Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 40418

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement
Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.
The Golden Fibre Needs Microrna Intervention to Save Itself from Root and Stem Rot Diseases
Jute (Corchorus spp.) is regarded as the golden fibre of India because of its tremendous export potential. However, the statistics of production, export, and income may affect due to various diseases which always remained as the main constraint in production of good quality raw jute. Among various diseases, root and stem rots caused by Macrphomina phaseolina are the most devastating. These diseases not only reduce its yield but also deteriorate the quality of fibre extracted from its stem. Temperature and moisture are known to influence the infection and colonization by M. phaseolina but the molecular basis of development of root and stem rots under the influence of environmental conditions is not known. Host-pathogen interactions in response to environmental conditions can be readily studied by gene expression analysis. However, the existing probe-dependent gene expression analysis methods using microarrays or reverse transcription PCR typically require the host and the pathogen to be physically separated. The development of probe-independent RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) method which allows the host and the pathogen transcripts to be analysed simultaneously has begun to revolutionize the gene expression studies. Taking the advantage of this, sequencing microRNAs during host-pathogen interaction can be utilized to understand the development of diseases. Little is known about the miRNA-mediated gene expression during disease development in plants. However, the role of miRNAs in jute defence against M. phaseolina is unknown. MiRNA-mediated gene expression is an important element to study which can help address the issues of root and stem rot diseases in jute.
Detection of Viral-Plant Interaction Using Some Pathogenic Related Protein Genes to Identify Resistant Genes against Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) in Egyptian Isolates
Viral RNAs of both potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) were extracted from infected potato leaves collected from different Egyptian regions. For all samples, Differential Display Polymerase Chain Reaction (DD-PCR) using (Endoglucanase, β-1,3-glucanases, Chitinase, Peroxidase and Polyphenol oxidase) forward primers for Pathogenic related protein (PR). The obtained data revealed different banding patterns depending on the viral type and the region of infection. Regarding to PLRV, a 58 up regulated and 19 down regulated genes were detected, while, 31 up regulated and 14 down regulated genes were observed in case of PVY. Based on the nucleotide sequencing, variable phylogenetic relationships were reported for the three sequenced genes coding for: Induced stolen tip protein, Disease resistance RPP-like protein, and non-specific lipid-transfer protein. In a complementary approach, using the quantitative Real-time PCR, the expressions of defense genes understudy were estimated in the infected leaves by PLRV and PVY of three potato cultivars. The infection with both viruses inhibited the expressions of the five defense genes. On the contrary, infected leaves by PLRV or PVY elevated the expression of some defense genes. This interaction also may be enhanced and/or inhibited the expression of some genes responsible for the plant defense mechanisms.
Comparative Assessment of the Thermal Tolerance of Spotted Stemborer, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Its Larval Parasitoid, Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Under stressful thermal environments, insects adjust their behaviour and physiology to maintain key life-history activities and improve survival. For interacting species, mutual or antagonistic, thermal stress may affect the participants in differing ways, which may then affect the outcome of the ecological relationship. In agroecosystems, this may be the fate of relationships between insect pests and their antagonistic parasitoids under acute and chronic thermal variability. Against this background, we therefore investigated the thermal tolerance of different developmental stages of Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its larval parasitoid Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using both dynamic and static protocols. In laboratory experiments, we determined lethal temperature assays (upper and lower lethal temperatures) using direct plunge protocols in programmable water baths (Systronix, Scientific, South Africa), effects of ramping rate on critical thermal limits following standardized protocols using insulated double-jacketed chambers (‘organ pipes’) connected to a programmable water bath (Lauda Eco Gold, Lauda DR.R. Wobser GMBH and Co. KG, Germany), supercooling points (SCPs) following dynamic protocols using a Pico logger connected to a programmable water bath, heat knock-down time (HKDT) and chill-coma recovery (CCRT) time following static protocols in climate chambers (HPP 260, Memmert GmbH + Co.KG, Germany) connected to a camera (HD Covert Network Camera, DS-2CD6412FWD-20, Hikvision Digital Technology Co., Ltd, China). When exposed for two hours to a static temperature, lower lethal temperatures ranged -9 to 6; -14 to -2 and -1 to 4ºC while upper lethal temperatures ranged from 37 to 48; 41 to 49 and 36 to 39ºC for C. partellus eggs, larvae and C. sesamiae adults respectively. Faster heating rates improved critical thermal maxima (CTmax) in C. partellus larvae and adult C. partellus and C. sesamiae. Lower cooling rates improved critical thermal minima (CTmin) in C. partellus and C. sesamiae adults while compromising CTmin in C. partellus larvae. The mean SCPs for C. partellus larvae, pupae and adults were -11.82±1.78, -10.43±1.73 and -15.75±2.47 respectively with adults having the lowest SCPs. Heat knock-down time and chill-coma recovery time varied significantly between C. partellus larvae and adults. Larvae had higher HKDT than adults, while the later recovered significantly faster following chill-coma. Current results suggest developmental stage differences in C. partellus thermal tolerance (with respect to lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits) and a compromised temperature tolerance of parasitoid C. sesamiae relative to its host, suggesting potential asynchrony between host-parasitoid population phenology and consequently biocontrol efficacy under global change. These results have broad implications to biological pest management insect-natural enemy interactions under rapidly changing thermal environments.
Prey-Stage Preference, Functional Response, and Mutual Interference of Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-Henriot on Frankliniella Occidentalis Priesner
The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a significant pest of many economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses, prey-stage preferences and mutual interference of Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) with F. occidentalis as the host under laboratory conditions. The predator species showed no prey stage preference for either prey 1st or 2nd instar. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional response for the predator species. Consequently, the per capita searching efficiency decreased significantly from 1.2425 to -7.4987 as predator densities increased from 2 to 8. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of F. occidentalis and other pests in vegetable production.
Efficacy of Bio-Control Agents against Colletotrichum falcatum Causing Red Rot Disease of Sugarcane
Sugarcane is one of the major commercial crop playing roles in agriculture and industrial economy of India. Globally sugarcane is affected by approximately 240 diseases caused by various plant pathogenic organisms. Among them, red rot disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum, is one of the most important diseases. In the present investigation, one fungal bioagent of Trichoderma harzianum, Pant Bioagent 1 and one bacterial bioagent Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pant Bioagent 2 (PBAT 1 and PBAT 2, respectively) were tested by dual culture method against the pathogen under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents was observed against four isolates of C. falcatum. In the case of PBAT1 maximum percent inhibition of pathogen was recorded in isolated Cf 0238 (61.05%), followed by Cf 09 (60.62%) whereas, minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 3220 (48.55%) and in case of PBAT2 maximum mycelial growth inhibition percent was recorded in Cf 767 (50.50%) followed by Cf 088230(48.83%), whereas minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 08 (40.16%) followed by Cf 0238 (41.83%). The present study showed that these biocontrol agents have the potential of controlling the pathogen and can further be used for the management of red rot disease in field.
Variability Parameters for Growth and Yield Characters in Fenugreek, Trigonella spp. Genotypes
India is a leading producer and consumer of fenugreek for its culinary uses and medicinal application. In India, most of the people are of vegetarian class. In such a situation, a leafy vegetable, such as fenugreek is of chief concern due to its high nutritional property, medicinal values and industrial uses. One of the most important factors restricting their large scale production and development of superior varieties is that very scanty knowledge about their genetic diversity, inter and intraspecific variability and genetic relationship among the species. Improvement of the crop depends upon the magnitude of genetic variability for economic characters. Therefore, the present research work was carried out to analyse the variability parameters for growth and yield character in twenty-eight fenugreek genotypes along with two standard checks Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replication during rabi season 2015-2016 at Pantnagar Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among all the genotypes for all traits. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient variation were observed for characters, namely the number of primary branches per plant, number of leaves at 30, 45 and 60 DAS, green leaf yield per plant, green leaf yield q/ha . The genetic advance recorded highest in green leaf yield q/ha (33.93) followed by green leaf yield per plant (21.20g). Highest percent of heritability were shown by 1000 seed weight (99.12%) followed by the number of primary branches per plant (97.18%). Green leaf yield q/ha showed high heritability and high genetic advance. These superior genotypes can be further used in crop improvement programs of fenugreek.
Achievement of Sustainable Groundwater Exploitation through the Introduction of Water-Efficient Usage Techniques in Fish Farms
Due to high quality, the artesian groundwater is the main source of water supply for the fisheries in Ararat Valley, Armenia. From 1.6 billion m3 abstracted groundwater in 2016, half was used by fish farms. Yet, the inefficient water use, typical for low-intensity aquaculture systems in Ararat Valley, has become a key environmental issue in Armenia. In addition to excessive pure groundwater exploitation, which along with other sectors of groundwater use in this area resulted in the reduction of artesian zone by approximately 67% during last 20 years, the negative environmental impact of these productions is magnified by the discharge of large volumes of wastewater into receiving water bodies. In turn, unsustainable use of artesian groundwater in Ararat Valley along with increasingly strict policy measures on water use had a devastating impact on small and/or medium scale aquaculture: over the last two years approximately 100 fish farms have permanently seized their operations. The current project aims at the introduction of efficient and environmentally friendly fish farming practices (e.g., Recirculating Aquaculture Systems) in Ararat Valley fisheries in order to support current levels of fish production and simultaneously reduce the negative environmental pressure of aquaculture facilities in Armenia. Economic and environmental analysis of current small and medium scale operational systems and subsequently developed environmentally–friendly and economically sustainable system configurations will be presented.
Effect of Processing Parameters on the Physical Properties of Pineapple Pomace Based Aquafeed
The solid waste disposal and its management from pineapple juice processing constitute environmental contamination affecting public health. The use of this by-product called pomace has potentials to reduce cost of aquafeed. Pineapple pomace collected after juice extraction was dried and milled. The interactive effects of feeding rate (1.28, 1.44 and 1.60kg/min), screw speed (305, 355 and 405rpm), moisture content (16, 19 and 22%), temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120°C), cutting speed (1300, 1400 and 1500rpm), pomace inclusion ratio (5, 10, 15, 20%) and open surface die (50, 75 and 100%) on the extrudate physical properties (bulk density, unit density, expansion ratio, durability and floatability) were investigated using optimal custom design (OCD) matrix and response surface methodology. The predicted values were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values for, expansion ratio, durability and floatability (R2 = 0.7970; 0.9264; 0.9098 respectively) with the exceptions of unit density and bulk density (R2 = 0.1639; 0.2768 respectively). All the extrudates showed relatively high floatability, durability. The inclusion of pineapple pomace produced less expanded and more compact textured extrudates. Results indicated that increased in the value of pineapple pomace, screw speed, feeding rate decreased unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, durability and floatability of the extrudate. However, increasing moisture content of feed mash resulted in increase unit density and bulk density. Addition of extrusion temperature and cutting speed increased the floatability and durability of extrudate. The proportion of pineapple pomace in aquafeed extruded product was observed to have significantly lower effect on the selected responses.
Genetic Advance versus Environmental Impact toward Sustainable Protein, Wet Gluten and Zeleny Sedimentation in Bread and Durum Wheat
The wheat grain quality properties are influenced by genotype, environmental conditions and genotype × environment interaction (GEI). The increasing request of more nutritious wheat products will direct future breeding programmes. Therefore, the aim of investigation was to determine: i) variability of the protein content (PC), wet gluten content (WG) and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZS); ii) components of variance, heritability in a broad sense (hb2), and expected genetic advance as percent of mean (GAM) for PC, WG, and ZS; iii) correlations between PC, WG, ZS, and most important agronomic traits; in order to assess expected breeding success versus environmental impact for these quality traits. The plant material consisted of 30 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). The trials were sown at the three test locations in Serbia: Rimski Šančevi, Zemun Polje and Padinska Skela during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The experiments were set as randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot consisted of five rows of 1 m2 (5 × 0.2 m × 1 m). PC, WG and ZS were determined by the use of Near infrared spectrometry (NIRS) with the Infraneo analyser (Chopin Technologies, France). PC, WG and ZS, in bread wheat, were in the range 13.4-16.4%, 22.8-30.3%, and 39.4-67.1 mL, respectively, and in durum wheat, in the range 15.3-18.1%, 28.9-36.3%, 37.4-48.3 mL, respectively. The dominant component of variance for PC, WG, and ZS, in bread wheat, was genotype with the genetic variance/GEI variance (VG/VG × E) relation of 3.2, 2.9 and 1.0, respectively, and in durum wheat was GEI with the VG/VG × E relation of 0.70, 0.69 and 0.49, respectively. hb2 and GAM values for PC, WG and ZS, in bread wheat, were 94.9% and 12.6%, 93.7% and 18.4%, and 86.2% and 28.1%, respectively, and in durum wheat, 80.7% and 7.6%, 79.7% and 10.2%, and 74% and 11.2%, respectively. The most consistent through six environments, statistically significant correlations, for bread wheat, were between PC and spike length (-0.312 to -0.637); PC, WG, ZS and grain number per spike (-0.320 to -0.620; -0.369 to -0.567; -0.301 to -0.378, respectively); PC and grain thickness (0.338 to 0.566), and for durum wheat, were between PC, WG, ZS and yield (-0.290 to -0.690; -0.433 to -0.753; -0.297 to -0.660, respectively); PC and plant height (-0.314 to -0.521); PC, WG and spike length (-0.298 to -0.597; -0.293 to -0.627, respectively); PC, WG and grain thickness (0.260 to 0.575; 0.269 to 0.498, respectively); PC, WG and grain vitreousness (0.278 to 0.665; 0.357 to 0.690, respectively). Breeding success can be anticipated for ZS in bread wheat due to coupled high values for hb2 and GAM, suggesting existence of additive genetic effects, and also for WG in bread wheat, due to very high hb2 and medium high GAM. The small, and medium, negative correlations between PC, WG, ZS, and yield or yield components, indicate difficulties to select simultaneously for high quality and yield, depending on linkage for particular genetic arrangements to be broken by recombination.
Performance Evaluation of Conical Solar Concentrator System with Different Flow Rate
Solar energy has many advantages of infinite and clean source, and also it can be used for reduction of greenhouse gases and environment pollution. Concentrated solar system is a very useful to achieve reasonably high thermal efficiency. Different types of solar concentrating systems have been developed such as parabolic trough and parabolic dish. Conical solar concentrator is one of the most reliable and promising renewable energy systems for higher temperature applications. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of flow rate affecting the thermal efficiency of a conical solar collector, which has a double tube absorber placed at focal axis for collecting solar radiation. A conical solar concentrator consists of a conical reflector, which reflects direct solar radiation into an absorber. A double tube absorber was placed at the center of focal axis for collecting the solar radiation reflected from a conical reflector. A dual tracking system consists of a linear actuator and slew drive with driving cycle of 6 seconds. Water was used as circulating fluid, which flows from inlet to outlet of an absorber for collecting solar radiation. Three identical conical solar concentrator systems were installed side by side at the same place for the accurate performance analysis under the same environmental conditions. Performance evaluations were carried out with different volumetric flow rate of 2, 4 and 6 L/min to find the influence of flow rate affecting on thermal efficiency. The results indicated that average thermal efficiency was 73.24%, 81.96%, and 79.78% for each flow rate of 2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min. It shows that the flow rate of circulating water has a significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conical solar concentrator. It is concluded that an optimum flow rate of conical solar concentrator is 6 L/min.
An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA
In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.
Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes
Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.
Methods for Preparation of Soil Samples for Determination of Trace Elements
It is generally accepted that only about ten microelements are vitally important to all plants, and approximately ten more elements are proved to be significant for the development of some species. The main methods for their determination in soils are the atomic spectral techniques- AAS and ICP-OAS. Critical stage to obtain correct results for the content of heavy metals and nutrients in the soil is the process of mineralization. A comparative study of the most widely spread methods for soil sample preparation for determination of some trace elements was carried out. Four most commonly used methods for sample preparation were used as follows: ISO11466, EPA Method 3051, BDS ISO 14869-1, ISBN 01175 19081. Their capabilities were assessed, and their bounds of applicability in determining the levels of the most important micro elements in agriculture were defined.
Research of Reduced and Direct Sowing Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming
The objective of this study is to determine reduced tillage techniques and no-tillage method after harvesting wheat in green bean sowing as a second crop. This study was conducted to determine reduced tillage techniques and no-tillage method for second crop green bean during 2012 and 2013 years. For this reason, four different soil tillage methods were applied. These are including heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage; sowing by the direct drill (NT). Treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields of 5.862,1 and 5.829,3 mg/ha were obtained in HD+ROT and NT, respectively. The lowest green bean yield of 3.076,7 mg/ha was obtained in HD. The highest fuel consumption of 30.60 l ha-1was measured in heavy-duty disc harrow+rotary tiller (HD+ROT) whereas the lowest value of 7.50 l ha-1 was found in no-tillage (NT). No-tillage gives the best results for tillage efficiency parameters, such as fuel consumption, effective power requirement. It is concluded that reduced tillage and no-tillage methods can be used in second crop green bean in Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.
A Generalised Propensity Score Analysis to Investigate the Influence of Agricultural Research Systems on Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Bioeconomy can give the chance to face new global challenges and can move ahead the transition from a waste economy to an economy based on renewable resources and sustainable consumption. Air pollution is a grave issue in green challenges, mainly caused by anthropogenic factors. The agriculture sector is a great contributor to global greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions due to lacking efficient management of the resources involved and research policies. In particular, livestock sector contributes to emissions of GHGs, deforestation, and nutrient imbalances. More effective agricultural research systems and technologies are crucial in order to improve farm productivity but also to reduce the GHGs emissions. Using data from FAOSTAT statistics and concern the EU countries; the aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of ASTI R&D (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators) on GHGs emissions for countries EU in 2015 by generalized propensity score procedures, estimating a dose-response function, also considering a set of covariates. Expected results show the existence of the influence of ASTI R&D on GHGs across EU countries. Implications are crucial: reducing GHGs emissions by means of R&D based policies and correlatively reaching eco-friendly management of required resources by means of green available practices could have a crucial role for fair intra-generational implications.
A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model
Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies
Climate Change Impact on Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) Population Infesting Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus) in Sub-Himalayan India and Their Sustainable Management Using Biopesticides
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus L.) is an annual vegetable crop grown in the sub-Himalayan region of north east India throughout the year except rainy season in normal field cultivation. The crop is susceptible to various insect pests of which whitefly (Bemesia tabaci Genn.) causes heavy damage. Thus, a study on its occurrence and sustainable management is needed for successful cultivation. The pest was active throughout the growing period. During 38th standard week to 41st standard week that is during 3rd week of September to 2nd week of October minimum population was observed. The maximum population level was maintained during 11th standard week to 18th standard week that is during 2nd week of March to 3rd week of March with peak population (0.47/leaf) was recorded. Weekly population counts on white fly showed non-significant negative correlation (p=0.05) with temperature and weekly total rainfall where as significant negative correlation with relative humidity. Eight treatments were taken to study the management of the white fly pest such as botanical insecticide azadirachtin botanical extracts, Spilanthes paniculata flower, Polygonum hydropiper L. flower, tobacco leaf and garlic and mixed formulation like neem and floral extract of Spilanthes were evaluated and compared with the ability of acetamiprid. The insectide acetamiprid was found most lethal against whitefly providing 76.59% suppression, closely followed by extracts of neem + Spilanthes providing 62.39% suppression. Spectophotometric scanning of crude methanolic extract of Polygonum flower showed strong absorbance wave length between 645-675 nm. Considering the level of peaks of wave length the flower extract contain some important chemicals like Spirilloxanthin, Quercentin diglycoside, Quercentin 3-O-rutinoside, Procyanidin B1 and Isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside. These chemicals are responsible for pest control. Spectophotometric scanning of crude methanolic extract of Spilanthes flower showed strong absorbance wave length between 645-675 nm. Considering the level of peaks of wave length the flower extract contain some important chemicals of which polysulphide compounds are important and responsible of pest control. Neem and Spilanthes individually did not produce good results but when used as a mixture they recorded better results. Highest yield (30.15 t/ha) were recorded from acetamiprid treated plots followed by neem + Spilanthes (27.55 t/ha). Azadirachtin and Plant extracts are biopesticides having less or no hazardous effects on human health and environment. Thus they can be incorporated in IPM programmes and organic farming in vegetable cultivation.
Histopathological Features of Infections Caused by Fusarium equiseti (Mart.) Sacc. in Onion Plants from Kebbi State, Northern Nigeria
Onion production is affected by several diseases including fusariosis. The study was conducted to investigate the histopathological features of different onion tissues infected with Fusarium equiseti by inoculation with soil drench, root dip and mycelia paste methods. This was carried out by fixation, dehydration, clearing, wax embedding, sectioning, staining and mounting of leaf and root sections for microscopical examination at 400x. Once infection occurred in the roots, the pathogen moved through the vascular system to colonize the whole plant. At first, it grew in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex but soon invaded the cells, followed by colonization of the cells by its hyphae and microconidia. At later stages of infection, the cortex tissue became completely disorganized and decomposed as the pathogen advance to the shoot system via the vessel elements; this may be responsible for the early wilting symptom of infected plants due to restricted translocation activity.
Marker Assisted Breeding for Grain Quality Improvement in Durum Wheat
Durum wheat quality is defined as its suitability for pasta processing, that is pasta making quality. Another factor that determines the quality of durum wheat is the nutritional value of wheat or its final products. Wheat is a basic source of calories, proteins and minerals for humans in many countries of the world. For this reason, improvement of wheat nutritional value is of great importance. In recent years, deficiencies in protein and micronutrients, particularly in iron and zinc, have seriously increased. Therefore, basic foods such as wheat must be improved for micronutrient content. The effects of some major genes for grain quality established. Gpc-B1 locus is one of the genes increased protein and micronutrients content, and used in improvement studies of durum wheat nutritional value. The aim of this study was to increase the protein content and the micronutrient (Fe, Zn ve Mn) contents of an advanced durum wheat line (TMB 1) that was previously improved for its protein quality. For this purpose, TMB1 advanced durum wheat line were used as the recurrent parent and also, UC1113-Gpc-B1 line containing the Gpc-B1 gene was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region were selected by marker assisted selection (MAS). BC4F1 plants MAS method was employed in combination with embryo culture and rapid plant growth in a controlled greenhouse conditions in order to shorten the duration of the transition between generations in backcross breeding. The Gpc-B1 gene was selected specific molecular markers. Since Yr-36 gene associated with Gpc-B1 allele, it was also transferred to the Gpc-B1 transferred lines. Thus, the backcrossed plants selected by MAS are resistance to yellow rust disease. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (112T910).
Identifying of Hybrid Lines for Lpx-B1 Gene in Durum Wheat
The basic criteria which determine durum wheat quality is its suitability for pasta processing that is pasta making quality. Bright yellow color is a desired property in pasta products. Durum wheat pasta making quality is affected by grain pigment content and oxidative enzymes which affect adversely bright yellow color. Of the oxidative enzymes, lipoxygenase LOX is the most effective one on oxidative bleaching of yellow pigments in durum wheat products. Thus, wheat cultivars that are high in yellow pigments but low in LOX enzyme activity should be preferred for the production of pasta with high color quality. The aim of this study was to reduce lipoxygenase activities of the backcross durum wheat lines that were previously improved for their protein quality. For this purpose, two advanced lines with different parents (TMB2 and TMB3) were used recurrent parents. Also, Gediz-75 wheat with low LOX enzyme activity was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region (Lpx-B1.1) were selected using SSR markers by marker assisted selection method. As a result, the study will be completed in three years instead of six years required in a classical backcross breeding study, leading to the development of high-quality candidate varieties. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (Project No: 112T910).
Studies on Phylogeny of Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Populations from North Western Himalaya Region with Help of Cytochrome Oxidase I Sequence
Similar morphology associated with high genetic variability poses problems in their identification and study of phylogeny of pod borer Helicoverpa armigera. Samples of adult pod borer were collected from Uttarkashi, Ranikhet and Pantnagar region of North Western Himalayan region. To identify genetic variation partial (Mid to terminal region) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene was amplified and sequenced for three populations. The sequences alignment with other two populations, Vidharbha representing central India population and Anhui, China representing complete COX-1 sequence revealed unanimity in middle region with eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Vidharbha populations. When approaching towards terminal region, the consensus is missing which is associated with 15 each SNPs and pair base substitutions in Uttarkashi populations. All the five populations were majorly separated into two clades in minimum evolution tree. Amongst, North Western populations, Uttarkashi one is promising by farming a separate clade. The pair wise genetic distance ranges from 0.025 to 0.192 with the maximum between H. armigera populations of Vidharbha and Uttarkashi. This genetic isolation of populations can be attributed to a key role of topological barriers of weather and mountain ranges and temporal barriers due to cropping patterns.
A Comparative Analysis of the Private and Social Benefit-Cost Ratios of Organic and Inorganic Rice Farming: Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in the Aveyime Community, Ghana
The Aveyime community in the Volta region of Ghana is one of the major hubs for rice production. In the past, rice farmers applied organic pesticides to control pests, and compost as a soil amendment to improve fertility and productivity. However, the introduction of chemical pesticides and fertilizers have led many farmers to convert to inorganic system of rice production, without considering the social costs (e.g. groundwater contamination and health costs) related to the use of pesticides. The study estimates and compares the private and social BCRs of organic and inorganic systems of rice production. Both stratified and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select 300 organic and inorganic rice farmers and 50 pesticide applicators. The respondents were interviewed with pre-tested questionnaires. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) which elucidates organic farmers` Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) was employed to estimate the cost of groundwater contamination. The Cost of Illness (COI) analysis was used to estimate the health cost of pesticide-induced poisoning of applicators. The data collated, was analyzed with the aid of Microsoft excel. The study found that high private benefit (e.g. increase in farm yield and income) was the most influential factor for the rapid adoption of pesticides among rice farmers. The study also shows that the social costs of inorganic rice production were high. As such the social BCR of inorganic farming (0.2) was low as compared to organic farming (0.7). Based on the results, it was recommended that government should impose pesticide environmental tax, review current agricultural policies to favour organic farming and promote extension education to farmers on pesticide risk, to ensure agricultural and environmental sustainability.
The Use of Fertilizers in the Context of Agricultural Extension
Fertilizers are natural materials, or industrial contain nutrients, which help to improve soil fertility and is considered (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) is important elements for the growth of crops properly. Fertilization is necessary in order to improve the quality of agricultural products and the recovery in agricultural activities. The use of organic fertilizers and chemical lead to reduce the loss of nutrients in agricultural soils, and this leads to an increase in the production of agricultural crops. Fertilizers are one of the key factors in the increase of agricultural production as well as other factors such as irrigation and improved seeds and Prevention and others; the fertilizers will continue to be a cornerstone of the agriculture in order to produce the food to feed of world population. The use of fertilizers has become commonplace today, especially the chemical fertilizers for the development of agricultural production, due to the provision of nutrients for plants and in high concentrations and easily dissolves in water and ease of use. The choose the right type of fertilizer depends on the soil type and the type of crop. In this subject, find the relationship between the agricultural extension and the optimal use of fertilizers. The extension plays the important role in the advise and educate of farmers in how they optimal use the fertilizers in a scientific way. This article aims to identify the concept the fertilizers. Identify the role of fertilizers in increasing the agricultural production, identify the role of agricultural extension in the optimal use of fertilizers and rural development.
Construction and Evaluation of Soybean Thresher
In order to resuscitate soybean production and post-harvest processing especially, in term of threshing, there is need to develop an affordable threshing machine which will reduce drudgery associated with manual soybean threshing. Soybean thresher was fabricated and evaluated at Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IAR&T Apata Ibadan. The machine component includes; hopper, threshing unit, shaker, cleaning unit and the seed outlet, all working together to achieve the main objective of threshing and cleaning. TGX1835 - 10E variety was used for evaluation because of its high resistance to pests, rust and pustules. The final moisture content of the used sample was about 15%. The sample was weighed and introduced into the machine. The parameters evaluated includes moisture content, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, machine capacity and speed. The threshing efficiency and capacity are 74% and 65.9kg/hr respectively. All materials used were sourced locally which makes the cost of production of the machine extremely cheaper than the imported soybean thresher.
Post Harvest Preservation of Mango Fruit Using Freeze Drying and Tray Drying Methods
Mango is a tropical fruit which is often labelled as ‘super-fruit’ because of its unquantifiable benefits to human beings. However, despite its great importance, mango is a seasonal fruit, and only very few off-seasonal species are available in the market for consumption. Therefore, in order to overcome the seasonal variation and to increase the shelf-life of mango fruits, different drying methods are considered In this study, freeze drying and tray drying methods were used to preserve two different cultivars of mango from South Africa. Moisture content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (DPPH) and organoleptic tests were carried out on the samples before and after drying. The effects of different edible preservatives and selected packaging materials used were analyzed on each sample. The result showed that freeze drying method is the best method of preserving the selected cultivar.
Drying Kinects of Soybean Seeds
The study of the kinetics of drying has great importance for the mathematical modeling, allowing to know about the processes of transference of heat and mass between the products and to adjust dryers managing new technologies for these processes. The present work had the objective of studying the kinetics of drying of soybean seeds and adjusting different statistical models to the experimental data varying cultivar and temperature. Soybean seeds were pre-dried in a natural environment in order to reduce and homogenize the water content to the level of 14% (b.s.). Then, drying was carried out in a forced air circulation oven at controlled temperatures of 38, 43, 48, 53 and 58 ± 1 ° C, using two soybean cultivars, BRS 8780 and Sambaíba, until reaching a hygroscopic equilibrium. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial 5 x 2 (temperature x cultivar) with 3 replicates. To the experimental data were adjusted eleven statistical models used to explain the drying process of agricultural products. Regression analysis was performed using the least squares Gauss-Newton algorithm to estimate the parameters. The degree of adjustment was evaluated from the analysis of the coefficient of determination (R²), the adjusted coefficient of determination (R² Aj.) And the standard error (S.E). The models that best represent the drying kinetics of soybean seeds are those of Midilli and Logarítmico.
Bioethanol Production from Wild Sorghum (Sorghum arundinacieum) and Spear Grass (Heteropogon contortus)
There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economic, political, and environmental concerns associated with fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass is an excellent renewable feedstock because it is both abundant and inexpensive. This project aims at producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic plants (Sorghum Arundinacieum and Heteropogon Contortus) by biochemical means, computing the energy audit of the process and determining the fuel properties of the produced ethanol. Acid pretreatment (0.5% H2SO4 solution) and enzymatic hydrolysis (using malted barley as enzyme source) were employed. The ethanol yield of wild sorghum was found to be 20% while that of spear grass was 15%. The fuel properties of the bioethanol from wild sorghum are 1.227 centipoise for viscosity, 1.10 g/cm3 for density, 0.90 for specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was found to be below -30 °C. That of spear grass was 1.206 centipoise for viscosity, 0.93 g/cm3 for density 1.08 specific gravity, 78 °C for boiling point and the cloud point was also found to be below -30 °C. The energy audit shows that about 64 % of the total energy was used up during pretreatment, while product recovery which was done manually demanded about 31 % of the total energy. Enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation total energy input were 1.95 %, 1.49 % and 1.04 % respectively, the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from wild sorghum was found to be 47 % and the alcoholometric strength of bioethanol from spear grass was 72 %. Also, the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production for both grasses was 3.85 %.
RoboWeedSupport: Semi-Automated Unmanned Aerial System for Cost Efficient High Resolution in Sub-Millimeter Scale Acquisition of Weed Images
Recent advances in the UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) safety and perception systems enable safe low altitude autonomous terrain following flights recently demonstrated by the consumer DJI Mavic PRO drone. This paper presents the first prototype system utilizing the latter requirements in the form of semi-automated UAS based collection of crop/weed images where the embedded perception system ensures a significantly safer and faster weed images in sub-millimeter resolution. The system is to be used when the weeds are at cotyledon stage and prior the harvest recognizing the grass weed species, which cannot be discriminated at the cotyledon stage.
The Role of Land Consolidation to Reduce Soil Degradation in the Czech Republic
The paper deals with positive impacts of land consolidation on decreasing soil degradation with the main emphasis on soil and water conservation in the landscape. The importance of land degradation is very high because of its impact on crop productivity and many other adverse effects. Soil degradation through soil erosion is causing losses in crop productivity and quality of the environment, through decreasing quality of soil and water (especially water resources). Negative effects of conventional farming practices are increased water erosion, as well as crusting and compaction of the topsoil and subsoil. Soil erosion caused by water destructs the soil’s structure, reduces crop productivity due to deterioration in soil physical and chemical properties such as infiltration rate, water holding capacity, loss of nutrients needed for crop production, and loss of soil carbon. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity for improving the quality of the environment and sustainability of the crop production by means a better soil and water conservation. The present process of the complex land consolidation is not only a reallocation of plots, but this system consists of a new layout of plots within a certain territory, aimed at establishing the integrated land-use economic units, based on the needs of individual landowners and land users. On the other hand, the interests of the general public and the environmental protection have to be solved, too. From the general point of view, a large part of the Czech landscape shall be reconstructed in the course of complex land consolidation projects. These projects will be based on new integrated soil-economic units, spatially arranged in a designed multifunctional system of soil and water conservation measures, such as path network and a territorial system of ecological stability, according to structural changes in agriculture. This new approach will be the basis of a rational economic utilization of the region which will comply with the present ecological and aesthetic demands at present.