Process Modeling of Electric Discharge Machining of Inconel 825 Using Artificial Neural Network
Electrical discharge machining (EDM), a non-conventional machining process, finds wide applications for shaping difficult-to-cut alloys. Process modeling of EDM is required to exploit the process to the fullest. Process modeling of EDM is a challenging task owing to involvement of so many electrical and non-electrical parameters. This work is an attempt to model the EDM process using artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments were carried out on die-sinking EDM taking Inconel 825 as work material. ANN modeling has been performed using experimental data. The prediction ability of trained network has been verified experimentally. Results indicate that ANN can predict the values of performance measures of EDM satisfactorily.
Assessment of a Rapid Detection Sensor of Faecal Pollution in Freshwater
Good quality bathing water is a highly desirable natural resource which can provide major economic, social, and environmental benefits. Both in Ireland and Europe, such water bodies are managed under the European Directive for the management of bathing water quality (BWD). The BWD aims mainly: (i) to improve health protection for bathers by introducing stricter standards for faecal pollution assessment (E. coli, enterococci), (ii) to establish a more pro-active approach to the assessment of possible pollution risks and the management of bathing waters, and (iii) to increase public involvement and dissemination of information to the general public. Standard methods for E. coli and enterococci quantification rely on cultivation of the target organism which requires long incubation periods (from 18h to a few days). This is not ideal when immediate action is required for risk mitigation. Municipalities that oversee the bathing water quality and deploy appropriate signage have to wait for laboratory results. During this time, bathers can be exposed to pollution events and health risks. Although forecasting tools exist, they are site specific and as consequence extensive historical data is required to be effective. Another approach for early detection of faecal pollution is the use of marker enzymes. β-glucuronidase (GUS) is a widely accepted biomarker for E. coli detection in microbiological water quality control. GUS assay is particularly attractive as they are rapid, less than 4 h, easy to perform and they do not require specialised training. A method for on-site detection of GUS from environmental samples in less than 75 min was previously demonstrated. In this study, the capability of ColiSense as an early warning system for faecal pollution in freshwater is assessed. The system successfully detected GUS activity in all of the 45 freshwater samples tested. GUS activity was found to correlate linearly with E. coli (r2=0.53, N=45, p < 0.001) and enterococci (r2=0.66, N=45, p < 0.001) Although GUS is a marker for E. coli, a better correlation was obtained for enterococci. For this study water samples were collected from 5 rivers in the Dublin area over 1 month. This suggests a high diversity of pollution sources (agricultural, industrial, etc) as well as point and diffuse pollution sources were captured in the sample size. Such variety in the source of E. coli can account for different GUS activities/culturable cell and different ratios of viable but not culturable to viable culturable bacteria. A previously developed protocol for the recovery and detection of E. coli was coupled with a miniaturised fluorometer (ColiSense) and the system was assessed for the rapid detection FIB in freshwater samples. Further work will be carried out to evaluate the system’s performance on seawater samples.
A Smart Sensor Network Approach Using Affordable River Water Level Sensors
Recent developments in sensors, wireless data communication and the cloud computing have brought the sensor web to a whole new generation. The introduction of the concept of ‘Internet of Thing (IoT)’ has brought the sensor research into a new level, which involves the developing of long lasting, low cost, environment friendly and smart sensors; new wireless data communication technologies; big data analytics algorithms and cloud based solutions that are tailored to large scale smart sensor network. The next generation of smart sensor network consists of several layers: physical layer, where all the smart sensors resident and data pre-processes occur, either on the sensor itself or field gateway; data transmission layer, where data and instructions exchanges happen; the data process layer, where meaningful information is extracted and organized from the pre-process data stream. There are many definitions of smart sensor, however, to summarize all these definitions, a smart sensor must be Intelligent and Adaptable. In future large scale sensor network, collected data are far too large for traditional applications to send, store or process. The sensor unit must be intelligent that pre-processes collected data locally on board (this process may occur on field gateway depends on the sensor network structure). In this case study, three smart sensing methods, corresponding to simple thresholding, statistical model and machine learning based MoPBAS method, are introduced and their strength and weakness are discussed as an introduction to the smart sensing concept. Data fusion, the integration of data and knowledge from multiple sources, are key components of the next generation smart sensor network. For example, in the water level monitoring system, weather forecast can be extracted from external sources and if a heavy rainfall is expected, the server can send instructions to the sensor notes to, for instance, increase the sampling rate or switch on the sleeping mode vice versa. In this paper, we describe the deployment of 11 affordable water level sensors in the Dublin catchment. The objective of this paper is to use the deployed river level sensor network at the Dodder catchment in Dublin, Ireland as a case study to give a vision of the next generation of a smart sensor network for flood monitoring to assist agencies in making decisions about deploying resources in the case of a severe flood event. Some of the deployed sensors are located alongside traditional water level sensors for validation purposes. Using the 11 deployed river level sensors in a network as a case study, a vision of the next generation of smart sensor network is proposed. Each key component of the smart sensor network is discussed, which hopefully inspires the researchers who are working in the sensor research domain.
Crushing Behaviour of Thin Tubes with Various Corrugated Sections Using Finite Element Modelling
Common steel tubes with similar confines were used in simulation of tubes with distinctive type of corrugated sections. These corrugated cross-sections were arc-tangent, triangular, trapezoidal and square corrugated sections. The outcome of fluctuating structures of tube cross-section shape on the deformation feedback, collapse form and energy absorption characteristics of tubes under quasi-static axial compression have been prepared numerically. The finite element package of ANSYS Workbench was applied in the current analysis. The axial load-displacement products accompanied by the fold formation of disparate tubes were inspected and compared. Deviation of the initial peak load and the mean crushing force of the tubes with distinctive cross-sections were conscientiously examined.
Deformation and Energy Absorption of Corrugated Tubes
Deformation and energy absorption studies with corrugated tubes where corrugation is perpendicular to the line of action which coincides exactly with the unstrained axis of the tubes. In the present study, several specimens with various geometric parameters are prepared and compressed quasi-statistically in ANSYS Workbench. It is observed that tubes with perpendicular corrugation alters the deformation condition considerably and culminates in a substantial escalation in energy absorption scope in juxtaposed with the tubes having a circular cross-section. This study will help automotive, aerospace and various other industries to design superior components with perpendicular corrugated tubes and will reduce the experimental trials by conducting the numerical simulations.
Building on Previous Microvalving Approaches for Highly Reliable Actuation in Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms
With the ever-increasing myriad of applications of which microfluidic devices are capable, reliable fluidic actuation development has remained fundamental to the success of these microfluidic platforms. There are a number of approaches which can be taken in order to integrate liquid actuation on microfluidic platforms, which can usually be split into two primary categories; active microvalves and passive microvalves. Active microvalves are microfluidic valves which require a physical parameter change by external, or separate interaction, for actuation to occur. Passive microvalves are microfluidic valves which don’t require external interaction for actuation due to the valve’s natural physical parameters, which can be overcome through sample interaction. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how further improvements to past microvalve solutions can largely enhance systematic reliability and performance, with both novel active and passive microvalves demonstrated.
Covered within this scope will be two alternative and novel microvalve solutions for centrifugal microfluidic platforms; a revamped pneumatic-dissolvable film active microvalve (PAM) strategy and a spray-on Sol-Gel based hydrophobic passive microvalve (HPM) approach.
Both the PAM and the HPM mechanisms were demonstrated on a centrifugal microfluidic platform consisting of alternating layers of 1.5 mm poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (for reagent storage) sheets and ~150 μm pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) (for microchannel fabrication) sheets. The PAM approach differs from previous SOLUBON™ dissolvable film methods by introducing a more reliable and predictable liquid delivery mechanism to microvalve site, thus significantly reducing premature activation. This approach has also shown excellent synchronicity when performed in a multiplexed form. The HPM method utilises a new spray-on and low curing temperature (70°C) sol-gel material. The resultant double layer coating comprises a PMMA adherent sol-gel as the bottom layer and an ultra hydrophobic silica nano-particles (SNPs) film as the top layer. The optimal coating was integrated to microfluidic channels with varying cross-sectional area for assessing microvalve burst frequencies consistency.
It is hoped that these microvalving solutions, which can be easily added to centrifugal microfluidic platforms, will significantly improve automation reliability.
Development of Anti-Fouling Surface Features Bioinspired by the Patterned Micro-Textures of the Scophthalmus rhombus (Brill)
Biofouling is defined as the gradual accumulation of Biomimetics refers to the use and imitation of principles copied from nature. Biomimetics has found interest across many commercial disciplines. Among many biological objects and their functions, aquatic animals deserve a special attention due to their antimicrobial capabilities resulting from chemical composition, surface topography or other behavioural defences, which can be used as an inspiration for antifouling technology. Marine biofouling has detrimental effects on seagoing vessels, both commercial and leisure, as well as on oceanographic sensors, offshore drilling rigs, and aquaculture installations. Sensor optics, membranes, housings and platforms can become fouled leading to problems with sensor performance and data integrity. While many anti-fouling solutions are currently being investigated as a cost-cutting measure, biofouling settlement may also be prevented by creating a surface that does not satisfy the settlement conditions. Brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) is a small flatfish occurring in marine waters of Mediterranean as well as Norway and Iceland. It inhabits sandy and muddy coastal waters from 5 to 80 meters. Its skin colour changes depending on environment, but generally is brownish with light and dark freckles, with creamy underside. Brill is oval in shape and its flesh is white. The aim of this study is to translate the unique micro-topography of the brill scale, to design marine inspired biomimetic surface coating and test it against a typical fouling organism. Following extensive study of scale topography of the brill fish (Scophthalmus rhombus) and the settlement behaviour of the diatom species Psammodictyon sp. via SEM, two state-of-the-art antifouling surface solutions were designed and investigated; A brill fish scale bioinspired surface pattern platform (BFD), and generic and uniformly-arrayed, circular micropillar platform (MPD), with offsets based on diatom species settlement behaviour. The BFD approach consists of different ~5 μm by ~90 μm Brill-replica patterns, grown to a 5 μm height, in a linear array pattern. The MPD approach utilises hexagonal-packed cylindrical pillars 10.6 μm in diameter, grown to a height of 5 μm, with vertical offset of 15 μm and horizontal offset of 26.6 μm. Photolithography was employed for microstructure growth, with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip-based used as a testbed for diatom adhesion on both platforms. Settlement and adhesion tests were performed using this PDMS microfluidic chip through subjugation to centrifugal force via an in-house developed ‘spin-stand’ which features a motor, in combination with a high-resolution camera, for real-time observing diatom release from PDMS material. Diatom adhesion strength can therefore be determined based on the centrifugal force generated at varying rotational speeds. It is hoped that both the replica and bio-inspired solutions will give comparable anti-fouling results to these synthetic surfaces, whilst also assisting in determining whether anti-fouling solutions should predominantly be investigating either fully bioreplica-based, or a bioinspired, synthetically-based design.
Experimental and Modal Determination of the State-Space Model Parameters of a Uni-Axial Shaker System for Virtual Vibration Testing
In some cases, the increase in computing resources makes simulation methods more affordable. The increase in processing speed also allows real time analysis or even more rapid tests analysis offering a real tool for test prediction and design process optimization. Vibration tests are no exception to this trend. The so called ‘Virtual Vibration Testing’ offers solution among others to study the influence of specific loads, to better anticipate the boundary conditions between the exciter and the structure under test, to study the influence of small changes in the structure under test, etc. This article will first present a virtual vibration test modeling with a main focus on the shaker model and will afterwards present the experimental parameters determination. The classical way of modeling a shaker is to consider the shaker as a simple mechanical structure augmented by an electrical circuit that makes the shaker move. The shaker is modeled as a two or three degrees of freedom lumped parameters model while the electrical circuit takes the coil impedance and the dynamic back-electromagnetic force into account. The establishment of the equations of this model, describing the dynamics of the shaker, is presented in this article and is strongly related to the internal physical quantities of the shaker. Those quantities will be reduced into global parameters which will be estimated through experiments. Different experiments will be carried out in order to design an easy and practical method for the identification of the shaker parameters leading to a fully functional shaker model. An experimental modal analysis will also be carried out to extract the modal parameters of the shaker and to combine them with the electrical measurements. Finally, this article will conclude with an experimental validation of the model.
Energy Content and Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain
A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Studying the energy as well as spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing for the study of internal structure of solids. The study of Energy content (Kinetic, Potential and Total Energy) of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain can assist in understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder as a function of propagation distance. The spectral analysis of the energy signal can assist in understanding dispersion as well as attenuation due to scattering in different frequencies (scattering attenuation). The selection of one-dimensional granular chain also helps in studying only the P-wave attributes of the wave and removing the influence of shear or rotational waves. Granular chains with different mass distributions have been studied, by randomly selecting masses from normal, binary and uniform distributions and the standard deviation of the distribution is considered as the disorder parameter, higher standard deviation means higher disorder and lower standard deviation means lower disorder. For obtaining macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used. Interpreting information from a Total Energy signal turned out to be much easier in comparison to displacement, velocity or acceleration signals of the wave, hence, indicating a better analysis method for wave propagation through granular materials. Increasing disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal and decreases the Energy of higher frequency signals transmitted, but at the same time the energy of spatially localized high frequencies also increases. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long periods of time.
Investigating the Influence of Roof Fairing on Aerodynamic Drag of a Bluff Body
Increase in demand for fuel saving and demand for faster vehicles with decent fuel economy, researchers around the world started investigating in various passive flow control devices to improve the fuel efficiency of vehicles. In this paper, A roof fairing was investigated for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a bluff body. The bluff body considered for this work is Ahmed model with a rake angle of 25deg was and subjected to flow with a velocity of 40m/s having Reynolds number of 2.68million was analysed using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code Star CCM+. It was evident that pressure drag is the main source of drag on an Ahmed body from the initial study. Adding a roof fairing has delayed the flow separation and resulted in delaying wake formation, thus improving the pressure in near weak and reducing the wake region. Adding a roof fairing of height and length equal to 1/7H and 1/3L respectively has shown a drag reduction by 9%. However, an optimised fairing, which was obtained by changing height, length and width by 5% increase, recorded a drag reduction close 12%.
An Investigation into the Use of Overset Mesh for a Vehicle Aerodynamics Case When Driving in Close Proximity
In recent times, the drive towards more efficient vehicles and the increase in the number of vehicle on the roads has driven the aerodynamic researchers from studying the vehicle in isolation towards understanding the benefits of vehicle platooning. Vehicle platooning is defined as a series of vehicles traveling in close proximity. Due to the limitations in size and load measurement capabilities for the wind tunnels facilities, it is very difficult to perform this investigation experimentally. In this paper, the use of chimera or overset meshing technique is used within the STARCCM+ software to model the flow surrounding two identical vehicle models travelling in close proximity and also during an overtaking maneuver. The results are compared with data obtained from a polyhedral mesh and identical physics conditions. The benefits in terms of computational time and resources and the accuracy of the overset mesh approach are investigated.
A First Order Shear Deformation Theory Approach for the Buckling Behavior of Nanocomposite Beams
Due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, carbon nanotube (CNTs) reinforced polymer composites are being considered as one of the most promising nanocomposites which can improve the performance when used in structural applications. The buckling behavior is one of the most important parameter needs to be considered in the design of structural members like beams and plates. In the present paper, the elastic constants of CNT reinforced polymer composites are evaluated by using Mori-Tanaka micromechanics approach. Knowing the elastic constants, an analytical study is being conducted to investigate the buckling behavior of nanocomposites for different CNT volume fractions at different boundary conditions using first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The effect of stacking sequence and CNT radius on the buckling of beam has also been presented. This study is being conducted primarily with an intension to find the stiffening effect of CNTs when used in polymer composites as reinforcement.
Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students
Shallow water in a tin box is used as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in a stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. Contact surface is clearly observed due to color difference of the two liquids which is invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students.
Experimental Investigation of Plane Jets Exiting Five Parallel Channels with Large Aspect Ratio
This paper aims to extend the knowledge about jet behavior and jet interaction between five plane parallel jets with an aspect ratio of 25. The aspect ratio is defined as channel width to channel height. The distance between the single plane jets is two times the channel height. The experimental investigation applies high-resolution 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and static pressure measurements. There is mainfold literature regarding single jets available, whereas the amount of literature decreases with number of jets. Nevertheless, multiple parallel plane jets have a large impact in many industrial applications like Plate-Type Heat Exchangers, Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC) and many drying/conditioning systems. To study jet formation with PIV we have generated a transparent flow facility consisting of 5 plane parallel channels with the lengths of 187.5 times the channel height guaranteeing a turbulent velocity profile at the exit of the channel (at the position of the nozzle). The corresponding mean factor for turbulent velocity profiles is measured with Laser Doppler Anemometry and equals by a least square curve fit to 0.9. The Jets are exiting in a confined space with an expansion ratio of 3.5 based on the equivalent diameter. Our study focuses on the influence of three different outlet nozzle geometries (triangular shape with 2 x 7.5°, blunt and rounded) with respect to the variation of Reynolds number from 6000 - 12000. It is shown that the outlet geometry has a major influence on the jet formation in terms of uniformity of velocity profiles downstream of the sudden expansion. The uniformity is judged by calculating the kinetic energy flux profile factor. Furthermore, we describe characteristic regions like converging region, merging region and combined region. The triangular outlet geometry generates most uniform velocity distributions in comparison to a blunt and rounded outlet nozzle geometry. The blunt and round outlet geometry show an unstable behavior where the jets tend to attach to one side of the walls (ceiling) generating a large recirculation region on the opposite side. Static pressure measurements confirm the observation and indicate that the recirculation region is connected to larger pressure drop. The obtained loss coefficient for blunt geometry is 0.8, whereas the loss coefficient for triangular geometry is 0.4.
Simplified Modelling of Visco-Elastic Fluids for Use in Recoil Damping Systems
Visco-elastic materials combine the stress response properties of both solids and fluids and have found use in a variety of damping applications – both vibrational and acoustic. Defense and automotive applications, in particular, are subject to high impact and shock loading – for example: aircraft landing gear, firearms, and shock absorbers. Field responsive fluids – a class of smart materials – are the preferred choice of energy absorbents because of their controllability. These fluids’ stress response can be controlled by the application of a magnetic or electric field, in a closed loop. Their rheological properties – elasticity, plasticity, and viscosity – can be varied all the way from that of a liquid such as water to a hard solid.
This work presents a simplified model to study the impulse response behavior of such fluids for use in recoil damping systems. The well-known Burger’s equation, in conjunction with various visco-elastic constitutive models, is used to represent fluid behavior. The Kelvin-Voigt, Upper Convected Maxwell (UCM), and Oldroyd-B constitutive models are implemented in this study. Using these models in a one-dimensional framework eliminates additional complexities due to geometry, pressure, body forces, and other source terms. Using a finite difference formulation to numerically solve the governing equation(s), the response to an initial impulse is studied. The disturbance is confined within the problem domain with no-inflow, no-outflow boundary conditions, and its decay characteristics studied.
Visco-elastic fluids typically involve a time-dependent stress relaxation which gives rise to interesting behavior when subjected to an impulsive load. For particular values of viscous damping and elastic modulus, the fluid settles into a stable oscillatory state, absorbing and releasing energy without much decay. The simplified formulation enables a comprehensive study of different modes of system response, by varying relevant parameters. Using the insights gained from this study, extension to a more detailed multi-dimensional model is considered.
Large Eddy Simulation Approach for Unsteady Analysis of the Flow Behavior inside a Dual Counter Rotating Axial Swirler
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was performed on a dual counter rotating axial swirler in a confined rectangular configuration. Grids were constructed based on a primary Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation and then were refined based on the Kolmogorov length scale. Water as cold flow condition was applied and results were compared via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The focus was to investigate the flow behavior within the region before the flare and very close to the exit of the swirler. This region contributes to a highly unsteady flow behavior and requires great attention to enhancing the flame stability in gas turbine combustor and swirl burners. The PVC formation within the central core flow is strongly related to the peaks of pressure or axial velocity spectrum and up to two distinct peaks at the swirler mouth could be observed. Here, spectra analysis in iso-thermal condition inside the swirler where the inner swirler dominates the flow, showed a higher potential of instabilities with three to four distinct peaks where moving forward to the exit of swirler the number of peaks is decreased. In addition to this, the central axis corresponds to no peaks of instabilities while further away in the radial direction, several peaks exist.
A Coupled Stiffened Skin-Rib Fully Gradient Based Optimization Approach for a Wing Box Made of Blended Composite Materials
A method is introduced for the coupled skin-rib optimization of a wing box where mass minimization is the objective and local buckling is the constraint. The structure is made of composite materials where continuity of plies in multiple adjacent panels (blending) has to be satisfied. Blending guarantees the manufacturability of the structure; however, it is a highly challenging constraint to treat and has been under debate in recent research in the same area. To fulfill design guidelines with respect to symmetry, balance, contiguity, disorientation and percentage rule of the layup, a reference for the stacking sequences (stacking sequence table or SST) is generated first. Then, an innovative fully gradient-based optimization approach in relation to a specific SST is introduced to obtain the optimum thickness distribution all over the structure while blending is fulfilled. The proposed optimization approach aims to turn the discrete optimization problem associated with the integer number of plies into a continuous one. As a result of a wing box deflection, a rib is subjected to load values which vary nonlinearly with the amount of deflection. The bending stiffness of a skin affects the wing box deflection and thus affects the load applied to a rib. This indicates the necessity of a coupled skin-rib optimization approach for a more realistic optimized design. The proposed method is examined with the optimization of the layup of a composite stiffened skin and rib of a wing torsion box subjected to in-plane normal and shear loads. Results show that the method can successfully prescribe a valid design with a significantly cheap computation cost.
Numerical Investigations on the Coanda Effect Amplification
The Coanda effect consists of the tendency of a jet to remain attached to a sufficiently long/large convex surface. Flows deflected by a curved surface have caused great interest during last fifty years a major interest in the study of this phenomenon is caused by the possibility of using this effect to aircraft with short take-off and landing, for thrust vectoring. It is also used in applications involving mixing two of more fluids, noise attenuation, ventilation, etc.
The paper proposes the numerical study of an aerodynamic configuration that can passively amplify the Coanda effect. On a wing flaps with predetermined configuration, a channel is applied between two particular zones, a low-pressure one and a high-pressure another one, respectively. The secondary flow through this channel yields a gap between the jet and the convex surface, maintaining the jet attached on a longer distance. The section altering-based active control of the secondary flow through the channel controls the attachment of the jet to the surface and automatically controls the deviation angle of the jet.
The numerical simulations have been performed in Ansys Fluent for a series of wing flaps-channel configurations with varying jet velocity. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental results.
On Crack Tip Stress Field in Pseudo-Elastic Shape Memory Alloys
In shape memory alloys, upon loading, stress increases around crack tip and a martensitic phase transformation occurs in early stages. In many studies the stress distribution in the vicinity of the crack tip is represented by using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) although the pseudo-elastic behavior results in a nonlinear stress-strain relation. In this study, the HRR singularity (Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren), that uses Rice’s path independent J-integral, is tried to formulate the stress distribution around the crack tip. In HRR approach, the Ramberg-Osgood model for the stress-strain relation of power-law hardening materials is used to represent the elastic-plastic behavior. Although it is recoverable, the inelastic portion of the deformation in martensitic transformation (up to the end of transformation) resembles to that of plastic deformation. To determine the constants of the Ramberg-Osgood equation, the material’s response is simulated in ABAQUS using a UMAT based on ZM (Zaki-Moumni) thermo-mechanically coupled model, and the stress-strain curve of the material is plotted. An edge cracked shape memory alloy (Nitinol) plate is loaded quasi-statically under mode I and modeled using ABAQUS; the opening stress values ahead of the cracked tip are calculated. The stresses are also evaluated using the asymptotic equations of both LEFM and HRR. The results show that in the transformation zone around the crack tip, the stress values are much better represented when the HRR singularity is used although the J-integral does not show path independent behavior. For the nodes very close to the crack tip, the HRR singularity is not valid due to the non-proportional loading effect and high-stress values that go beyond the transformation finish stress.
Investigation of Hood Scoop Deflection on Fan Flow through Two Way Fluid Structure Interaction
Hood scoops are common feature in off highway vehicles that are typically used near cold air intake and ram air intake. They are also used as protection from dust and debris. The hood scoop is a solid shield acting as restriction in front of fan which is subjected to the force generated by the suction pressure of a fan. In this paper, Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) between hood scoop and fan flow is investigated to determine the effect of scoop vibration on fan flow behavior and vise versa. The complex loading exchange between scoop and fluid flow causes the scoop to vibrate resulting in the change in the fluid flow. Design solutions are provided to minimize the vibration effect. The designs are verified through the virtual simulations. Tests have shown excellent correlation with virtual simulation predictions given by the above methodology.
Optimal Design of Composite Patch for a Cracked Pipe by Utilizing Genetic Algorithm and Finite Element Method
Composite patching is a common way for reinforcing the cracked pipes and cylinders. The effects of composite patch reinforcement on fracture parameters of a cracked pipe depend on a variety of parameters such as number of layers, angle, thickness and material of each layer. Therefore, stacking sequence optimization of composite patch become crucial to the applications of cracked pipes. In this study, in order to obtain the optimal stacking sequence for a composite patch that have minimum weight and maximum resistance in propagation of cracks, a coupled Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) and Finite Element Method (FEM) is proposed. This optimization process has done for longitudinal and transverse semi-elliptical cracks and optimal stacking sequences and Pareto’s front for each kind of cracks are presented. The proposed algorithm is validated against collected results from the existing literature.
Development of Sulfite Biosensor Based on Sulfite Oxidase Immobilized on 3-Aminoproplytriethoxysilane Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode
Sulfite has been used as a versatile preservative to limit the microbial growth and to control the taste in some food and beverage. However, it has been reported to cause a wide spectrum of severe adverse reactions. Therefore, it is important to determine the amount of sulfite in food and beverage to ensure consumer safety. An efficient electrocatalytic biosensor for sulfite detection was developed by immobilizing of human sulfite oxidase (hSO) on 3-aminoproplytriethoxysilane (APTES) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of the hSO modified ITO electrode for various pretreatment and binding conditions. Amperometry was also utilized to demonstrate the current responses of the sulfite sensor toward sodium sulfite in an aqueous solution at a potential of 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl 1 M KCl). The proposed sulfite sensor has a linear range between 0.5 to 2 mM with a correlation coefficient 0.972. Then, the additional polymer layer of PVA was introduced to extend the linear range of sulfite sensor and protect the enzyme. The linear range of sulfite sensor with 5% coverage increases from 2.8 to 20 mM at a correlation coefficient of 0.983. In addition, the stability of sulfite sensor with 5% PVA coverage increases until 14 days when kept in 0.5 mM Tris-buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 8C. Therefore, this sensor could be applied for the detection of sulfite in the real sample, especially in food and beverage.
Approximate Spring Balancing for the Arm of a Humanoid Robot to Reduce Actuator Torque
The potential benefit of gravity compensation of linkages in mechanisms using springs to reduce actuator requirements is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs with child–parent connections and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to the developed arm of a humanoid robot is presented here. Spring balancing is particularly important in this case because the serial chain of linkages has to work against gravity.This work involves approximate spring balancing of the open-loop chain of linkages using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Reduced actuator torque facilitates the use of lower end actuators which are generally smaller in weight and volume thereby lowering the space requirements and the total weight of the arm. This is particularly important for humanoid robots where the parent actuator has to handle the weight of the subsequent actuators as well. Actuators with lower actuation requirements are more energy efficient, thereby reduce the energy consumption of the mechanism. Lower end actuators are lower in cost and facilitate the development of low-cost devices.
Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free-length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached to the preceding parent link, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant arm of the humanoid robot is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this arm of the humanoid robot.
Developing an Online Library for Faster Retrieval of Mold Base and Standard Parts of Injection Molding
This paper focuses on developing a system to transfer mold base plates and standard parts faster during the stage of injection mold design. Not only providing a way to compare the file version, this system also utilizes Siemens NX 10 to isolate the updated information into a single executable file (.dll) and then the file can be transferred without the need of transferring the whole file. This way, the system can help the user download only necessary mold base plates and standard parts, and those parts downloaded are only the updated portions.
Approximate Spring Balancing for Swimming Pool Lift Mechanism to Reduce Actuator Torque
Reducing actuator loads is important for applications in which human effort is required for actuation. The potential benefit of applying spring balancing to rehabilitation devices which work against gravity on a nonhorizontal plane is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to a manually operated swimming pool lift mechanism which lowers and raises the physically challenged users into or out of the swimming pool is presented here. Various possible configurations using extension and compression springs as well as gas spring in the mechanism are compared. This work involves approximate spring balancing of the mechanism using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement.
Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached inside the mechanism, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant swimming pool lift mechanism is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this user-actuated swimming pool lift for developing countries.
Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint
In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also were analyzed the effects of rotary inertia, axial force and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model. Since the complex boundary value problem which cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.
Super Harmonic Nonlinear Lateral Vibration of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating Prismatic Joint
The motion of an axially moving beam with rotating prismatic joint with a tip mass on the end is analyzed to investigate the nonlinear vibration and dynamic stability of the beam. The beam is moving with a harmonic axially and rotating velocity about a constant mean velocity. A time-varying partial differential equation and boundary conditions with the aid of the Hamilton principle are derived to describe the beam lateral deflection. After the partial differential equation is discretized by the Galerkin method, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain analytical solutions. Frequency response curves are plotted for the super harmonic resonances of the first and the second modes. The effects of non-linear term and mean velocity are investigated on the steady state response of the axially moving beam. The results are validated with numerical simulations.
Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor
In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.
Predictive Factors of Prognosis in Acute Stroke Patients Receiving Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy: A Retrospective Study
Background: Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to treat stroke, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is, however, no clear agreement about the optimal timing, population, efficacy, and predictive prognosis factors of traditional Chinese medicine supplemental therapy. Method: In this study, we used a retrospective analysis with data collection from stroke patients in Stroke Registry In Chang Gung Healthcare System (SRICHS). Stroke patients who received traditional Chinese medicine consultation in neurology ward of Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were enrolled. Clinical profiles including the neurologic deficit, activities of daily living and other basic characteristics were analyzed. Through propensity score matching, we compared the NIHSS and Barthel index before and after the hospitalization, and applied with subgroup analysis, and adjusted by multivariate regression method. Results: Totally 115 stroke patients were enrolled with experiment group in 23 and control group in 92. The most important factor for prognosis prediction were the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index right before the hospitalization. Traditional Chinese medicine intervention had no statistically significant influence on the neurological deficit of acute stroke patients, and mild negative influence on daily activity performance of acute hemorrhagic stroke patient. Conclusion: Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine as a supplemental therapy for acute stroke patients was controversial. The reason for this phenomenon might be complex and require more research to comprehend. Key words: traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, Stroke, NIH stroke scale, Barthel index, predictive factor. Method: In this study, we used a retrospective analysis with data collection from stroke patients in Stroke Registry In Chang Gung Healthcare System (SRICHS). Stroke patients who received traditional Chinese medicine consultation in neurology ward of Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were enrolled. Clinical profiles including the neurologic deficit, activities of daily living and other basic characteristics were analyzed. Through propensity score matching, we compared the NIHSS and Barthel index before and after the hospitalization, and applied with subgroup analysis, and adjusted by multivariate regression method. Results: Totally 115 stroke patients were enrolled with experiment group in 23 and control group in 92. The most important factor for prognosis prediction were the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index right before the hospitalization. Traditional Chinese medicine intervention had no statistically significant influence on the neurological deficit of acute stroke patients, and mild negative influence on daily activity performance of acute hemorrhagic stroke patient. Conclusion: Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine as a supplemental therapy for acute stroke patients was controversial. The reason for this phenomenon might be complex and require more research to comprehend.
Study and Solving Partial Differential Equation of Danel Equation in the Vibration Shells
This paper we deal with an analysis of the free vibrations of the governing partial differential equation that it is Danel equation in the shells. The problem considered represents the governing equation of the nonlinear, large amplitude free vibrations of the hinged shell. A new implementation of the new method is presented to obtain natural frequency and corresponding displacement on the shell. Our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve the mentioned complicated partial differential equation (PDE) with a simple and innovative approach. The results reveal that this new method to solve Danel equation is very effective and simple, and can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations. It is necessary to mention that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving nonlinear differential equations and also most of the sets of partial differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they have not had acceptable solutions up to now. We can solve equation(s), and consequently, there is no need to utilize similarity solutions which make the solution procedure a time-consuming task.