contingency)
Transformer Diagnosis Based on Coupled Circuits Method Modelling
Diagnostic goal of transformers in service is to detect the winding or the core in fault. Transformers are valuable equipment which makes a major contribution to the supply security of a power system. Consequently, it is of great importance to minimize the frequency and duration of unwanted outages of power transformers. So, Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is found to be a useful tool for reliable detection of incipient mechanical fault in a transformer, by finding winding or core defects. The authors propose as first part of this article, the coupled circuits method, because, it gives most possible exhaustive modelling of transformers. And as second part of this work, the application of FRA in low frequency in order to improve and simplify the response reading. This study can be useful as a base data for the other transformers of the same categories intended for distribution grid.
Characteristic of Discrete Raman Amplifier at Different Pump Configurations
This paper describes the gain and noise performances
of discrete Raman amplifier as a function of fiber lengths and the
signal input powers for different pump configurations. Simulation has
been done by using optisystem 7.0 software simulation at signal
wavelength of 1550 nm and a pump wavelength of 1450nm. The
results showed that the gain is higher in bidirectional pumping than in
counter pumping, the gain changes with increasing the fiber length
while the noise figure remain the same for short fiber lengths and the
gain saturates differently for different pumping configuration at
different fiber lengths and power levels of the signal.
Fast Search for MPEG Video Clips Using Adjacent Pixel Intensity Difference Quantization Histogram Feature
In this paper, we propose a novel fast search algorithm for short MPEG video clips from video database. This algorithm is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Instead of fully decompressed video frames, partially decoded data, namely DC images are utilized. Combined with active search , a temporal pruning algorithm, fast and robust video search can be realized. The proposed search algorithm has been evaluated by 6 hours of video to search for given 200 MPEG video clips which each length is 15 seconds. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip in merely 80ms, and Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 3 % is achieved, which is more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.
Viscoelastic Modeling of Brain MRE Data Using FE Method
Dynamic shear test on simulated phantom can be used
to validate magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measurements.
Phantom gel has been usually utilized for the cell culture of cartilage
and soft tissue and also been used for mechanical property
characterization using imaging systems. The viscoelastic property of
the phantom would be important for dynamic experiments and
analyses. In this study, An axisymmetric FE model is presented for
determining the dynamic shear behaviour of brain simulated phantom
using ABAQUS. The main objective of this study was to investigate
the effect of excitation frequencies and boundary conditions on shear
modulus and shear viscosity in viscoelastic media.
Collaborative Car Pooling System
This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.
Design of Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Differentiators
In this paper, the least-squares design of variable fractional-delay (VFD) finite impulse response (FIR) digital differentiators is proposed. The used transfer function is formulated so that Farrow structure can be applied to realize the designed system. Also, the symmetric characteristics of filter coefficients are derived, which leads to the complexity reduction by saving almost a half of the number of coefficients. Moreover, all the elements of related vectors or matrices for the optimal process can be represented in closed forms, which make the design easier. Design example is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A Dynamically Reconfigurable Arithmetic Circuit for Complex Number and Double Precision Number
This paper proposes an architecture of dynamically
reconfigurable arithmetic circuit. Dynamic reconfiguration is a
technique to realize required functions by changing hardware
construction during operations. The proposed circuit is based on a
complex number multiply-accumulation circuit which is used
frequently in the field of digital signal processing. In addition, the
proposed circuit performs real number double precision arithmetic
operations. The data formats are single and double precision floating
point number based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed
using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and
Extraction of Fetal Heart Rate and Fetal Heart Rate Variability from Mother's ECG Signal
This paper describes a new method for extracting the fetal heart rate (fHR) and the fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) signal non-invasively using abdominal maternal electrocardiogram (mECG) recordings. The extraction is based on the fundamental frequency (Fourier-s) theorem. The fundamental frequency of the mother-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-m) is calculated directly from the abdominal signal. The heart rate of the fetus is usually higher than that of the mother; as a result, the fundamental frequency of the fetal-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-f) is higher than that of the mother-s (fo-f > fo-m). Notch filters to suppress mother-s higher harmonics were designed; then a bandpass filter to target fo-f and reject fo-m is implemented. Although the bandpass filter will pass some other frequencies (harmonics), we have shown in this study that those harmonics are actually carried on fo-f, and thus have no impact on the evaluation of the beat-to-beat changes (RR intervals). The oscillations of the time-domain extracted signal represent the RR intervals. We have also shown in this study that zero-to-zero evaluation of the periods is more accurate than the peak-to-peak evaluation. This method is evaluated both on simulated signals and on different abdominal recordings obtained at different gestational ages.
A Simplified and Effective Algorithm Used to Mine Similar Processes: An Illustrated Example
The running logs of a process hold valuable
information about its executed activity behavior and generated activity
logic structure. Theses informative logs can be extracted, analyzed and
utilized to improve the efficiencies of the process's execution and
conduction. One of the techniques used to accomplish the process
improvement is called as process mining. To mine similar processes is
such an improvement mission in process mining. Rather than directly
mining similar processes using a single comparing coefficient or a
complicate fitness function, this paper presents a simplified heuristic
process mining algorithm with two similarity comparisons that are
able to relatively conform the activity logic sequences (traces) of
mining processes with those of a normalized (regularized) one. The
relative process conformance is to find which of the mining processes
match the required activity sequences and relationships, further for
necessary and sufficient applications of the mined processes to process
improvements. One similarity presented is defined by the relationships
in terms of the number of similar activity sequences existing in
different processes; another similarity expresses the degree of the
similar (identical) activity sequences among the conforming processes.
Since these two similarities are with respect to certain typical behavior
(activity sequences) occurred in an entire process, the common
problems, such as the inappropriateness of an absolute comparison and
the incapability of an intrinsic information elicitation, which are often
appeared in other process conforming techniques, can be solved by the
relative process comparison presented in this paper. To demonstrate
the potentiality of the proposed algorithm, a numerical example is
New Fuzzy Preference Relations and its Application in Group Decision Making
Decision making preferences to certain criteria
usually focus on positive degrees without considering the negative
degrees. However, in real life situation, evaluation becomes more
comprehensive if negative degrees are considered concurrently.
Preference is expected to be more effective when considering both
positive and negative degrees of preference to evaluate the best
selection. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose the
conflicting bifuzzy preference relations in group decision making by
utilization of a novel score function. The conflicting bifuzzy
preference relation is obtained by introducing some modifications on
intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations. Releasing the intuitionistic
condition by taking into account positive and negative degrees
simultaneously and utilizing the novel score function are the main
modifications to establish the proposed preference model. The
proposed model is tested with a numerical example and proved to be
simple and practical. The four-step decision model shows the
efficiency of obtaining preference in group decision making.
Proteins Length and their Phenotypic Potential
Mendelian Disease Genes represent a collection of single points of failure for the various systems they constitute. Such genes have been shown, on average, to encode longer proteins than 'non-disease' proteins. Existing models suggest that this results from the increased likeli-hood of longer genes undergoing mutations. Here, we show that in saturated mutagenesis experiments performed on model organisms, where the likelihood of each gene mutating is one, a similar relationship between length and the probability of a gene being lethal was observed. We thus suggest an extended model demonstrating that the likelihood of a mutated gene to produce a severe phenotype is length-dependent. Using the occurrence of conserved domains, we bring evidence that this dependency results from a correlation between protein length and the number of functions it performs. We propose that protein length thus serves as a proxy for protein cardinality in different networks required for the organism's survival and well-being. We use this example to argue that the collection of Mendelian Disease Genes can, and should, be used to study the rules governing systems vulnerability in living organisms.
An Ontology Based Question Answering System on Software Test Document Domain
Processing the data by computers and performing
reasoning tasks is an important aim in Computer Science. Semantic
Web is one step towards it. The use of ontologies to enhance the
information by semantically is the current trend. Huge amount of
domain specific, unstructured on-line data needs to be expressed in
machine understandable and semantically searchable format.
Currently users are often forced to search manually in the results
returned by the keyword-based search services. They also want to use
their native languages to express what they search. In this paper, an
ontology-based automated question answering system on software
test documents domain is presented. The system allows users to enter
a question about the domain by means of natural language and
returns exact answer of the questions. Conversion of the natural
language question into the ontology based query is the challenging
part of the system. To be able to achieve this, a new algorithm
regarding free text to ontology based search engine query conversion
is proposed. The algorithm is based on investigation of suitable
question type and parsing the words of the question sentence.
Mechanisms Involved In Organic Solvent Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria
The high world interest given to the researches concerning the study of moderately halophilic solvent-tolerant bacteria isolated from marine polluted environments is due to their high biotechnological potential, and also to the perspective of their application in different remediation technologies. Using enrichment procedures, I isolated two moderately halophilic Gram-negative bacterial strains from seawater sample, which are tolerant to organic solvents. Cell tolerance, adhesion and cells viability of Aeromonas salmonicida IBBCt2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBBCt3 in the presence of organic solvents depends not only on its physicochemical properties and its concentration, but also on the specific response of the cells, and the cellular response is not the same for these bacterial strains. n-hexane, n-heptane, propylbenzene, with log POW between 3.69 and 4.39, were less toxic for Aeromonas salmonicida IBBCt2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBBCt3, compared with toluene, styrene, xylene isomers and ethylbenzene, with log POW between 2.64 and 3.17. The results indicated that Aeromonas salmonicida IBBCt2 is more susceptible to organic solvents than Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBBCt3. The mechanisms underlying solvent tolerance (e.g., the existance of the efflux pumps) in Aeromonas salmonicida IBBCt2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBBCt3 it was also studied.
On Reversal and Transposition Medians
During the last years, the genomes of more and more
species have been sequenced, providing data for phylogenetic recon-
struction based on genome rearrangement measures. A main task in
all phylogenetic reconstruction algorithms is to solve the median of
three problem. Although this problem is NP-hard even for the sim-
plest distance measures, there are exact algorithms for the breakpoint
median and the reversal median that are fast enough for practical use.
In this paper, this approach is extended to the transposition median as
well as to the weighted reversal and transposition median. Although
there is no exact polynomial algorithm known even for the pairwise
distances, we will show that it is in most cases possible to solve
these problems exactly within reasonable time by using a branch and
Development of Molecular Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) for the Selective Removal of Carbamazepine from Aqueous Solution
The occurrence and removal of trace organic
contaminants in the aquatic environment has become a focus of
environmental concern. For the selective removal of carbamazepine
from loaded waters molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were
synthesized with carbamazepine as template. Parameters varied were
the type of monomer, crosslinker, and porogen, the ratio of starting
materials, and the synthesis temperature. Best results were obtained
with a template to crosslinker ratio of 1:20, toluene as porogen, and
methacrylic acid (MAA) as monomer. MIPs were then capable to
recover carbamazepine by 93% from a 10-5 M landfill leachate
solution containing also caffeine and salicylic acid. By comparison,
carbamazepine recoveries of 75% were achieved using a nonimprinted
polymer (NIP) synthesized under the same conditions, but
without template. In landfill leachate containing solutions
carbamazepine was adsorbed by 93-96% compared with an uptake of
73% by activated carbon. The best solvent for desorption was
acetonitrile, with which the amount of solvent necessary and dilution
with water was tested. Selected MIPs were tested for their reusability
and showed good results for at least five cycles. Adsorption
isotherms were prepared with carbamazepine solutions in the
concentration range of 0.01 M to 5*10-6 M. The heterogeneity index
showed a more homogenous binding site distribution.
Software to Encrypt Messages Using Public-Key Cryptography
In this paper the development of a software to
encrypt messages with asymmetric cryptography is presented. In
particular, is used the RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman) algorithm
to encrypt alphanumeric information. The software allows to
generate different public keys from two prime numbers provided by
the user, the user must then select a public-key to generate the
corresponding private-key. To encrypt the information, the user must
provide the public-key of the recipient as well as the message to be
encrypted. The generated ciphertext can be sent through an insecure
channel, so that would be very difficult to be interpreted by an
intruder or attacker. At the end of the communication, the recipient
can decrypt the original message if provide his/her public-key and
his/her corresponding private-key.
Contribution of On-Site and Off-Site Processes to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions by Wastewater Treatment Plants
The estimation of overall on-site and off-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by wastewater treatment plants revealed that in anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems greater emissions result from off-site processes compared to on-site processes. However, in aerobic treatment systems, onsite processes make a higher contribution to the overall GHG emissions. The total GHG emissions were estimated to be 1.6, 3.3 and 3.8 kg CO2-e/kg BOD in the aerobic, anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively. In the aerobic treatment system without the recovery and use of the generated biogas, the off-site GHG emissions were 0.65 kg CO2-e/kg BOD, accounting for 40.2% of the overall GHG emissions. This value changed to 2.3 and 2.6 kg CO2-e/kg BOD, and accounted for 69.9% and 68.1% of the overall GHG emissions in the anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively. The increased off-site GHG emissions in the anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems are mainly due to material usage and energy demand in these systems. The anaerobic digester can contribute up to 100%, 55% and 60% of the overall energy needs of plants in the aerobic, anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively.
Interface Terminologies: A Case Study on the International Classification of Primary Care
The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC), which belongs to the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC), has a low granularity, which is convenient for describing general medical practice. However, its lack of specificity makes it useful to be used along with an interface terminology. An international survey has been performed, using a questionnaire sent by email to experts from 25 countries, in order to describe the terminologies interfacing with ICPC. Eleven interface terminologies have been identified, developed in Argentina, Australia, Belgium (2), Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and The Netherlands. Globally, these systems have been poorly assessed until now.
An Implementation of MacMahon's Partition Analysis in Ordering the Lower Bound of Processing Elements for the Algorithm of LU Decomposition
A lot of Scientific and Engineering problems require the solution of large systems of linear equations of the form bAx in an effective manner. LU-Decomposition offers good choices for solving this problem. Our approach is to find the lower bound of processing elements needed for this purpose. Here is used the so called Omega calculus, as a computational method for solving problems via their corresponding Diophantine relation. From the corresponding algorithm is formed a system of linear diophantine equalities using the domain of computation which is given by the set of lattice points inside the polyhedron. Then is run the Mathematica program DiophantineGF.m. This program calculates the generating function from which is possible to find the number of solutions to the system of Diophantine equalities, which in fact gives the lower bound for the number of processors needed for the corresponding algorithm. There is given a mathematical explanation of the problem as well. Keywordsgenerating function, lattice points in polyhedron, lower bound of processor elements, system of Diophantine equationsand : calculus.
Automatic Choice of Topics for Seminars by Clustering Students According to Their Profile
The new framework the Higher Education is
immersed in involves a complete change in the way lecturers must
teach and students must learn. Whereas the lecturer was the main
character in traditional education, the essential goal now is to
increase the students' participation in the process. Thus, one of the
main tasks of lecturers in this new context is to design activities of
different nature in order to encourage such participation. Seminars
are one of the activities included in this environment. They are active
sessions that enable going in depth into specific topics as support of
other activities. They are characterized by some features such as
favoring interaction between students and lecturers or improving
their communication skills. Hence, planning and organizing strategic
seminars is indeed a great challenge for lecturers with the aim of
acquiring knowledge and abilities. This paper proposes a method
using Artificial Intelligence techniques to obtain student profiles
from their marks and preferences. The goal of building such profiles
is twofold. First, it facilitates the task of splitting the students into
different groups, each group with similar preferences and learning
difficulties. Second, it makes it easy to select adequate topics to be a
candidate for the seminars. The results obtained can be either a
guarantee of what the lecturers could observe during the development
of the course or a clue to reconsider new methodological strategies in
Osteogenesis by Dextran Coating on and among Fibers of a Polyvinyl Formal Sponge
A scaffold is necessary for tooth regeneration because of its three-dimensional geometry. For restoration of defect, it is necessary for the scaffold to be prepared in the shape of the defect. Sponges made from polyvinyl alcohol with formalin cross-linking (PVF sponge) have been used for scaffolds for bone formation in vivo. To induce osteogenesis within the sponge, methods of growing rat bone marrow cells (rBMCs) among the fiber structures in the sponge might be considered. Storage of rBMCs among the fibers in the sponge coated with dextran (10 kDa) was tried. After seeding of rBMCs to PVF sponge immersed in dextran solution at 2 g/dl concentration, osteogenesis was recognized in subcutaneously implanted PVF sponge as a scaffold in vivo. The level of osteocalcin was 25.28±5.71 ng/scaffold and that of Ca was 129.20±19.69 µg/scaffold. These values were significantly higher than those in sponges without dextran coating (p<0.01). Osteogenesis was induced in many spaces in the inner structure of the sponge with dextran coated fibers.
Analysis on Iranian Wind Catcher and Its Effect on Natural Ventilation as a Solution towards Sustainable Architecture(Case Study: Yazd)
wind catchers have been served as a cooling system, used to provide acceptable ventilation by means of renewable energy of wind. In the present study, the city of Yazd in arid climate is selected as case study. From the architecture point of view, learning about wind catchers in this study is done by means of field surveys. Research method for selection of the case is based on random form, and analytical method. Wind catcher typology and knowledge of relationship governing the wind catcher's architecture were those measures that are taken for the first time. 53 wind catchers were analyzed. The typology of the wind-catchers is done by the physical analyzing, patterns and common concepts as incorporated in them. How the architecture of wind catcher can influence their operations by analyzing thermal behavior are the archetypes of selected wind catchers. Calculating fluids dynamics science, fluent software and numerical analysis are used in this study as the most accurate analytical approach. The results obtained from these analyses show the formal specifications of wind catchers with optimum operation in Yazd. The knowledge obtained from the optimum model could be used for design and construction of wind catchers with more improved operation
An Optical WDM Network Concept for Tanzania
Tanzania is a developing country, which significantly lags behind the rest of the world in information communications technology (ICT), especially for the Internet. Internet connectivity to the rest of the world is via expensive satellite links, thus leaving the majority of the population unable to access the Internet due to the high cost. This paper introduces the concept of an optical WDM network for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania, so as to reduce Internet connection costs, and provide Internet access to the majority of people who live in both urban and rural areas. We also present a proposed optical WDM network, which mitigates the effects of system impairments, and provide simulation results to show that the data is successfully transmitted over a longer distance using a WDM network.
Text Retrieval Relevance Feedback Techniques for Bag of Words Model in CBIR
The state-of-the-art Bag of Words model in Content-
Based Image Retrieval has been used for years but the relevance
feedback strategies for this model are not fully investigated. Inspired
from text retrieval, the Bag of Words model has the ability to use the
wealth of knowledge and practices available in text retrieval. We
study and experiment the relevance feedback model in text retrieval
for adapting it to image retrieval. The experiments show that the
techniques from text retrieval give good results for image retrieval
and that further improvements is possible.
Modification of Palm Oil Structure to Cocoa Butter Equivalent by Carica papaya Lipase- Catalyzed Interesterification
Palm oil could be converted to cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The objective of this research was to investigate the structure modification of palm oil to cocoa butter equivalent using Carica papaya lipase –catalyzed interesterification. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction temperature and the amount of enzyme. Among three acyl donors tested (methyl stearate, ethyl stearate and stearic acid), methyl stearate appeared to be the best acyl donor for incorporation to palm oil structure. The best reaction conditions for cocoa butter equivalent production were : substrate ratio (palm oil : methyl stearate, mol/mol) at 1 : 4, water activity of enzyme at 0.11, reaction time at 4 h, reaction temperature at 45 ° C and 18% by weight of the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter equivalent were 9.75 ± 0.41% free fatty acid, 44.89 ± 0.84 iodine number, 193.19 ± 0.78 sponification value and melting point at 37-39 °C.
Assessing the Impact of Contour Strips of Perennial Grass with Bio-fuel Potentials on Aquatic Environment
The use of contour strips of perennial vegetation with
bio-fuel potential can improve surface water quality by reducing
NO3-N and sediment outflow from cropland to surface water-bodies.
It also has economic benefits of producing ethanol. In this study,
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to
a watershed in Iowa, USA to examine the effectiveness of contour
strips of switch grass in reducing the NO3-N outflows from crop
fields to rivers or lakes. Numerical experiments were conducted to
identify potential subbasins in the watershed that have high water
quality impact, and to examine the effects of strip size on NO3-N
reduction under various meteorological conditions, i.e. dry, average
and wet years. Useful information was obtained for the evaluation of
economic feasibility of growing switch grass for bio-fuel in contour
strips. The results can assist in cost-benefit analysis and decisionmaking
in best management practices for environmental protection.
Geographic Information System Mapping of Roadway Lighting and Traffic Accidents
The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in
roadway lighting to show the state of street-lighting and nighttime
accident is demonstrated. Geographical maps were generated
showing colored streets based on how much of the street's length is
illuminated. The night to daytime accidents ratio at intersections
were found along with the state of lighting at those intersections.
The result is a method to show the state of street-lighting at roads and
intersections and a quick guide for decision makers to implement
strategies for better street-lighting to reduce night time traffic
accidents in a particular district.
A PWM Controller with Multiple-Access Table Look-up for DC-DC Buck Conversion
A new power regulator controller with multiple-access
PID compensator is proposed, which can achieve a minimum memory
requirement for fully table look-up. The proposed regulator controller
employs hysteresis comparators, an error process unit (EPU) for
voltage regulation, a multiple-access PID compensator and a lowpower-
consumption digital PWM (DPWM). Based on the multipleaccess
mechanism, the proposed controller can alleviate the penalty of
large amount of memory employed for fully table look-up based PID
compensator in the applications of power regulation. The proposed
controller has been validated with simulation results.
A Formulation of the Latent Class Vector Model for Pairwise Data
In this research, a latent class vector model for pairwise data is formulated. As compared to the basic vector model, this model yields consistent estimates of the parameters since the number of parameters to be estimated does not increase with the number of subjects. The result of the analysis reveals that the model was stable and could classify each subject to the latent classes representing the typical scales used by these subjects.
A Numerical Framework to Investigate Intake Aerodynamics Behavior in Icing Conditions
One of the major parts of a jet engine is air intake,
which provides proper and required amount of air for the engine to
operate. There are several aerodynamic parameters which should be
considered in design, such as distortion, pressure recovery, etc. In
this research, the effects of lip ice accretion on pitot intake
performance are investigated. For ice accretion phenomenon, two
supervised multilayer neural networks (ANN) are designed, one for
ice shape prediction and another one for ice roughness estimation
based on experimental data. The Fourier coefficients of transformed
ice shape and parameters include velocity, liquid water content
(LWC), median volumetric diameter (MVD), spray time and
temperature are used in neural network training. Then, the subsonic
intake flow field is simulated numerically using 2D Navier-Stokes
equations and Finite Volume approach with Hybrid mesh includes
structured and unstructured meshes. The results are obtained in
different angles of attack and the variations of intake aerodynamic
parameters due to icing phenomenon are discussed. The results show
noticeable effects of ice accretion phenomenon on intake behavior.
A Numerical Strategy to Design Maneuverable Micro-Biomedical Swimming Robots Based on Biomimetic Flagellar Propulsion
Medical applications are among the most impactful
areas of microrobotics. The ultimate goal of medical microrobots is
to reach currently inaccessible areas of the human body and carry out
a host of complex operations such as minimally invasive surgery
(MIS), highly localized drug delivery, and screening for diseases at
their very early stages. Miniature, safe and efficient propulsion
systems hold the key to maturing this technology but they pose
significant challenges. A new type of propulsion developed recently,
uses multi-flagella architecture inspired by the motility mechanism of
prokaryotic microorganisms. There is a lack of efficient methods for
designing this type of propulsion system. The goal of this paper is to
overcome the lack and this way, a numerical strategy is proposed to
design multi-flagella propulsion systems. The strategy is based on the
implementation of the regularized stokeslet and rotlet theory, RFT
theory and new approach of “local corrected velocity". The effects of
shape parameters and angular velocities of each flagellum on overall
flow field and on the robot net forces and moments are considered.
Then a multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network is designed
and employed to adjust the angular velocities of the motors for
propulsion control. The proposed method applied successfully on a
sample configuration and useful demonstrative results is obtained.
Flow Properties of Commercial Infant Formula Powders
The objective of this work was to investigate flow
properties of powdered infant formula samples. Samples were
purchased at a local pharmacy and differed in composition. Lactose
free infant formula, gluten free infant formula and infant formulas
containing dietary fibers and probiotics were tested and compared
with a regular infant formula sample which did not contain any of
these supplements. Particle size and bulk density were determined
and their influence on flow properties was discussed. There were no
significant differences in bulk densities of the samples, therefore the
connection between flow properties and bulk density could not be
determined. Lactose free infant formula showed flow properties
different to standard supplement-free sample. Gluten free infant
formula with addition of probiotic microorganisms and dietary fiber
had the narrowest particle size distribution range and exhibited the
best flow properties. All the other samples exhibited the same
tendency of decreasing compaction coefficient with increasing flow
speed, which means they all become freer flowing with higher flow
Studying the Causes and Affecting Factors of Motorcycle Accidents A Case Study on the Road Accidents in Zanjan Province (IRAN) - 2007
Based on statistics released by Islamic Republic of
Iran Police (IRIP), from among the total 9555 motorcycle accidents
that happened in 2007, 857 riders died and 11219 one got injured. If
we also consider the death toll and injuries of other vehicles'
accidents resulted from traffic violation by motorcycle riders, then
paying attention to the motorcycle accidents seems to be very
necessary. Therefore, in this study we tried to investigate the traits
and issues related to production, application, and training, along with
causes of motorcycle accidents from 4 perspectives of road, human,
environment and vehicle and also based on statistical and
geographical analysis of accident-sheets prepared by Iran Road
Patrol Department (IRPD). Unfamiliarity of riders with regulations
and techniques of motorcycling, disuse of safety equipments,
inefficiency of roads and design of junctions for safe trafficking of
motorcycles and finally the lack of sufficient control of responsible
organizations are among the major causes which lead to these
Automatic Sleep Stage Scoring with Wavelet Packets Based on Single EEG Recording
Sleep stage scoring is the process of classifying the
stage of the sleep in which the subject is in. Sleep is classified into
two states based on the constellation of physiological parameters.
The two states are the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and the
rapid eye movement (REM). The NREM sleep is also classified into
four stages (1-4). These states and the state wakefulness are
distinguished from each other based on the brain activity. In this
work, a classification method for automated sleep stage scoring
based on a single EEG recording using wavelet packet decomposition
was implemented. Thirty two ploysomnographic recording from the
MIT-BIH database were used for training and validation of the
proposed method. A single EEG recording was extracted and
smoothed using Savitzky-Golay filter. Wavelet packets
decomposition up to the fourth level based on 20th order Daubechies
filter was used to extract features from the EEG signal. A features
vector of 54 features was formed. It was reduced to a size of 25 using
the gain ratio method and fed into a classifier of regression trees. The
regression trees were trained using 67% of the records available. The
records for training were selected based on cross validation of the
records. The remaining of the records was used for testing the
classifier. The overall correct rate of the proposed method was found
to be around 75%, which is acceptable compared to the techniques in
High Securing Cover-File of Hidden Data Using Statistical Technique and AES Encryption Algorithm
Nowadays, the rapid development of multimedia
and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data.
It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital
information Besides that, digital documents are also easy to
copy and distribute, therefore it will be faced by many
threatens. It-s a big security and privacy issue with the large
flood of information and the development of the digital
format, it become necessary to find appropriate protection
because of the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the
information. Nowadays protection system classified with more
specific as hiding information, encryption information, and
combination between hiding and encryption to increase information
security, the strength of the information hiding science is due to the
non-existence of standard algorithms to be used in hiding secret
messages. Also there is randomness in hiding methods such as
combining several media (covers) with different methods to pass a
secret message. In addition, there are no formal methods to be
followed to discover the hidden data. For this reason, the task of this
research becomes difficult. In this paper, a new system of information
hiding is presented. The proposed system aim to hidden information
(data file) in any execution file (EXE) and to detect the hidden file
and we will see implementation of steganography system which
embeds information in an execution file. (EXE) files have been
investigated. The system tries to find a solution to the size of the
cover file and making it undetectable by anti-virus software. The
system includes two main functions; first is the hiding of the
information in a Portable Executable File (EXE), through the
execution of four process (specify the cover file, specify the
information file, encryption of the information, and hiding the
information) and the second function is the extraction of the hiding
information through three process (specify the steno file, extract the
information, and decryption of the information). The system has
achieved the main goals, such as make the relation of the size of the
cover file and the size of information independent and the result file
does not make any conflict with anti-virus software.
Towards for Admission Control in WIMAX Relay Station Mesh Network for Mobile Stations out of Coverage Using Ad-Hoc
WIMAX relay station mesh network has been approved by IEEE 802.16j as a standard to provide a highly data rate transmission, the RS was implemented to extend the coverage zone of the BS, for instance the MSs previously were out of the coverage of the BS they become in the coverage of the RS, therefore these MSs can have Admission control from the BS through the RS. This paper describe a problem in the mesh network Relay station, for instance the problem of how to serve the mobile stations (MSs) which are out of the Relay station coverage. This paper also proposed a solution for mobile stations out of the coverage of the WIMAX Relay stations mesh Network. Therefore Ad-hoc network defined as a solution by using its admission control schema and apply it on the mobiles inside and outside the Relay station coverage.
Comparing Arabic and Latin Handwritten Digits Recognition Problems
A comparison between the performance of Latin and
Arabic handwritten digits recognition problems is presented. The
performance of ten different classifiers is tested on two similar
Arabic and Latin handwritten digits databases. The analysis shows
that Arabic handwritten digits recognition problem is easier than that
of Latin digits. This is because the interclass difference in case of
Latin digits is smaller than in Arabic digits and variances in writing
Latin digits are larger. Consequently, weaker yet fast classifiers are
expected to play more prominent role in Arabic handwritten digits
Automatically Driven Vector for Guidewire Segmentation in 2D and Biplane Fluoroscopy
The segmentation of endovascular tools in fluoroscopy images can be accurately performed automatically or by minimum user intervention, using known modern techniques. It has been proven in literature, but no clinical implementation exists so far because the computational time requirements of such technology have not yet been met. A classical segmentation scheme is composed of edge enhancement filtering, line detection, and segmentation. A new method is presented that consists of a vector that propagates in the image to track an edge as it advances. The filtering is performed progressively in the projected path of the vector, whose orientation allows for oriented edge detection, and a minimal image area is globally filtered. Such an algorithm is rapidly computed and can be implemented in real-time applications. It was tested on medical fluoroscopy images from an endovascular cerebral intervention. Ex- periments showed that the 2D tracking was limited to guidewires without intersection crosspoints, while the 3D implementation was able to cope with such planar difficulties.
Implementation of Geo-knowledge Based Geographic Information System for Estimating Earthquake Hazard Potential at a Metropolitan Area, Gwangju, in Korea
In this study, an inland metropolitan area, Gwangju, in Korea was selected to assess the amplification potential of earthquake motion and provide the information for regional seismic countermeasure. A geographic information system-based expert system was implemented for reliably predicting the spatial geotechnical layers in the entire region of interesting by building a geo-knowledge database. Particularly, the database consists of the existing boring data gathered from the prior geotechnical projects and the surface geo-knowledge data acquired from the site visit. For practical application of the geo-knowledge database to estimate the earthquake hazard potential related to site amplification effects at the study area, seismic zoning maps on geotechnical parameters, such as the bedrock depth and the site period, were created within GIS framework. In addition, seismic zonation of site classification was also performed to determine the site amplification coefficients for seismic design at any site in the study area. KeywordsEarthquake hazard, geo-knowledge, geographic information system, seismic zonation, site period.
A Combinatorial Model for ECG Interpretation
A new, combinatorial model for analyzing and inter-
preting an electrocardiogram (ECG) is presented. An application of
the model is QRS peak detection. This is demonstrated with an
online algorithm, which is shown to be space as well as time efficient.
Experimental results on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database show that
this novel approach is promising. Further uses for this approach are
discussed, such as taking advantage of its small memory requirements
and interpreting large amounts of pre-recorded ECG data.
Tumble Flow Analysis in an Unfired Engine Using Particle Image Velocimetry
This paper deals with the experimental investigations
of the in-cylinder tumble flows in an unfired internal combustion
engine with a flat piston at the engine speeds ranging from 400 to
1000 rev/min., and also with the dome and dome-cavity pistons at an
engine speed of 1000 rev/min., using particle image velocimetry.
From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, tumble
flow analysis is carried out in the combustion space on a vertical
plane passing through cylinder axis. To analyze the tumble flows,
ensemble average velocity vectors are used and to characterize it,
tumble ratio is estimated. From the results, generally, we have found
that tumble ratio varies mainly with crank angle position. Also, at the
end of compression stroke, average turbulent kinetic energy is more
at higher engine speeds. We have also found that, at 330 crank angle
position, flat piston shows an improvement of about 85 and 23% in
tumble ratio, and about 24 and 2.5% in average turbulent kinetic
energy compared to dome and dome-cavity pistons respectively
DAMQ-Based Approach for Efficiently Using the Buffer Spaces of a NoC Router
In this paper we present high performance
dynamically allocated multi-queue (DAMQ) buffer schemes for fault
tolerance systems on chip applications that require an interconnection
network. Two virtual channels shared the same buffer space. Fault
tolerant mechanisms for interconnection networks are becoming a
critical design issue for large massively parallel computers. It is also
important to high performance SoCs as the system complexity keeps
increasing rapidly. On the message switching layer, we make
improvement to boost system performance when there are faults
involved in the components communication. The proposed scheme is
when a node or a physical channel is deemed as faulty, the previous
hop node will terminate the buffer occupancy of messages destined
to the failed link. The buffer usage decisions are made at switching
layer without interactions with higher abstract layer, thus buffer
space will be released to messages destined to other healthy nodes
quickly. Therefore, the buffer space will be efficiently used in case
fault occurs at some nodes.
Automatic Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Aerial and Satellite Images with Heavy Noise
Aerial and satellite images are information rich. They are also complex to analyze. For GIS systems, many features require fast and reliable extraction of roads and intersections. In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithms to address some difficult issues that are commonly seen in high resolution aerial and satellite images, nonetheless not well addressed in existing solutions, such as blurring, broken or missing road boundaries, lack of road profiles, heavy shadows, and interfering surrounding objects. The new scheme is based on a new method, namely reference circle, to properly identify the pixels that belong to the same road and use this information to recover the whole road network. This feature is invariable to the shape and direction of roads and tolerates heavy noise and disturbances. Road extraction based on reference circles is much more noise tolerant and flexible than the previous edge-detection based algorithms. The scheme is able to extract roads reliably from images with complex contents and heavy obstructions, such as the high resolution aerial/satellite images available from Google maps.
Software Engineering Mobile Learning Software Solution Using Task Based Learning Approach
The development and use of mobile devices as well as its integration within education systems to deliver electronic contents and to support real-time communications was the focus of this research. In order to investigate the software engineering issues in using mobile devices a research on electronic content was initiated. The Developed MP3 mobile software solution was developed as a prototype for testing and developing a strategy for designing a usable m-learning environment. The mobile software solution was evaluated using mobile device using the link: http://projects.seeu.edu.mk/mlearn. The investigation also tested the correlation between the two mobile learning indicators: electronic content and attention, based on the Task Based learning instructional method. The mobile software solution ''M-Learn“ was developed as a prototype for testing the approach and developing a strategy for designing usable m-learning environment. The proposed methodology is about what learning modeling approach is more appropriate to use when developing mobile learning software.
Comparative Analysis of Total Phenolic Content in Sea Buckthorn Wine and Other Selected Fruit Wines
This is the first report from India on a beverage resulting from alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) using lab isolated yeast strain. The health promoting potential of the product was evaluated based on its total phenolic content. The most important finding was that under the present fermentation condition, the total phenolic content of the wine product was 689 mg GAE/L. Investigation of influence of bottle ageing on the sea buckthorn wine showed a slight decrease in the phenolic content (534 m mg GAE/L). This study also includes the comparative analysis of the phenolic content of wines from other selected fruit juices like grape, apple and black currant. KeywordsAlcoholic fermentation, Hippophae, Total phenolic content, Wine
Encrypter Information Software Using Chaotic Generators
This document shows a software that shows different chaotic generator, as continuous as discrete time. The software gives the option for obtain the different signals, using different parameters and initial condition value. The program shows then critical parameter for each model. All theses models are capable of encrypter information, this software show it too.
Computational Analysis of the MembraneTargeting Domains of Plant-specific PRAF Proteins
The PRAF family of proteins is a plant specific family of proteins with distinct domain architecture and various unique sequence/structure traits. We have carried out an extensive search of the Arabidopsis genome using an automated pipeline and manual methods to verify previously known and identify unknown instances of PRAF proteins, characterize their sequence and build 3D structures of their individual domains. Integrating the sequence, structure and whatever little known experimental details for each of these proteins and their domains, we present a comprehensive characterization of the different domains in these proteins and their variant properties.
Analysis of Air Quality in the Outdoor Environment of the City of Messina by an Application of the Pollution Index Method
In this paper is reported an analysis about the outdoor air pollution of the urban centre of the city of Messina. The variations of the most critical pollutants concentrations (PM10, O3, CO, C6H6) and their trends respect of climatic parameters and vehicular traffic have been studied. Linear regressions have been effectuated for representing the relations among the pollutants; the differences between pollutants concentrations on weekend/weekday were also analyzed. In order to evaluate air pollution and its effects on human health, a method for calculating a pollution index was implemented and applied in the urban centre of the city. This index is based on the weighted mean of the most detrimental air pollutants concentrations respect of their limit values for protection of human health. The analyzed data of the polluting substances were collected by the Assessorship of the Environment of the Regional Province of Messina in the year 2004. A statistical analysis of the air quality index trends is also reported.
Observer Design for Ecological Monitoring
Monitoring of ecological systems is one of the major
issues in ecosystem research. The concepts and methodology of
mathematical systems theory provide useful tools to face this
problem. In many cases, state monitoring of a complex ecological
system consists in observation (measurement) of certain state
variables, and the whole state process has to be determined from the
observed data. The solution proposed in the paper is the design of an
observer system, which makes it possible to approximately recover
the state process from its partial observation. The method is
illustrated with a trophic chain of resource – producer – primary
consumer type and a numerical example is also presented.
Study The Effects of Conventional and Low Input Production System on Energy Efficiency of Silybum marianum L.
Medicinal plants are most suitable crops for ecological production systems because of their role in human health and the aim of sustainable agriculture to improve ecosystem efficiency and its products quality. Calculations include energy output (contents of energy in seed) and energy inputs (consumption of fertilizers, pesticides, labor, machines, fuel and electricity). The ratio of output of the production to inputs is called the energy outputs / inputs ratio or energy efficiency. One way to quantify essential parts of agricultural development is the energy flow method. The output / input energy ratio is proposed as the most comprehensive single factor in pursuing the objective of sustainability. Sylibum marianum L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran and has effective role on health of growing population in Iran. The objective of this investigation was to find out energy efficiency in conventional and low input production system of Milk thistle. This investigation was carried out in the spring of 2005 – 2007 in the Research Station of Rangelands in Hamand - Damavand region of IRAN. This experiment was done in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Treatments were 2 production systems (Conventional and Low input system) in the main plots, 3 planting time (25 of March, 4 and 14 of April) in the sub plots and 2 seed types (Improved and Native of Khoozestan) in the sub-sub plots. Results showed that in conventional production system energy efficiency, because of higher inputs and less seed yield, was less than low input production system. Seed yield was 1199.5 and 1888 kg/ha in conventional and low input systems, respectively. Total energy inputs and out puts for conventional system was 10068544.5 and 7060515.9 kcal. These amounts for low input system were 9533885.6 and 11113191.8 kcal. Results showed that energy efficiency for seed production in conventional and low input system was 0.7 and 1.16, respectively. So, milk thistle seed production in low input system has 39.6 percent higher energy efficiency than conventional production system. Also, higher energy efficiency were found in sooner planting time (25 of March) and native seed of Khoozestan.
A Genetic-Algorithm-Based Approach for Audio Steganography
In this paper, we present a novel, principled approach to resolve the remained problems of substitution technique of audio steganography. Using the proposed genetic algorithm, message bits are embedded into multiple, vague and higher LSB layers, resulting in increased robustness. The robustness specially would be increased against those intentional attacks which try to reveal the hidden message and also some unintentional attacks like noise addition as well.
MinRoot and CMesh: Interconnection Architectures for Network-on-Chip Systems
The success of an electronic system in a System-on- Chip is highly dependent on the efficiency of its interconnection network, which is constructed from routers and channels (the routers move data across the channels between nodes). Since neither classical bus based nor point to point architectures can provide scalable solutions and satisfy the tight power and performance requirements of future applications, the Network-on-Chip (NoC) approach has recently been proposed as a promising solution. Indeed, in contrast to the traditional solutions, the NoC approach can provide large bandwidth with moderate area overhead. The selected topology of the components interconnects plays prime rule in the performance of NoC architecture as well as routing and switching techniques that can be used. In this paper, we present two generic NoC architectures that can be customized to the specific communication needs of an application in order to reduce the area with minimal degradation of the latency of the system. An experimental study is performed to compare these structures with basic NoC topologies represented by 2D mesh, Butterfly-Fat Tree (BFT) and SPIN. It is shown that Cluster mesh (CMesh) and MinRoot schemes achieves significant improvements in network latency and energy consumption with only negligible area overhead and complexity over existing architectures. In fact, in the case of basic NoC topologies, CMesh and MinRoot schemes provides substantial savings in area as well, because they requires fewer routers. The simulation results show that CMesh and MinRoot networks outperforms MESH, BFT and SPIN in main performance metrics.
Effect of Calcium Chloride on Rheological Properties and Structure of Inulin - Whey Protein Gels
The rheological properties, structure and potential synergistic interactions of whey proteins (1-6%) and inulin (20%) in mixed gels in the presence of CaCl2 was the aim of this study. Whey proteins have a strong influence on inulin gel formation. At low concentrations (2%) whey proteins did not impair in inulin gel formation. At higher concentration (4%) whey proteins impaired inulin gelation and inulin impaired the formation of a Ca2+-induced whey protein network. The presence of whey proteins at a level allowing for protein gel network formation (6%) significantly increased the rheological parameters values of the gels. SEM micrographs showed that whey protein structure was coated by inulin moieties which could make the mixed gels firmer. The protein surface hydrophobicity measurements did not exclude synergistic interactions between inulin and whey proteins, however. The use of an electrophoretic technique did not show any stable inulin-whey protein complexes.
DEA ANN Approach in Supplier Evaluation System
In Supply Chain Management (SCM), strengthening partnerships with suppliers is a significant factor for enhancing competitiveness. Hence, firms increasingly emphasize supplier evaluation processes. Supplier evaluation systems are basically developed in terms of criteria such as quality, cost, delivery, and flexibility. Because there are many variables to be analyzed, this process becomes hard to execute and needs expertise. On this account, this study aims to develop an expert system on supplier evaluation process by designing Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that is supported with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The methods are applied on the data of 24 suppliers, which have longterm relationships with a medium sized company from German Iron and Steel Industry. The data of suppliers consists of variables such as material quality (MQ), discount of amount (DOA), discount of cash (DOC), payment term (PT), delivery time (DT) and annual revenue (AR). Meanwhile, the efficiency that is generated by using DEA is added to the supplier evaluation system in order to use them as system outputs.
Applying Gibbs Sampler for Multivariate Hierarchical Linear Model
Among various HLM techniques, the Multivariate Hierarchical Linear Model (MHLM) is desirable to use, particularly when multivariate criterion variables are collected and the covariance structure has information valuable for data analysis. In order to reflect prior information or to obtain stable results when the sample size and the number of groups are not sufficiently large, the Bayes method has often been employed in hierarchical data analysis. In these cases, although the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is a rather powerful tool for parameter estimation, Procedures regarding MCMC have not been formulated for MHLM. For this reason, this research presents concrete procedures for parameter estimation through the use of the Gibbs samplers. Lastly, several future topics for the use of MCMC approach for HLM is discussed.
Using Perspective Schemata to Model the ETL Process
Data Warehouses (DWs) are repositories which contain the unified history of an enterprise for decision support. The data must be Extracted from information sources, Transformed and integrated to be Loaded (ETL) into the DW, using ETL tools. These tools focus on data movement, where the models are only used as a means to this aim. Under a conceptual viewpoint, the authors want to innovate the ETL process in two ways: 1) to make clear compatibility between models in a declarative fashion, using correspondence assertions and 2) to identify the instances of different sources that represent the same entity in the real-world. This paper presents the overview of the proposed framework to model the ETL process, which is based on the use of a reference model and perspective schemata. This approach provides the designer with a better understanding of the semantic associated with the ETL process.
The Use of Artificial Neural Network in Option Pricing: The Case of S and P 100 Index Options
Due to the increasing and varying risks that economic units face with, derivative instruments gain substantial importance, and trading volumes of derivatives have reached very significant level. Parallel with these high trading volumes, researchers have developed many different models. Some are parametric, some are nonparametric. In this study, the aim is to analyse the success of artificial neural network in pricing of options with S&P 100 index options data. Generally, the previous studies cover the data of European type call options. This study includes not only European call option but also American call and put options and European put options. Three data sets are used to perform three different ANN models. One only includes data that are directly observed from the economic environment, i.e. strike price, spot price, interest rate, maturity, type of the contract. The others include an extra input that is not an observable data but a parameter, i.e. volatility. With these detail data, the performance of ANN in put/call dimension, American/European dimension, moneyness dimension is analyzed and whether the contribution of the volatility in neural network analysis make improvement in prediction performance or not is examined. The most striking results revealed by the study is that ANN shows better performance when pricing call options compared to put options; and the use of volatility parameter as an input does not improve the performance.
Optimal Allocation of FACTS Devices for ATC Enhancement Using Bees Algorithm
In this paper, a novel method using Bees Algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal allocation of FACTS devices for maximizing the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) of power transactions between source and sink areas in the deregulated power system. The algorithm simultaneously searches the FACTS location, FACTS parameters and FACTS types. Two types of FACTS are simulated in this study namely Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) and Static Var Compensator (SVC). A Repeated Power Flow with FACTS devices including ATC is used to evaluate the feasible ATC value within real and reactive power generation limits, line thermal limits, voltage limits and FACTS operation limits. An IEEE30 bus system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm as an optimization tool to enhance ATC. A Genetic Algorithm technique is used for validation purposes. The results clearly indicate that the introduction of FACTS devices in a right combination of location and parameters could enhance ATC and Bees Algorithm can be efficiently used for this kind of nonlinear integer optimization.
Evaluation of Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Turkish Medicinal Plants: Tiliaargentea, Crataegi Folium Leaves and Polygonum bistorta Roots
There is a growing interest in the food industry and in preventive health care for the development and evaluation of natural antioxidants from medicinal plant materials. In the present work, extracts of three medicinal plants (Tilia argentea, Crataegi folium leaves and Polygonum bistorta roots) used in Turkish phytotheraphy were screened for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties. Crude extracts were obtained from different parts of plants, by solidliquid extraction with pure water, 70% acetone and 70% methanol aqueous solvents. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by ABTS.+ radical cation scavenging activity. The Folin Ciocalteu procedure was used to assess the total phenolic concentrations of the extracts as gallic acid equivalents. A modified liquid chromatography-electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was used to obtain chromatographic profiles of the phenolic compounds in the medicinal plants. The predominant phenolic compounds detected in different extracts of the plants were catechin, protocatechuic and chlorogenic acids. The highest phenolic contents were obtained by using 70% acetone as aqueous solvent, whereas the lowest phenolic contents were obtained by water extraction due to Folin Ciocalteu results. The results indicate that acetone extracts of Tilia argentea had the highest antioxidant capacity as free ABTS radical scavengers. The lowest phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities were obtained from Polygonum bistorta root extracts.
Automatic Vehicle Location Systems
In this article, a single application is suggested to determine the position of vehicles using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Geographical Position Systems (GPS). The part of the article material included mapping three dimensional coordinates to two dimensional coordinates using UTM or LAMBERT geographical methods, and the algorithm of conversion of GPS information into GIS maps is studied. Also, suggestions are given in order to implement this system based on web (called web based systems). To apply this system in IRAN, related official in this case are introduced and their duties are explained. Finally, economy analyzed is assisted according to IRAN communicational system.
3D Definition for Human Smiles
The study explored varied types of human smiles and
extracted most of the key factors affecting the smiles. These key
factors then were converted into a set of control points which could
serve to satisfy the needs for creation of facial expression for 3D
animators and be further applied to the face simulation for robots in the
future. First, hundreds of human smile pictures were collected and
analyzed to identify the key factors for face expression. Then, the
factors were converted into a set of control points and sizing
parameters calculated proportionally. Finally, two different faces
were constructed for validating the parameters via the process of
simulating smiles of the same type as the original one.
Paranoid Thoughts and Thought Control Strategies in a Nonclinical Population
Recently, it has been suggested that thought control strategies aimed at controlling unwanted thoughts may be used to cope with paranoid thoughts in both clinical and nonclinical samples. The current study aims to examine the type of thought control strategies that were associated with the frequency of paranoid thoughts in nonclinical samples. A total of 159 Japanese undergraduate students completed the two scales–the Paranoia Checklist and the Thought Control Questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that worry-based control strategies were associated with paranoid thoughts, whereas distraction- and social-based control strategies were inversely associated with paranoid thoughts. Our findings suggest that in a nonclinical population, worry-based strategies may be especially maladaptive, whereas distraction- and social-based strategies may be adaptive to paranoid thoughts.
The Vulnerability Analysis of Java Bytecode Based on Points-to Dataflow
Today many developers use the Java components
collected from the Internet as external LIBs to design and
develop their own software. However, some unknown security
bugs may exist in these components, such as SQL injection bug
may comes from the components which have no specific check
for the input string by users. To check these bugs out is very
difficult without source code. So a novel method to check the
bugs in Java bytecode based on points-to dataflow analysis is in
need, which is different to the common analysis techniques base
on the vulnerability pattern check. It can be used as an assistant
tool for security analysis of Java bytecode from unknown
softwares which will be used as extern LIBs.
Multidimensional Visualization Tools for Analysis of Expression Data
Expression data analysis is based mostly on the
statistical approaches that are indispensable for the study of
biological systems. Large amounts of multidimensional data resulting
from the high-throughput technologies are not completely served by
biostatistical techniques and are usually complemented with visual,
knowledge discovery and other computational tools. In many cases,
in biological systems we only speculate on the processes that are
causing the changes, and it is the visual explorative analysis of data
during which a hypothesis is formed. We would like to show the
usability of multidimensional visualization tools and promote their
use in life sciences. We survey and show some of the
multidimensional visualization tools in the process of data
exploration, such as parallel coordinates and radviz and we extend
them by combining them with the self-organizing map algorithm. We
use a time course data set of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
in our examples. Analysis of data with these tools has the potential to
uncover additional relationships and non-trivial structures.
Photonic Crystals for Novel Applications in Integrated-Optic Communication Systems and Devices
Photonic Crystal (PhC) based devices are being
increasingly used in multifunctional, compact devices in integrated
optical communication systems. They provide excellent
controllability of light, yet maintaining the small size required for
miniaturization. In this paper, the band gap properties of PhCs and
their typical applications in optical waveguiding are considered.
Novel PhC based applications such as nonlinear switching and
tapers are considered and simulation results are shown using the
accurate time-domain numerical method based on Finite Difference
Time Domain (FDTD) scheme. The suitability of these devices for
novel applications is discussed and evaluated.
Action Potential Propagation in Inhomogeneous 2D Mouse Ventricular Tissue Model
Heterogeneous repolarization causes dispersion of the T-wave and has been linked to arrhythmogenesis. Such heterogeneities appear due to differential expression of ionic currents in different regions of the heart, both in healthy and diseased animals and humans. Mice are important animals for the study of heart diseases because of the ability to create transgenic animals. We used our previously reported model of mouse ventricular myocytes to develop 2D mouse ventricular tissue model consisting of 14,000 cells (apical or septal ventricular myocytes) and to study the stability of action potential propagation and Ca2+ dynamics. The 2D tissue model was implemented as a FORTRAN program code for highperformance multiprocessor computers that runs on 36 processors. Our tissue model is able to simulate heterogeneities not only in action potential repolarization, but also heterogeneities in intracellular Ca2+ transients. The multicellular model reproduced experimentally observed velocities of action potential propagation and demonstrated the importance of incorporation of realistic Ca2+ dynamics for action potential propagation. The simulations show that relatively sharp gradients of repolarization are predicted to exist in 2D mouse tissue models, and they are primarily determined by the cellular properties of ventricular myocytes. Abrupt local gradients of channel expression can cause alternans at longer pacing basic cycle lengths than gradual changes, and development of alternans depends on the site of stimulation.
Optimum Signal-to-noise Ratio Performance of Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices
Electron multiplying charge coupled devices (EMCCDs) have revolutionized the world of low light imaging by introducing on-chip multiplication gain based on the impact ionization effect in the silicon. They combine the sub-electron readout noise with high frame rates. Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) is an important performance parameter for low-light-level imaging systems. This work investigates the SNR performance of an EMCCD operated in Non-inverted Mode (NIMO) and Inverted Mode (IMO). The theory of noise characteristics and operation modes is presented. The results show that the SNR of is determined by dark current and clock induced charge at high gain level. The optimum SNR performance is provided by an EMCCD operated in NIMO in short exposure and strong cooling applications. In contrast, an IMO EMCCD is preferable.
CSOLAP (Continuous Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing)
Decision support systems are usually based on
multidimensional structures which use the concept of hypercube.
Dimensions are the axes on which facts are analyzed and form a
space where a fact is located by a set of coordinates at the
intersections of members of dimensions. Conventional
multidimensional structures deal with discrete facts linked to discrete
dimensions. However, when dealing with natural continuous
phenomena the discrete representation is not adequate. There is a
need to integrate spatiotemporal continuity within multidimensional
structures to enable analysis and exploration of continuous field data.
Research issues that lead to the integration of spatiotemporal
continuity in multidimensional structures are numerous. In this paper,
we discuss research issues related to the integration of continuity in
multidimensional structures, present briefly a multidimensional
model for continuous field data. We also define new aggregation
operations. The model and the associated operations and measures
are validated by a prototype.
A Generic e-Tutor for Graphical Problems
For a variety of safety and economic reasons, engineering undergraduates in Australia have experienced diminishing access to the real hardware that is typically the embodiment of their theoretical studies. This trend will delay the development of practical competence, decrease the ability to model and design, and suppress motivation. The author has attempted to address this concern by creating a software tool that contains both photographic images of real machinery, and sets of graphical modeling 'tools'. Academics from a range of disciplines can use the software to set tutorial tasks, and incorporate feedback comments for a range of student responses. An evaluation of the software demonstrated that students who had solved modeling problems with the aid of the electronic tutor performed significantly better in formal examinations with similar problems. The 2-D graphical diagnostic routines in the Tutor have the potential to be used in a wider range of problem-solving tasks.
On the Analysis of Bandwidth Management for Hybrid Load Balancing Scheme in WLANs
In wireless networks, bandwidth is scare resource and it is essential to utilize it effectively. This paper analyses effects of using different bandwidth management techniques on the network performances of the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) that use hybrid load balancing scheme. In particular, we study three bandwidth management schemes, namely Complete Sharing (CS), Complete Partitioning (CP), and Partial Sharing (PS). Performances of these schemes are evaluated by simulation experiments in term of percentage of network association blocking. Our results show that the CS scheme can provide relatively low blocking percentage in various network traffic scenarios whereas the PS scheme can enhance quality of services of the multimedia traffic with rather small expenses on the blocking percentage of the best effort traffic.
Mounting Time Reduction using Content-Based Block Management for NAND Flash File System
The flash memory has many advantages such as low power consumption, strong shock resistance, fast I/O and non-volatility. And it is increasingly used in the mobile storage device. The YAFFS, one of the NAND flash file system, is widely used in the embedded device. However, the existing YAFFS takes long time to mount the file system because it scans whole spare areas in all pages of NAND flash memory. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new content-based flash file system using a mounting time reduction technique. The proposed method only scans partial spare areas of some special pages by using content-based block management. The experimental results show that the proposed method reduces the average mounting time by 87.2% comparing with JFFS2 and 69.9% comparing with YAFFS.
The Knowledge Representation of the Genetic Regulatory Networks Based on Ontology
The understanding of the system level of biological behavior and phenomenon variously needs some elements such as gene sequence, protein structure, gene functions and metabolic pathways. Challenging problems are representing, learning and reasoning about these biochemical reactions, gene and protein structure, genotype and relation between the phenotype, and expression system on those interactions. The goal of our work is to understand the behaviors of the interactions networks and to model their evolution in time and in space. We propose in this study an ontological meta-model for the knowledge representation of the genetic regulatory networks. Ontology in artificial intelligence means the fundamental categories and relations that provide a framework for knowledge models. Domain ontology's are now commonly used to enable heterogeneous information resources, such as knowledge-based systems, to communicate with each other. The interest of our model is to represent the spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal knowledge. We validated our propositions in the genetic regulatory network of the Aarbidosis thaliana flower
Design, Modeling and Fabrication of a Tactile Sensor and Display System for Application in Laparoscopic Surgery
One of the major disadvantages of the minimally
invasive surgery (MIS) is the lack of tactile feedback to the surgeon.
In order to identify and avoid any damage to the grasped complex
tissue by endoscopic graspers, it is important to measure the local
softness of tissue during MIS. One way to display the measured
softness to the surgeon is a graphical method. In this paper, a new
tactile sensor has been reported. The tactile sensor consists of an
array of four softness sensors, which are integrated into the jaws of a
modified commercial endoscopic grasper. Each individual softness
sensor consists of two piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene Fluoride
(PVDF) films, which are positioned below a rigid and a compliant
cylinder. The compliant cylinder is fabricated using a micro molding
technique. The combination of output voltages from PVDF films is
used to determine the softness of the grasped object. The theoretical
analysis of the sensor is also presented.
A method has been developed with the aim of reproducing the
tactile softness to the surgeon by using a graphical method. In this
approach, the proposed system, including the interfacing and the data
acquisition card, receives signals from the array of softness sensors.
After the signals are processed, the tactile information is displayed
by means of a color coding method. It is shown that the degrees of
softness of the grasped objects/tissues can be visually differentiated
and displayed on a monitor.
The Effects of Multipath on OFDM Systems for Broadband Power-Line Communications a Case of Medium Voltage Channel
Power-line networks are widely used today for broadband data transmission. However, due to multipaths within the broadband power line communication (BPLC) systems owing to stochastic changes in the network load impedances, branches, etc., network or channel capacity performances are affected. This paper attempts to investigate the performance of typical medium voltage channels that uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) techniques with Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) sub carriers. It has been observed that when the load impedances are different from line characteristic impedance channel performance decreases. Also as the number of branches in the link between the transmitter and receiver increases a loss of 4dB/branch is found in the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The information presented in the paper could be useful for an appropriate design of the BPLC systems.
Isolation and Identification of an Acetobacter Strain from Iranian White-Red Cherry with High Acetic Acid Productivity as a Potential Strain for Cherry Vinegar Production in Foodand Agriculture Biotechnology
According to FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the United States), vinegar is definedas a sour liquid containing at least 4 grams acetic acid in 100 cubic centimeter (4% solution of acetic acid) of solution that is produced from sugary materials by alcoholic fermentation. In the base of microbial starters, vinegars could be contained of more than 50 types of volatile and aromatic substances that responsible for their sweet taste and smelling. Recently the vinegar industry has a great proportion in agriculture, food and microbial biotechnology. The acetic acid bacteria are from the family Acetobacteraceae. Regarding to the latest version of Bergy-s Mannual of Systematic Bacteriology that has categorized bacteria in the base of their 16s RNA differences, the most important acetic acid genera are included Acetobacter (genus I), Gluconacetobacter (genus VIII) and Gluconobacter (genus IX). The genus Acetobacter that is primarily used in vinegar manufacturing plants is a gram negative, obligate aerobe coccus or rod shaped bacterium with the size 0.6 - 0.8 X 1.0 - 4.0 μm, nonmotile or motile with peritrichous flagella and catalase positive – oxidase negative biochemically. Some strains are overoxidizer that could convert acetic acid to carbon dioxide and water.In this research one Acetobacter native strain with high acetic acid productivity was isolated from Iranian white – red cherry. We used two specific culture media include Carr medium [yeast extract, 3%; ethanol, 2% (v/v); bromocresol green, 0.002%; agar, 2% and distilled water, 1000 ml], Frateur medium [yeast extract, 10 g/l; CaCO3, 20 g/l; ethanol, 20 g/l; agar, 20 g/l and distilled water, 1000 ml] and an industrial culture medium. In addition to high acetic acid production and high growth rate, this strain had a good tolerance against ethanol concentration that was examined using modified Carr media with 5%, 7% and 9% ethanol concentrations. While the industrial strains of acetic acid bacteria grow in the thermal range of 28 – 30 °C, this strain was adapted for growth in 34 – 36 °C after 96 hours incubation period. These dramatic characteristics suggest a potential biotechnological strain in production of cherry vinegar with a sweet smell and different nutritional properties in comparison to recent vinegar types. The lack of growth after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation at 34 – 36 °C and the growth after 96 hours indicates a good and fast thermal flexibility of this strain as a significant characteristic of biotechnological and industrial strains.
Model based Soft-Sensor for Industrial Crystallization: On-line Mass of Crystals and Solubility Measurement
Monitoring and control of cane sugar crystallization
processes depend on the stability of the supersaturation (σ ) state.
The most widely used information to represent σ is the electrical
conductivity κ of the solutions. Nevertheless, previous studies point
out the shortcomings of this approach: κ may be regarded as
inappropriate to guarantee an accurate estimation of σ in impure
solutions. To improve the process control efficiency, additional
information is necessary. The mass of crystals in the solution ( c m )
and the solubility (mass ratio of sugar to water / s w m m ) are relevant
to complete information. Indeed, c m inherently contains information
about the mass balance and / s w m m contains information about the
supersaturation state of the solution. The main problem is that c m
and / s w m m are not available on-line. In this paper, a model based
soft-sensor is presented for a final crystallization stage (C sugar).
Simulation results obtained on industrial data show the reliability of
this approach, c m and the crystal content ( cc ) being estimated with
a sufficient accuracy for achieving on-line monitoring in industry
The implementation of IHE ATNA for the EHR system
The health record in the Electronic Health Record
(EHR) system is more sensitive than demographic. It raises the
important issue for the EHR requirement in privacy, security, audit
trail, patient access, and archiving and data retention. The studies
about the EHR system security are deficient. The aim of this study is to
build a security environment for the EHR system by Integrating the
Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Audit Trail and Node Authentication
Security (ATNA) profile. The CDAs can be access in a secure EHR
Towards Self-ware via Swarm-Array Computing
The work reported in this paper proposes
Swarm-Array computing, a novel technique inspired by swarm
robotics, and built on the foundations of autonomic and parallel
computing. The approach aims to apply autonomic computing
constructs to parallel computing systems and in effect achieve the
self-ware objectives that describe self-managing systems. The
constitution of swarm-array computing comprising four constituents,
namely the computing system, the problem/task, the swarm and the
landscape is considered. Approaches that bind these constituents
together are proposed. Space applications employing FPGAs are
identified as a potential area for applying swarm-array computing for
building reliable systems. The feasibility of a proposed approach is
validated on the SeSAm multi-agent simulator and landscapes are
generated using the MATLAB toolkit.
High Resolution Images: Segmenting, Extracting Information and GIS Integration
As the world changes more rapidly, the demand for update information for resource management, environment monitoring, planning are increasing exponentially. Integration of Remote Sensing with GIS technology will significantly promote the ability for addressing these concerns. This paper presents an alternative way of update GIS applications using image processing and high resolution images. We show a method of high-resolution image segmentation using graphs and morphological operations, where a preprocessing step (watershed operation) is required. A morphological process is then applied using the opening and closing operations. After this segmentation we can extract significant cartographic elements such as urban areas, streets or green areas. The result of this segmentation and this extraction is then used to update GIS applications. Some examples are shown using aerial photography.
Security Risk Analysis Based on the Policy Formalization and the Modeling of Big Systems
Security risk models have been successful in estimating the likelihood of attack for simple security threats. However, modeling complex system and their security risk is even a challenge. Many methods have been proposed to face this problem. Often difficult to manipulate, and not enough all-embracing they are not as famous as they should with administrators and deciders. We propose in this paper a new tool to model big systems on purpose. The software, takes into account attack threats and security strength.
Multivalued Knowledge-Base based on Multivalued Datalog
The basic aim of our study is to give a possible model for handling uncertain information. This model is worked out in the framework of DATALOG. The concept of multivalued knowledgebase will be defined as a quadruple of any background knowledge; a deduction mechanism; a connecting algorithm, and a function set of the program, which help us to determine the uncertainty levels of the results. At first the concept of fuzzy Datalog will be summarized, then its extensions for intuitionistic- and interval-valued fuzzy logic is given and the concept of bipolar fuzzy Datalog is introduced. Based on these extensions the concept of multivalued knowledge-base will be defined. This knowledge-base can be a possible background of a future agent-model.
An Enhanced Distributed System to improve theTime Complexity of Binary Indexed Trees
Distributed Computing Systems are usually considered the most suitable model for practical solutions of many parallel algorithms. In this paper an enhanced distributed system is presented to improve the time complexity of Binary Indexed Trees (BIT). The proposed system uses multi-uniform processors with identical architectures and a specially designed distributed memory system. The analysis of this system has shown that it has reduced the time complexity of the read query to O(Log(Log(N))), and the update query to constant complexity, while the naive solution has a time complexity of O(Log(N)) for both queries. The system was implemented and simulated using VHDL and Verilog Hardware Description Languages, with xilinx ISE 10.1, as the development environment and ModelSim 6.1c, similarly as the simulation tool. The simulation has shown that the overhead resulting by the wiring and communication between the system fragments could be fairly neglected, which makes it applicable to practically reach the maximum speed up offered by the proposed model.
Comparative Study of Complexity in Streetscape Composition
This research is a comparative study of complexity, as a multidimensional concept, in the context of streetscape composition in Algeria and Japan. 80 streetscapes visual arrays have been collected and then presented to 20 participants, with different cultural backgrounds, in order to be categorized and classified according to their degrees of complexity. Three analysis methods have been used in this research: cluster analysis, ranking method and Hayashi Quantification method (Method III). The results showed that complexity, disorder, irregularity and disorganization are often conflicting concepts in the urban context. Algerian daytime streetscapes seem to be balanced, ordered and regular, and Japanese daytime streetscapes seem to be unbalanced, regular and vivid. Variety, richness and irregularity with some aspects of order and organization seem to characterize Algerian night streetscapes. Japanese night streetscapes seem to be more related to balance, regularity, order and organization with some aspects of confusion and ambiguity. Complexity characterized mainly Algerian avenues with green infrastructure. Therefore, for Japanese participants, Japanese traditional night streetscapes were complex. And for foreigners, Algerian and Japanese avenues nightscapes were the most complex visual arrays.
Environmental Performance of the United States Energy Sector: A DEA Model with Non-Discretionary Factors and Perfect Object
It is suggested to evaluate environmental performance
of energy sector using Data Envelopment Analysis with nondiscretionary
factors (DEA-ND) with relative indicators as inputs and
outputs. The latter allows for comparison of the objects essentially
different in size. Inclusion of non-discretionary factors serves
separation of the indicators that are beyond the control of the objects.
A virtual perfect object comprised of maximal outputs and minimal
inputs was added to the group of actual ones. In this setting, explicit
solution of the DEA-ND problem was obtained. Energy sector of the
United States was analyzed using suggested approach for the period
of 1980 – 2006 with expected values of economic indicators for 2030
used for forming the perfect object. It was obtained that
environmental performance has been increasing steadily for the
period from 7.7% through 50.0% but still remains well below the
Multilayer Soft Tissue Continuum Model: Towards Realistic Simulation of Facial Expressions
A biophysically based multilayer continuum model of the facial soft tissue composite has been developed for simulating wrinkle formation. The deformed state of the soft tissue block was determined by solving large deformation mechanics equations using the Galerkin finite element method. The proposed soft tissue model is composed of four layers with distinct mechanical properties. These include stratum corneum, epidermal-dermal layer (living epidermis and dermis), subcutaneous tissue and the underlying muscle. All the layers were treated as non-linear, isotropic Mooney Rivlin materials. Contraction of muscle fibres was approximated using a steady-state relationship between the fibre extension ratio, intracellular calcium concentration and active stress in the fibre direction. Several variations of the model parameters (stiffness and thickness of epidermal-dermal layer, thickness of subcutaneous tissue layer) have been considered.
Assessment of Thermal Comfort at Manual Car Body Assembly Workstation
The objective of this study is to determine the thermal comfort among worker at Malaysian automotive industry. One critical manual assembly workstation had been chosen as a subject for the study. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at Body Assembly Station of the factory. The environment examined was the Relative Humidity (%), Airflow (m/s), Air Temperature (°C) and Radiant Temperature (°C) of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers were assessed by using ISO Standard 7730 Thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV). Further Predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) is used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. The result of PMV at the related industry is between 1.8 and 2.3, where PPD at that building is between 60% to 84%. The survey result indicated that the temperature more influenced comfort to the occupants
Optimal Compensation of Reactive Power in the Restructured Distribution Network
In this paper optimal capacitor placement problem has
been formulated in a restructured distribution network. In this
scenario the distribution network operator can consider reactive
energy also as a service that can be sold to transmission system. Thus
search for optimal location, size and number of capacitor banks with
the objective of loss reduction, maximum income from selling
reactive energy to transmission system and return on investment for
capacitors, has been performed. Results is influenced with economic
value of reactive energy, therefore problem has been solved for
various amounts of it. The implemented optimization technique is
genetic algorithm. For any value of reactive power economic value,
when reverse of investment index increase and change from zero or
negative values to positive values, the threshold value of selling
reactive power has been obtained. This increasing price of economic
parameter is reasonable until the network losses is less than loss
Initializing K-Means using Genetic Algorithms
K-Means (KM) is considered one of the major
algorithms widely used in clustering. However, it still has some
problems, and one of them is in its initialization step where it is
normally done randomly. Another problem for KM is that it
converges to local minima. Genetic algorithms are one of the
evolutionary algorithms inspired from nature and utilized in the field
of clustering. In this paper, we propose two algorithms to solve the
initialization problem, Genetic Algorithm Initializes KM (GAIK) and
KM Initializes Genetic Algorithm (KIGA). To show the effectiveness
and efficiency of our algorithms, a comparative study was done
among GAIK, KIGA, Genetic-based Clustering Algorithm (GCA),
and FCM .
A SAW-less Dual-Band CDMA Diversity and Simultaneous-GPS Zero-IF Receiver
We present a dual-band (Cellular & PCS) dual-path
zero-IF receiver for CDMA2000 diversity, monitoring and
simultaneous-GPS. The secondary path is a SAW-less diversity
CDMA receiver which can be also used for advanced features like
monitoring when supported with an additional external VCO. A GPS
receiver is integrated with its dedicated VCO allowing simultaneous
positioning during a cellular call. The circuit is implemented in a
0.25μm 40GHz-fT BiCMOS process and uses a HVQFN 56-pin
package. It consumes a maximum 300mW from a 2.8V supply in
dual-modes. The chip area is 12.8mm2.
Towards Medical Device Maintenance Workflow Monitoring
Concerning the inpatient care the present situation is
characterized by intense charges of medical technology into the
clinical daily routine and an ever stronger integration of special
techniques into the clinical workflow. Medical technology is by now
an integral part of health care according to consisting general
accepted standards. Purchase and operation thereby represent an
important economic position and both are subject of everyday
optimisation attempts. For this purpose by now exists a huge number
of tools which conduce more likely to a complexness of the problem
by a comprehensive implementation. In this paper the advantages of
an integrative information-workflow on the life-cycle-management in
the region of medical technology are shown.
Nuclear Power Generation and CO2 Abatement Scenarios in Taiwan
Taiwan was the first country in Asia to announce
“Nuclear-Free Homeland" in 2002. In 2008, the new government
released the Sustainable Energy Policy Guidelines to lower the
nationwide CO2 emissions some time between 2016 and 2020 back to
the level of year 2008, further abatement of CO2 emissions is planed in
year 2025 when CO2 emissions will decrease to the level of year 2000.
Besides, under consideration of the issues of energy, environment and
economics (3E), the new government declared that the nuclear power
is a carbon-less energy option. This study analyses the effects of
nuclear power generation for CO2 abatement scenarios in Taiwan. The
MARKAL-MACRO energy model was adopted to evaluate economic
impacts and energy deployment due to life extension of existing
nuclear power plants and build new nuclear power units in CO2
abatement scenarios. The results show that CO2 abatement effort is
expensive. On the other hand, nuclear power is a cost-effective choice.
The GDP loss rate in the case of building new nuclear power plants is
around two thirds of the Nuclear-Free Homeland case. Nuclear power
generation has the capacity to provide large-scale CO2 free electricity.
Therefore, the results show that nuclear power is not only an option for
Taiwan, but also a requisite for Taiwan-s CO2 reduction strategy.
On the Comparison of Several Goodness of Fit tests under Simple Random Sampling and Ranked Set Sampling
Many works have been carried out to compare the
efficiency of several goodness of fit procedures for identifying
whether or not a particular distribution could adequately explain a
data set. In this paper a study is conducted to investigate the power
of several goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS),
Anderson-Darling(AD), Cramer- von- Mises (CV) and a proposed
modification of Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test which
incorporates a variance stabilizing transformation (FKS). The
performances of these selected tests are studied under simple
random sampling (SRS) and Ranked Set Sampling (RSS). This
study shows that, in general, the Anderson-Darling (AD) test
performs better than other GOF tests. However, there are some
cases where the proposed test can perform as equally good as the
Modeling of Pulsatile Blood Flow in a Weak Magnetic Field
Blood pulse is an important human physiological signal commonly used for the understanding of the individual physical health. Current methods of non-invasive blood pulse sensing require direct contact or access to the human skin. As such, the performances of these devices tend to vary with time and are subjective to human body fluids (e.g. blood, perspiration and skin-oil) and environmental contaminants (e.g. mud, water, etc). This paper proposes a simulation model for the novel method of non-invasive acquisition of blood pulse using the disturbance created by blood flowing through a localized magnetic field. The simulation model geometry represents a blood vessel, a permanent magnet, a magnetic sensor, surrounding tissues and air in 2-dimensional. In this model, the velocity and pressure fields in the blood stream are described based on Navier-Stroke equations and the walls of the blood vessel are assumed to have no-slip condition. The blood assumes a parabolic profile considering a laminar flow for blood in major artery near the skin. And the inlet velocity follows a sinusoidal equation. This will allow the computational software to compute the interactions between the magnetic vector potential generated by the permanent magnet and the magnetic nanoparticles in the blood. These interactions are simulated based on Maxwell equations at the location where the magnetic sensor is placed. The simulated magnetic field at the sensor location is found to assume similar sinusoidal waveform characteristics as the inlet velocity of the blood. The amplitude of the simulated waveforms at the sensor location are compared with physical measurements on human subjects and found to be highly correlated.
Assessment of Sediment Remediation Potential using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology
Bio-electrical responses obtained from freshwater
sediments by employing microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology were
investigated in this experimental study. During the electricity
generation, organic matter in the sediment was microbially oxidized
under anaerobic conditions with an electrode serving as a terminal
electron acceptor. It was found that the sediment organic matter
(SOM) associated with electrochemically-active electrodes became
more humified, aromatic, and polydispersed, and had a higher average
molecular weight, together with the decrease in the quantity of SOM.
The alteration of characteristics of the SOM was analogous to that
commonly observed in the early stage of SOM diagenetic process (i.e.,
humification). These findings including an elevation of the sediment
redox potential present a possibility of the MFC technology as a new
soil/sediment remediation technique based on its potential benefits:
non-destructive electricity generation and bioremediation.
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Weis–Fogh Type Ship-s Propulsion Mechanism Having Elastic Wing
This experiment was conducted in attempt of
improving hydrodynamic efficiency of the propulsion mechanism by
installing a spring to the wing so that the opening angle of the wing in
one stroke can be changed automatically, compared to the existing
method of fixed maximum opening angle in Weis-Fogh type ship
propulsion mechanism. Average thrust coefficient was almost fixed
with all velocity ratio with the prototype, but with the spring type,
thrust coefficient increased sharply as velocity ratio increased.
Average propulsive efficiency was larger with bigger opening angle in
the prototype, but in the spring type, the one with smaller spring
coefficient had larger value. In the range over 1.0 in velocity ratio
where big thrust can be generated, spring type had more than twice of
propulsive efficiency increase compared to the prototype.
Neural Network Ensemble-based Solar Power Generation Short-Term Forecasting
This paper presents the applicability of artificial
neural networks for 24 hour ahead solar power generation forecasting
of a 20 kW photovoltaic system, the developed forecasting is suitable
for a reliable Microgrid energy management. In total four neural
networks were proposed, namely: multi-layred perceptron, radial
basis function, recurrent and a neural network ensemble consisting in
ensemble of bagged networks. Forecasting reliability of the proposed
neural networks was carried out in terms forecasting error
performance basing on statistical and graphical methods. The
experimental results showed that all the proposed networks achieved
an acceptable forecasting accuracy. In term of comparison the neural
network ensemble gives the highest precision forecasting comparing
to the conventional networks. In fact, each network of the ensemble
over-fits to some extent and leads to a diversity which enhances the
noise tolerance and the forecasting generalization performance
comparing to the conventional networks.
A Novel Digital Implementation of AC Voltage Controller for Speed Control of Induction Motor
In this paper a novel, simple and reliable digital firing
scheme has been implemented for speed control of three-phase
induction motor using ac voltage controller. The system consists of
three-phase supply connected to the three-phase induction motor via
three triacs and its control circuit. The ac voltage controller has three
modes of operation depending on the shape of supply current. The
performance of the induction motor differs in each mode where the
speed is directly proportional with firing angle in two modes and
inversely in the third one. So, the control system has to detect the
current mode of operation to choose the correct firing angle of triacs.
Three sensors are used to feed the line currents to control system to
detect the mode of operation. The control strategy is implemented
using a low cost Xilinx Spartan-3E field programmable gate array
(FPGA) device. Three PI-controllers are designed on FPGA to
control the system in the three-modes. Simulation of the system is
carried out using PSIM computer program. The simulation results
show stable operation for different loading conditions especially in
mode 2/3. The simulation results have been compared with the
experimental results from laboratory prototype.
Biogas Production from Waste using Biofilm Reactor: Factor Analysis in Two Stages System
Factor analysis was applied to two stages biogas
production from banana stem waste allowing a screening of the
experimental variables second stage temperature (T), organic loading
rates (OLR) and hydraulic retention times (HRT). Biogas production
was found to be strongly influenced by all the above experimental
variables. Results from factorial analysis have shown that all
variables which were HRT, OLR and T have significant effect to
biogas production. Increased in HRT and OLR could increased the
biogas yield. The performance was tested under the conditions of
various T (35oC-60oC), OLR (0.3 g TS/l.d–1.9 gTS/l.d), and HRT (3
d–15 d). Conditions for temperature, OLR and HRT in this study
were based on the best range obtained from literature review.
A Novel Machining Signal Filtering Technique: Z-notch Filter
A filter is used to remove undesirable frequency information from a dynamic signal. This paper shows that the Znotch filter filtering technique can be applied to remove the noise nuisance from a machining signal. In machining, the noise components were identified from the sound produced by the operation of machine components itself such as hydraulic system, motor, machine environment and etc. By correlating the noise components with the measured machining signal, the interested components of the measured machining signal which was less interfered by the noise, can be extracted. Thus, the filtered signal is more reliable to be analysed in terms of noise content compared to the unfiltered signal. Significantly, the I-kaz method i.e. comprises of three dimensional graphical representation and I-kaz coefficient, Z∞ could differentiate between the filtered and the unfiltered signal. The bigger space of scattering and the higher value of Z∞ demonstrated that the signal was highly interrupted by noise. This method can be utilised as a proactive tool in evaluating the noise content in a signal. The evaluation of noise content is very important as well as the elimination especially for machining operation fault diagnosis purpose. The Z-notch filtering technique was reliable in extracting noise component from the measured machining signal with high efficiency. Even though the measured signal was exposed to high noise disruption, the signal generated from the interaction between cutting tool and work piece still can be acquired. Therefore, the interruption of noise that could change the original signal feature and consequently can deteriorate the useful sensory information can be eliminated.
Partial Connection Architecture for Mobile Computing
In mobile computing environments, there are many
new non existing problems in the distributed system, which is
consisted of stationary hosts because of host mobility, sudden
disconnection by handoff in wireless networks, voluntary
disconnection for efficient power consumption of a mobile host, etc.
To solve the problems, we proposed the architecture of Partial
Connection Manager (PCM) in this paper. PCM creates the limited
number of mobile agents according to priority, sends them in parallel
to servers, and combines the results to process the user request rapidly.
In applying the proposed PCM to the mobile market agent service, we
understand that the mobile agent technique could be suited for the
mobile computing environment and the partial connection problem
Modeling of Flood Mitigation Structures for Sarawak River Sub-basin Using Info Works River Simulation (RS)
The distressing flood scenarios that occur in
recent years at the surrounding areas of Sarawak River have
left damages of properties and indirectly caused disruptions of
productive activities. This study is meant to reconstruct a 100-year
flood event that took place in this river basin. Sarawak River Subbasin
was chosen and modeled using the one-dimensional
hydrodynamic modeling approach using InfoWorks River Simulation
(RS), in combination with Geographical Information System (GIS).
This produces the hydraulic response of the river and its floodplains
in extreme flooding conditions. With different parameters introduced
to the model, correlations of observed and simulated data are
between 79% – 87%. Using the best calibrated model, flood
mitigation structures are imposed along the sub-basin. Analysis is
done based on the model simulation results. Result shows that the
proposed retention ponds constructed along the sub-basin provide the
most efficient reduction of flood by 34.18%.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Livestock Wastewater by Zeolite Ion Exchange and Ionizing Radiation
The ionizing radiation of livestock wastewater for the
removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was studied in the presence of a
natural zeolite. The feasibility of a combined process of zeolite ion
exchange and electron beam irradiation of livestock wastewater was
also investigated. The removal efficiencies of NH4
+-N, T-N and T-P
were significantly enhanced by electron beam irradiation after zeolite
ion exchange as a pre-treatment. The presence of silica zeolite
accelerated the decomposition rate of livestock wastewater in the
electron beam irradiation process. These results indicate that the
combined process of zeolite ion exchange and electron beam
irradiation has the potential for the treatment of livestock wastewater
Environmental Impact Assessment of Gotv and Hydro-Electric Dam on the Karoon River Using ICOLD Technique
Today Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is known as one of the most important tools for decision makers in the construction of civil and industrial projects towards sustainable development. In the past, projects were evaluated based on cost and benefit analysis regardless of the physical and biological environmental effects and its socio-economical impacts. According to the Department of Environment (DOE) of Iran's regulations, the construction of hydroelectric dams is an activity that requires an EIA report. In this paper the environmental impact assessment of the Gotvand hydro-electrical dam has been evaluated in the three environment elements, biological, Physical-chemical and cultural units. This dam is one of the largest dams in Iran with a volume of 4500 MCM and is going to be the last dam on the Karoon River in the south of Iran. In this paper the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) technique was employed for the environmental impact assessment of the dam. The research includes all socio economical and environmental effects of the dam during the construction and operation of the hydro electric dam and Environmental management, monitoring and mitigation of negative impacts were analyzed. In this project the results led to using some techniques to protect the destructive impacts on biological aspects beside the effective long time period impacts on the biological aspects. The impacts on physical aspects are temporary and negative commonly that could be restored and rehabilitated in natural process in the long time in operation period.