Cows Milk Quality on Different Sized Dairy Farms
Somatic cell count and bacteria count are the main indicators of cow milk quality. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare parameters of milk quality in different-sized cows herds. Milk quality of ten dairy cows farms during one year period was analyzed. Dairy farms were divided into five groups according to number of cows in the farm (under 50 cows, 51–100 cows, 101–200 cows, 201–400 cows and more than 400 cows). The averages of somatic cells bacteria count in milk and milk freezing temperature were analyzed. Also, these parameters of milk quality were compared during outdoor (from May to September) and indoor (from October to April) periods. The largest number of SCC was established in the smallest farms, i.e., in farms under 50 cows and 51-100 cows (respectively 264±9,19 and 300±10,24 thousand/ml). Reliable link between the smallest and largest dairy farms and farms with 101-200 and 201-400 cows and count of somatic cells in milk has not been established (P > 0.05). Bacteria count had a low tendency to decrease when the number of cows in farms increased. The highest bacteria number was determined in the farms with 51-100 cows and the the lowest bacteria count was in milk when 201-400 and more than 401 cows were kept. With increasing the number of cows milk maximal freezing temperature decreases (significant negative trend), i. e, indicator is improving. It should be noted that in all farms milk freezing point never exceeded requirements (-0.515 °C). The highest difference between SCC in milk during the indoor and outdoor periods was established in farms with 201-400 cows (respectively 218.49 thousand/ml and 268.84 thousand/ml). However, the count of SC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) during outdoor period in large farms (201-400 and more cows). There was no significant difference between bacteria count in milk during both – outdoor and indoor – periods (P > 0.05).
Antifungal Susceptibility of Saprolegnia parasitica Isolated from Rainbow Trout and Its Host Pathogen Interaction in Zebrafish Disease Model
Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica. In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated fungi belong to the member of S. parasitica, supported by its typical fungal features including cotton-like whitish mycelium, zoospores (primary and secondary) and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity of isolated S. parasitica was developed in embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult zebrafish as a disease model. Up regulation of host genes encoding ZfTnf-α, Zfc-Rel, ZfIl-12, ZfLyz-c, Zfβ-def, and ZfHsp-70 was identified in zebrafish larvae after experimental challenge of S. parasitica showing the host immune responses against the S. parasitica. Survival of the juveniles upon fungal infection might be due to the increased immune protection in the host. Investigation of antifungal susceptibility of S. parasitica with natural lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG %) as 200 µg/mL and 31.8%, respectively. Lawsone was able to change the membrane permeability, and cause irreversible damage and disintegration to the cellular membranes of S. parasitica which might have effect on fungi growth inhibition. Moreover, the mycelium exposed to lawsone (MIC level) changed the transcriptional responses of S. parasitica genes. Overall results indicate that lawsone could be a potential and novel anti-S. parasitica agent for controlling S. parasitica infection.
Profile of Serological Response of Equids Naturally Infected with Burkholderia mallei
, Vania Lucia De Assis Santana
, Marcilia Maria Alves De Souza
, Mabel Hanna Vance Harrop
, Fernando Leandro Dos Santos
, Cecília Maria Souza Leão E. Silva
, Pedro Paulo Silveira
, Marcelo Brasil
, Marcus Vinícius
, Hélio Cordeiro Manso Filho
, Muhammad Younus
, Aman Ullah Khan
Glanders ranks high on clinical lists in some regions of Brazil as a cause of respiratory and lymphatic disease in equids. Glanders is caused by Burkolderia mallei (B. mallei) Gram-negative bacterium. B. mallei was first biological agent used in World War I in 20th century. The complement fixation test (CFT) is a serodiagnostic tool prescribed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)for the diagnosis of glanders in the international trade of equids. The aim of the present study was to monitor the serological responses in equines naturally infected with B. mallei using the CFT. A total of 574 equids were tested with CFT, 30 days apart in a total of 12 samplings. One hundred thirty-four sera tested negative in all samplings; 192 sera tested positive in one sampling and 125 sera tested positive in two or more samplings. Remaining 123 samples showed uncertain results. Thus, CFT results can vary over a period of time. These variations could be the consequence of the effects of the natural immune response in each animal. The findings of the present study demonstrate difficulties regarding the simultaneous implementation of CFT and test and slaughter policies to eradicate glanders. Another constraint to control this disease is the presence of carrier/transitory CFT-negative animals, which are a potential source of disease in glanders-free areas. Serodiagnostic tests of higher sensitivity and specificity like immunobloat should be implemented to achieve success in the eradication of glanders.
Searching SNPs Variants in Myod-1 and Myod-2 Genes Linked to Body Weight in Gilthead Seabream, Sparus aurata L.
Growth is a productive trait regulated by a large and complex gene network with very different effect. Some of they (candidate genes) have a higher effect and are excellent resources to search in them polymorphisms correlated with differences in growth rates. This study was focused on the identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MyoD-1 and MyoD-2 genes, members of the family of myogenic regulatory genes with a key role in the differentiation and development of muscular tissue.(MFRs), and its evaluation as potential markers in genetic selection programs for growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Through a sequencing in 30 seabream (classified as unrelated by microsatellite markers) of 1.968bp in MyoD-1 gene [AF478568 .1] and 1.963bp in MyoD-2 gene [AF478569.1], three SNPs were identified in each gene (SaMyoD-1 D2100A (D indicate a deletion) SaMyoD-1 A2143G and SaMyoD-1 A2404G and SaMyoD-2_A785C, SaMyoD-2_C1982T and SaMyoD-2_A2031T). The relationships between SNPs and body weight were evaluated by SNP genotyping of 53 breeders from two broodstocks (A:18♀-9♂; B:16♀-10♂) and 389 offspring divided into two groups (slow- and fast-growth) with significant differences in growth at 18 months of development (A18Slow: N=107, A18Fast: N=103, B18Slow: N=92 and B18Fast: N=87) (Borrell et al., 2011). Haplotype and diplotype were reconstructed from genotype data by Phase 2.1 software. Differences among means of different diplotypes were calculated by one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey test. Association analysis indicated that single SNP did not show significant effect on body weight. However, when the analysis is carried out considering haplotype data it was observed that the DGG haplotipe of MyoD-1 gen and CCA haplotipe of MyoD- 2gen were associated to with lower body weight. This haplotype combination always showed the lowest mean body weight (P< 0.05) in three (A18Slow, A18Fast & B18Slow) of the four groups tested. Individuals with DGG haplotipe of MyoD-1 gen have a 25,5% and those with CCA haplotipe of MyoD- 2gen showed 14-18% less on mean body weight. Although further studies are need to validate the role of these 3 SNPs as marker for body weight, the polymorphism-trait association established in this work create promising expectations on the use of these variants as genetic tool for future giltead seabream breeding programs.
Sardine Oil as a Source of Lipid in the Diet of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a more popular crustacean cultured widely in monoculture system in India. It has got high nutritional value in the human diet. Hence, understanding its enzymatic and body composition is important in order to judge its flesh quality. Fish oil specially derived from Indian oil sardine is a good source of highly unsaturated fatty acid and lipid source in fish/prawn diet. A 35% crude protein diet with graded levels of Sardine oil as a source of fat was incorporated at four levels viz, 2.07, 4.07, 6.07 and 8.07% maintaining a total lipid level of feed at 8.11, 10.24, 12.28 and 14.33% respectively. Diet without sardine oil (6.05% total lipid) was served as basal treatment. The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was used as test animal and the experiment was lost for 112 days. Significantly, higher gain in weight of prawn was recorded in the treatment with 6.07% sardine oil incorporation followed by higher specific growth rate, food conversion rate and protein efficiency ratio. The 8.07% sardine oil diet produced the highest RNA: DNA ratio in the prawn muscle. Digestive enzyme analyses in the digestive tract and mid-gut gland showed the greatest activity in prawns fed the 8.07% diet.
Breeding Biology of Priacanthus hamrur (Forsskal) off Mangalore Coast, Karnataka, India
Fishes of the family Priacanthidae, popularly called big eye or bulls eye. Priacanthus hamrur is an important deep-water inhabitant of great commercial value. High percentage of landings of Priancanthids used as raw material for surimi, sausage and other fishery by-products. Presently, it has great demand in Singapore Thailand, Taiwan, Hong Kong and other countries. For the maturation studies, samples were collected from commercial landing centre, Mangalore. Studies on reproductive biology showed that Priacanthus hamrur spawns twice in a year, the spawning season extending from March to May and October to November. Based on the percentage occurrence of mature fishes in various size group it was inferred that male attained maturity at smaller size than female. This study will enable us to understand the spawning periodicity, cyclic morphological changes in male, female gonads and also it helps to improve stock size by enforcing fishing ban in particular season by assessing spawning periodicity.
Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues
The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.
Inbreeding and its Effect on Growth Performance in a Closed Herd of New Zealand White Rabbits
The influence of inbreeding on growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India was studied in a closed herd. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). The traits studied were body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing. The effects of inbreeding along with other non-genetic factors (sex of the kit, season and period of birth of the kit) were analyzed using least-squares method. The inbreeding (F) and equivalent inbreeding (EF) coefficients were taken as fixed classes as well as covariates in separate analyses. When taken as covariate, the effect was analyzed as partial regression of respective growth trait on individual inbreeding coefficient (F or EF). The mean body weights at weaning, post-weaning and marketing were 0.715, 1.276 and 2.187 kg, respectively. The maximum growth efficiency was noticed between weaning and post-weaning. Season and period had highly significant influence on all the growth parameters studied and sex of the kit had significant influence on certain growth efficiency traits only. The average coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding in the population were 13.233 and 17.585 percent, respectively. About 11.17 percent of total matings were highly inbred in which full-sib, half-sib and parent-offspring matings were 1.20, 6.30 and 3.67 percent, respectively. The regression of body weight traits on F and EF showed negative effect whereas most of the growth efficiency traits showed positive effects. Significant inbreeding depression was observed in W42 and W70. The depression in W42 was 0.214 kg and 0.139 kg and in W70 was 0.269 kg and 0.172 kg for every one unit increase in F and EF, respectively. Though the trait W135 showed positive value and ADG1 showed depression, the effects of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were non-significant in these traits. Higher values of inbreeding depression could be due to more variance of F or EF in the population. The analysis of the effect of level of inbreeding on growth traits revealed that the inbreeding class was significant on W70, ADG2, RGR2 and KR2 while EF classes had significant influence only on ADG2, RGR2 and KR2. Obviously, inbreeding does not have a positive effect, therefore, these results suggest that inbreeding had no effect on these traits.
Estimates of (Co)Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Body Weights and Growth Efficiency Traits in the New Zealand White Rabbits
The genetic parameters of growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India were estimated by partitioning the variance and covariance components. The (co)variance components of body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). A log-likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait, which was subsequently used in bivariate analysis. Heritability estimates for W42, W70 and W135 were 0.42 ± 0.07, 0.40 ± 0.08 and 0.27 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates of growth efficiency traits were moderate to high (0.18 to 0.42). Of the total phenotypic variation, maternal genetic effect contributed 14 to 32% for early body weight traits (W42 and W70) and ADG1. The contribution of maternal permanent environmental effect varied from 6 to 18% for W42 and for all the growth efficiency traits except for KR2. Maternal permanent environmental effect on most of the growth efficiency traits was a carryover effect of maternal care during weaning. Direct maternal genetic correlations, for the traits in which maternal genetic effect was significant, were moderate to high in magnitude and negative in direction. Maternal effect declined as the age of the animal increased. The estimates of total heritability and maternal across year repeatability for growth traits were moderate and an optimum rate of genetic progress seems possible in the herd by mass selection. The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight traits were moderate to high and positive; among growth efficiency traits were low to high with varying directions; between body weights and growth efficiency traits were very low to high in magnitude and mostly negative in direction. Moderate to high heritability and higher genetic correlation in body weight traits promise good scope for genetic improvement provided measures are taken to keep the inbreeding at the lowest level.
Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress
The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P< 0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.
Genetic Structure Analysis through Pedigree Information in a Closed Herd of the New Zealand White Rabbits
The New Zealand White breed of rabbit is one of the most commonly used, well adapted exotic breeds in India. Earlier studies were limited only to analyze the environmental factors affecting the growth and reproductive performance. In the present study, the population of the New Zealand White rabbits in a closed herd was evaluated for its genetic structure. Data on pedigree information (n=2508) for 18 years (1995-2012) were utilized for the study. Pedigree analysis and the estimates of population genetic parameters based on gene origin probabilities were performed using the software program ENDOG (version 4.8). The analysis revealed that the mean values of generation interval, coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were 1.489 years, 13.233 percent and 17.585 percent, respectively. The proportion of population inbred was 100 percent. The estimated mean values of average relatedness and the individual increase in inbreeding were 22.727 and 3.004 percent, respectively. The percent increase in inbreeding over generations was 1.94, 3.06 and 3.98 estimated through maximum generations, equivalent generations, and complete generations, respectively. The number of ancestors contributing the most of 50% genes (fₐ₅₀) to the gene pool of reference population was 4 which might have led to the reduction in genetic variability and increased amount of inbreeding. The extent of genetic bottleneck assessed by calculating the effective number of founders (fₑ) and the effective number of ancestors (fₐ), as expressed by the fₑ/fₐ ratio was 1.1 which is indicative of the absence of stringent bottlenecks. Up to 5th generation, 71.29 percent pedigree was complete reflecting the well-maintained pedigree records. The maximum known generations were 15 with an average of 7.9 and the average equivalent generations traced were 5.6 indicating of a fairly good depth in pedigree. The realized effective population size was 14.93 which is very critical, and with the increasing trend of inbreeding, the situation has been assessed to be worse in future. The proportion of animals with the genetic conservation index (GCI) greater than 9 was 39.10 percent which can be used as a scale to use such animals with higher GCI to maintain balanced contribution from the founders. From the study, it was evident that the herd was completely inbred with very high inbreeding coefficient and the effective population size was critical. Recommendations were made to reduce the probability of deleterious effects of inbreeding and to improve the genetic variability in the herd. The present study can help in carrying out similar studies to meet the demand for animal protein in developing countries.
Ovarian Hormones and Antioxidants Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Synchronized with Controlled Intravaginal Drug Release/Ovsynch GPG Program during Breeding Season
This study aimed to investigate the effect of CIDR and ovsynch (Gonadotropin-prostaglandine-gonadotropin GPG) protocols for synchronization of follicular waves of dromedary camels on ovarian hormones, oxidative stress and conception during breeding season. Twelve dark colored dromedary camels were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to CIDR insertion for 7 days and blood samples were collected each other day from the day of CIDR insertion (day 0) till day 21. The other group was subjected to GPG system (Ovsynch) and blood samples were collected daily for 11 days. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol were assayed using commercial ELISA diagnostic EIA kits. Catalase (CAT), total antioxidants capacity (TAC), glutathione reduced (GHD), lipid peroxide product (malondialdehyde, MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured colorimetrically using spectrophotometer. Results revealed that CIDR treated camels had significantly high P4 (P= 0.0001), estradiol (P= 0.0001), CAT (P= 0.034), NO (P= 0.016) and TAC (P= 0.04) but significantly low MDA (P= 0.001) and GHD (P= 0.003) compared to GPG treated ones. Camels inserted with CIDR had higher conception rate (66.7%) compared to those treated with GPG (33%). In conclusion, camels treated with CIDR had higher hormonal response and antioxidant capacity than those synchronized with GPG which positively reflected on their conception rate. The better response of camels to CIDR and the higher conception compared to GPG protocol recommends its use for future reproductive management in camels.
Markers for Predicting Overweight or Obesity of Riding Egyptian Broodmares Mares
For estimating markers of overweight or obesity of brood mares used for riding and training, 17 mares of different body conditions were subjected to blood sampling and ultrasound examination to measure rump fat thickness and monitor ovulation for six consecutive weeks. Also length (L), heart girth (G) and withers height (H) were measured to estimate body weight (BW), body fat %, body fat mass (BFM) and body mass index (BMI). Mares were classified into three groups according to both body condition score (BCS) and rump back fat (BF). Overweight mares (O) were having BCS > 7 and BF thickness >7mm, moderate body condition (M) mares were having BCS >3and ≤7and BF 0.05) and decrease with the decrease of body condition. M had (P=0.007) the highest leptin, but E mares had the lowest P4 concentrations (P=0.01). Concentrations of glucose and NO decreased with the decrease of BCS and BF but triglycerides of O were insignificantly high. In conclusion, exercise could prevent the development of metabolic syndrome in horses and back fat and morphometric measurements were the easiest and simple assessment of overweight and deviation to obesity.
Length Weight Relationship and Relative Condition Factor of Atropus atropos (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Mangalore Coast, India
The present study deals with length-weight relationship of Atropus atropos for which no information is available on this aspect from Mangalore coast. Therefore the present investigation was undertaken. Fish samples were collected from fish landing center (Mangalore) and fish market. The regression co-efficient of male was found to be lower than female. From this observation it may be opined that female gained more weight with increase in length compared to male. Data on seasonal variation in condition factor (Kn) showed that Kn values were more or less similar in both the sexes, indicating almost identical metabolic activity. Gonadal development and high feeding intensity are the factors which influenced the condition factor. The seasonal fluctuations in the relative condition factor of both the sexes could be attributed to the sexual cycle, food intake and environmental factors. From the present study, it can be inferred that the variation in the condition of Atropus atropos was due to feeding activity and gonadal maturity.
Reproductive Biology of Fringe-Lipped Carp, Labeo fimbriatus (Bloch) from Vanivilas Sagar Reservoir of Karnataka, India
The ‘fringed - lipped’ peninsula carp Labeo fimbriatus is a potential and an abundant fish species in rivers and reservoirs of peninsular India. It contributes a part of the inland fish production and also plays a role in the rural economy in major carp deficient regions of India. The fish is locally called as ‘Kemmeenu’ in Karnataka. Month wise samples were collected from the Vanivilasa Sagar Reservoir fish landing centre and fishing villages around the reservoir. Present investigation on the reproductive biology showed the occurrence of ripe gonads more during October, November, December and January. Thus it is concluded that spawning season coinciding with monsoon season and the size at maturity was found to be 36 and 37 cm total length (M and F). This study will throw light on reproductive biology of fish for captive brood stock development, breeding and rearing of Labeo fimbriatus. Since this fish is commercial important the study would help to take up hatchery production.
In vitro and in vivo Effects of 'Sonneratia alba' Extract against the Fish Pathogen 'Aphanomyces invadans'
The epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by the oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans; known to be one of the infectious fish diseases for farmed and wild fishes in fresh and brackish-water from the Asia-pacific region, America and Africa. Although, EUS had been documented by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1995, hitherto, there is neither standard chemical agents that can be used for successful treatment of this destructive infection in the time of outbreak; nor available vaccine for prevention. Plant-based remedies in controlling fish diseases are gaining much attention recently as an alternative to chemical treatments, which possess negative effects to the environment and human. In present study, Sonneratia alba, a mangrove plant belongs to the Sonneratiaceae family, was screened in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against A. invadans mycelium growth and its effects on fish innate immune system and disease resistant. The in vitro tests was performed using the disc diffusion methods with measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone. For in vivo study, the S. alba extract supplemented diets were administrated at 0.0, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% on healthy goldfish, Carassius auratus, which challenged with A. invadans zoospores (100 spores/ml). To compare the significant differences in the hematological and immunological parameters obtained from the experiments, the data were analysed using the SPSS. The methanol extract of S. alba effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of A. invadans at a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm for agar and filter paper diffusion experiments. In the agar diffusion test, 500 ppm of the extract inhibited the fungus mycelial growth up to 96 hours after exposure. The mycelial growth from the edge of the pre-inoculated A. invadans agar discs treated with S. alba extracts at concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 ppm were 15, 8 and 0 mm respectively. The results of the filter paper disc test showed that the S. alba extract at its minimal inhibitory concentration (1000 ppm) has similar qualitative inhibitory effect as malachite green at 1 ppm and formalin at 250 ppm. According to the in vivo tests findings, in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet, the numbers of white blood cell and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased after the second week of treatment. Whilst the numbers of red blood cell significantly decreased in the infected fish fed with 0.0 and 1.0% supplementation diet. After the third week of feeding, significant increases in the total protein, albumin level, lysozyme activity were recorded in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet. Also, the enriched diets increased the survival rate as compared to the untreated group that suffered from 90% mortality. The present study indicated that S. alba extract may inhibit the mycelial growth of A. invadans effectively, suggesting an alternative to other chemotherapeutic agents, which brought much environmental and health concerns to the public, for EUS treatment.
Assessment of Vocational Rehabilitation of Visually Impaired Persons in Poultry Farming at Blind Center, Ogbomoso
One of the major parameters for ensuring a country’s economic growth and development is the extent to which the citizens are involved in agriculture. The general objective of this study is to determine the assessment of vocational rehabilitation of visually impaired persons in poultry farming at blind center, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A total number of 70 students will be selected randomly through the use of structured questionnaire out of the total number of students which is 120. Data will be collected from the farmers’ personal characteristics and other specific objectives related to the work. The results will be analyzed with the use of simple statistical tools as frequency, percentage, means and standard deviations. Conclusion and recommendations will be suggested based on result findings of the study.
Studies on Biodiversity of Pelagic Fishes off Mangalore Coast, Karnataka, India
The present investigation was taken up to assess the status of pelagic fish biodiversity off Mangalore coast (Lat. 12°50'54"N; Long. 74°50'11"E). The data for the present study was collected from the trawlers and purse seiners operating from Mangalore fishing harbour over a period from September-2012 to April-2013 and sampling was done once in fortnight. A total 69 species belonging to 49 genera, 20 families and 6 orders were recorded during the study period. Oil sardine contributed 26.97% of total landing followed by Indian mackerel (26.30%). The family Carangidae contributed 21.74 per cent of total number of species, followed by Clupeidae 17.39%. Diversity indices such as Margalef's richness index, Shannon- Wiener index (Hꞌ), Simpson index (λ), Hill diversity number (N1) and (N2) and Evenness (Jꞌ) were calculated. The values of Shannon-wiener index (H’) (at log10) ranged between 1.1553 and 1.2679. The average value recorded was 1.20, whereas highest value was recorded during month of October 2012. The Simpson index (λ) ranged from 0.0650 to 0.0979, the average value was 0.0836. Highest values for Hill diversity number (N1) and (N2) were recorded during the month October 2012 and lowest during the month of November 2012. The value of evenness (Jꞌ) ranged from 0.8134 to 0.9311. It was found to be lowest during the month of October 2012 and highest during January 2013. Hierarchical cluster analysis technique showed the similarity in species composition and abundance was observed between the month of October and December 2012 (97.92%), and minimum inter-relationship was between September and December 2012 (64.27%). The same pattern was also evident in the Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling plot where samples from Monsoon fell on one side and those from post-monsoon and pre-monsoon on the other side of the map demonstrating the close similarity with (80%) in species composition and abundance during different seasons. The stress value, which was overlying on the MDS plot (0.01), showed an excellent ordination of the samples collected. Studies have indicated that the Mangalore coast is one of the major fishing harbour and having rich biodiversity, during the study period there was good recruitment to the fishery immediately after the ban period, but the increased recruitment did not last for more than 2 to 3 months, a good deal of pelagic biodiversity was observed.
Association of MHC Alleles with Antibody Response to Newcastle Vaccine in Chicken
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the best-characterized genetic region associated with susceptibility and/or resistance to a wide range of infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and immune responses to vaccines. It has been demonstrated that there is an association between the MHC and resistance to Marek disease, Newcastle disease, Rous sarcoma tumor, Avian leucosis, Fowl cholera, Salmonellosis and Pasteurellosis in chicken. The present study evaluated the MHC polymorphism and its association with antibody response to Newcastle (ND) vaccine in Iranian native chickens. The MHC polymorphism was investigated using LEI0258 microsatellite locus by PCR-based fragment analysis. LEI0258 microsatellite marker is a genetic indicator for MHC, which is located on microchromosome 16 and strongly associated with serologically defined MHC haplotypes. Antibody titer against ND vaccine was measured by Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 21). Total of 13 LEI0258 microsatellite alleles were identified in 72 samples which indicated a high genetic diversity in the population. The association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on immune responses to Newcastle vaccine. 311 and 313 bp alleles were significantly associated with elevated immune responses to Newcastle vaccine (p< 0.05). These results would be applicable in designing and improving the populations under selective breeding.
Immediate Life Support to a Wild Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
A male mature barn owl (Tyto alba) was brought to Cukurova University Ceyhan Veterinary Medicine Faculty at the beginning of January 2017. The bird was found at a local state elementary school’s garden where had been terribly damaged by metal wires. On the clinical examination, the animal was in shock and atonic position at arrival and seems to have feather problems and severe injuries. The ears, eyes, claws and wounded areas were checked, and no signs of microbial or ectoparasitic infection were observed. The bird has been declared by U.S. wild life Office as endangered species. At first, the owl was kept in silent, warm and darkened cabinet against shock and fluid replacement was started by % 5 dextroz solution per orally. On the second day, we started per oral forced feeding with chicken flesh meat dipped into the dextroz solution. On the third day, the bird was continued to be fed with fresh meat. At the fourth day, the owl was started to be fed with chicks during the next 3 days died by natural means which has been supplied by a local breeder. At the first 3 days, 1 chick per day and the following days 2 chicks per day has been given per orally. The tenth day we started flying exercises in a small and non-windowed room safely. The saved owl was kept in this room for 10 more days. Finally, the owl was released at the habitation where it had been found injured. This study has one more time proved that, if you save one, you can save more. Wild life is in danger all over the world. Every living thing has right and deserves a chance to live.
Meat Yield and Proximate Composition Relations of Seabream (Sparus aurata) and Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Different Sizes
In this study, determination of differences in fresh meat yield and proximate compositions of different weight groups of sea bream and sea bass grown in cages in Izmir region of the Aegean Sea were aimed. For this purpose, the length and weight of five different weight groups of sea bass (I: 175.8±5.2, II: 227.3±10.2, III: 293.3±21.3, IV: 404±9.9, V: 508.7±46 g) and sea bream (I: 146.6±13.6, II: 239.8±21.7, III: 279.2±20.8, IV: 400.9±10.5, V: 546.8±0.8 g) were measured and the amount of edible and non-edible parts were determined. Besides this, protein, lipid, dry matter, ash, condition factor, HSI and VSI values were compared according to different weight groups for each species. According to the results of analysis, while the absolute meat yields of sea bream was between 69-294 g, it was between 71-252 g for the sea bass and the highest meat yields were found in fifth (V) weight groups of fish for both species. The relative meat yield (%) was determined in weight group II for sea bass and in the IV. group in sea bream with 51.9%. However, the amount of muscle tissue lipids in I. and V. weight groups of sea bream ranged between 3.6 to 11.9 % and ranged between 6.2 to 9.0 % for sea bass respectively. Protein, fillet and ash content increased in direct proportion to the weight. As a result, it can be speculated that when the meat yield and lipid rates were considered, IV. group in sea bream and II. group in sea bass are the most advantageous groups for the consumers.
Investigation of Some Sperm Quality Parameters of Farmed and Wild-Caught Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801)
This study aimed to clarify some sperm quality parameters such as volumetric sperm quantity, motility, motility duration, sperm density, total number of spermatozoa and pH of meagre (Argyrosomus regius ASSO, 1801) individuals kept in farming conditions and caught from wild (las palmas, gran canary). The sperm was collected in glass tubes graded in millimetres and sperm volume registered immediately following collection by abdominal massage. The sperm quality parameters including motility, total number of spermatozoa and spermatozoa density were determined with computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) program. The duration of spermatozoa movement was assessed using a sensitive chronometer (1/100s) that was started simultaneously with the addition of activation solution into the sample. Sperm pH was measured with standard pH electrodes within five minutes of sampling. At the end of the study, while amount of sperm (5.20±0.33 ml), duration of motility (7.23±0.7 m) and total number of spermatozoa (131.40±12.22 x10^9) were different statistically (p < 0,05), motility (% 81.03±6.59), pH (7.30±0.08), sperm density (25.27±9.42 x10^9/ml) and morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. According to our results, amount of sperm, duration of motility and total number of spermatozoa were better in farmed group than that of the other group.
Proximate Compositions and Fatty Acid Profiles of Farmed and Wild Striped Sea Bream mLithognathus mormyrus)
This study was conducted to investigate proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of marketable size striped sea bream of obtained from fish cages of aquaculture companies and fishermen. Ten fish samples were used for both groups. The average total weight of farmed and wild samples was 245,8±13,48g and 149,40±13,28g respectively. While the protein level of farmed samples was (23,49±0,15) higher than that of wild fish (21,80±0,18), lipid level was less (1,55±0,08) in farmed group than wild fish samples (2,52±0,07). The amount of Σ SFA was significantly higher in wild group (44,09±0,9) than the farmed (32,79±1,13) group. Total MUFA were 36,38±29,91 in wild and 29,91±1,52 in farmed fish. However, Σ PUFA (27,89±1,53) and EPA+DHA values (15,73±1,63) of farmed samples were significantly higher than the wild (14,06 ±3,67 and 9,7±0,86) counterparts. Σώ3/ώ6 rate was better in farmed group with 2,54±0,84 in comparison with (1,59±0,06) the other group. As a result, it can be speculated that the farmed striped sea bream can be preferred by the consumers.
Fillet Chemical Composition of Sharpsnout Seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) from Wild and Cage-Cultured Conditions
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and particularly the levels and ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are important for biological functions in humans and recognized as essential components of human diet. According to the terms of many different points of view, the nutritional composition of fish in culture conditions and caught from wild are wondered by the consumers. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of cage-cultured and wild sharpsnout seabream which has been preferred by the consumers as an economical important fish species in Turkey. The fish were caught from wild and obtained from cage-cultured commercial companies. Eight fish were obtained for each group, and their average weights of the samples were 245.8±13.5 g for cultured, 149.4±13.3 g for wild samples. All samples were stored in freezer (-18 °C) and analyses were carried out in triplicates, using homogenized boneless fish fillets. Proximate compositions (protein, ash, moisture and lipid) were determined. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by a GC Clarous 500 with auto sampler (Perkin–Elmer, USA). Proximate compositions of cage-cultured and wild samples of sharpsnout seabream were found statistical differences in terms of proximate composition between the groups. The saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and PUFA amounts of cultured and wild sharpsnout seabream were significantly different. ω3/ω6 ratio was higher in the cultured group. Especially in protein level and lipid level of cultured samples was significantly higher than wild counterparts. One of the reasons for this, cultured species exposed to continuous feeding. This situation had a direct effect on their body lipid content. The fatty acid composition of fish differs depending on a variety of factors including species, diet, environmental factors and whether they are farmed or wild. The higher levels of MUFA in the cultured fish may be explained with the high content of monoenoic fatty acids in the feed of cultured fish as in some other species. The ω3/ω6 ratio is a good index for comparing the relative nutritional value of fish oils. In our study, the cultured sharpsnout seabream appears to be better nutritious in terms of ω3/ω6. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5780.
The Impact of Garlic and Citrus Extracts on Energy Retention and Methane Production in Ruminants in vitro
Research on feed supplementation with natural compounds is currently being intensively pursued with a view to improving energy utilisation in ruminants and mitigating the production of methane by these animals. Towards this end, a novel combination of extracts from garlic and bitter orange was therefore selected for trials on the basis of their previously published in vitro anti-methanogenic potential. Three separate in vitro experiments were conducted to determine energy utilisation and greenhouse gas production. These included use of rumen fluid from fistulated cows and sheep in batch culture, the Hohenheim gas test, and the Rusitec technique. Experimental and control arms were utilised, with 5g extracts per kilogram of total dietary dry matter (0.05g/kg active compounds) being used to supplement or not supplement the in vitro systems. Respiratory measurements were conducted on experimental day 1 for the batch culture and Hohenheim gas test and on day 14-21 for the Rusitec Technique (in a 21-day trial). Measurements included methane (CH4) production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate and degradation of organic matter (Rusitec). CH4 production was reduced by 82% (±16%), 68% (±11%) and 37% (±4%) in the batch culture, Hohenheim gas test and Rusitec, respectively. Total VFA production was reduced by 13% (±2%) and 2% (±0.1%) in the batch culture and Hohenheim gas test whilst it was increased by 8% (±2%) in the Rusitec. Total VFA production was reduced in all tests between 2 and 10%, whilst acetate production was reduced between 10% and 29%. Propionate production which is an indicator of weight gain was increased in all cases between 16% and 30%. Butyrate production which is considered an indicator of potential milk yield was increased by between 6 and 11%. Degradation of organic matter in the Rusitec experiments was improved by 10% (±0.1%). In conclusion, the study demonstrated the potential of the combination of garlic and citrus extracts to improve digestion, enhance body energy retention and limit CH4 formation in relation to feed intake.
Exposure of Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus Gill Tissue to a High Stocking Density: An Ion Regulatory and Microscopy Study
Gills are organs responsible for respiration and osmoregulation between the fish internal environment and water. Under stress conditions, oxidative response and gill plasticity to attempt to increase gas exchange area are noteworthy, compromising the physiological processes and therefore fish health. Colostrum is a dietary source of nutrients, immunoglobulin, antioxidant and bioactive molecules, essential for immunological protection and development of the gastrointestinal epithelium. The hypothesis of this work is that antioxidant factors present in the colostrum, unprecedentedly tested in gills, can minimize or reduce the alteration of its epithelium structure of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) subjected to high stocking density. The histological changes in the gills architecture were characterized by the frequency, incidence and severity of the tissue alteration and ionic status. Juvenile (50 kg fish/m3) were fed with pelleted diets containing 0, 10, 20 or 30% of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion and at 30 experimental days, gill and blood samples were collected in eight fish per treatment. The study revealed differences in the type, frequency and severity (histological alterations index – HAI) of tissue alterations among the treatments, however, no distinct differences in the incidence of alteration (mean alteration value – MAV) were observed. The main histological changes in gill were elevation of the lamellar epithelium, excessive cell proliferation of the filament and lamellar epithelium causing total or partial melting of the lamella, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar and filament epithelium, uncontrolled thickening of filament and lamellar tissues, mucous and chloride cells presence in the lamella, aneurysms, vascular congestion and presence of parasites. The MAV obtained per treatment were 2.0, 2.5, 1.8 and 2.5 to fish fed diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of LBC inclusion, respectively, classifying the incidence of gill alterations as slightly to moderate. The severity of alteration of individual fish of treatment 0, 10 and 20% LBC ranged values from 5 to 40 (HAI average of 20.1, 17.5 and 17.6, respectively, P > 0.05), and differs from 30% LBC, that ranged from 6 to 129 (HAI mean of 77.2, P < 0.05). The HAI value in the treatments 0, 10 and 20% LBC reveals gill tissue with injuries classified from slightly to moderate, while in 30% LBC moderate to severe, consequence of the onset of necrosis in the tissue of two fish that compromises the normal functioning of the organ. In relation to frequency of gill alterations, evaluated according to absence of alterations (0) to highly frequent (+++), histological alterations were observed in all evaluated fish, with a trend of higher frequency in 0% LBC. The concentration of Na+, Cl-, K+ and Ca2+ did not changed in all treatments (P > 0.05), indicating similar capacity of ion exchange. The concentrations of bovine colostrum used in diets of present study did not impair the alterations observed in the gills of juvenile pacu.
Microscopic Examination of the Pre-Hatching Development of the Chicken Ovary
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the development of the chicken ovary. One hundred fertilized egg of Alexandria breed of chicken used. The whole embryo has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH20 (E.3), HH21 (E.3.5), HH23 (E.4), HH29 (E.6) and HH34 (E.8). The ovary has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16), SEM at HH26 (E.5), HH29 (E.6), HH36 (E.10), HH38 (E.12), HH39 (E.13) and HH42 (E.16), TEM at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16). The genital ridge appeared by a thickening of the coelomic epithelium medioventral surface of the developing mesonephroi at HH20 (E.3). The boundaries of the undifferentiating gonads defined clearly separated from the mesonephroi. The undifferentiated gonads bulged as a distinct organ in the coelomic cavity at HH23 (E.4). At the initial stages of the gonadogenesis, the germinal epithelium was stratified squamous epithelium. The PGCs appeared at the genital ridge at HH21 (E.3.5). The PGCs observed at the dorsal mesentery with few microvilli and showed positive PAS reaction due to the glycogen content in their cytoplasm. The left-right gonadal asymmetry firstly detected by the number of PGCs migrating toward the left gonadal ridge more than the right at HH20 (E.3) and the macroscopic examination of gonadal asymmetry began at HH34 (E.8). The left ovary appeared a smooth rod-shape, its stroma showed lipid droplets, and its parenchyma showed an extensive arrangement of interstitial cords at HH42 (E.16).
An Alternative Semi-Defined Larval Diet for Rearing of Sand Fly Species Phlebotomus Argentipes in Laboratory
Phlebotomus argentipes is an established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Indian subcontinent. Laboratory colonization of Sand flies is imperative in research on vectors, which requires a proper diet for their larvae and adult growth that ultimately affects their survival and fecundity. In most of the laboratories, adult Sand flies are reared on rabbit blood feeding/artificial blood feeding and their larvae on fine grinded rabbit faeces as a sole source of food. Rabbit faeces are unhygienic, difficult to handle, high mites infestation as well as owing to bad odour which creates menacing to human users ranging from respiratory problems to eye infection and most importantly it does not full fill all the nutrients required for proper growth and development. It is generally observed that the adult emergence is very low in comparison to egg hatched, which may be due to insufficient food nutrients provided to growing larvae. To check the role of food nutrients on larvae survival and adult emergence, a high protein rich artificial diet for sand fly larvae were used in this study. The composition of artificial diet to be tested includes fine grinded (9 gm each) Rice, Pea nuts & Soyabean balls. These three food ingredients are rich source of all essential amino acids along with carbohydrate and minerals which is essential for proper metabolism and growth. In this study artificial food was found significantly more effective for larval development and adult emergence than rabbit faeces alone (P value >0.05). The weight of individual larvae was also found higher in test pots than the control. This study suggest that protein plays an important role in insect larvae development and adding carbohydrate will also enhances the fecundity of insects larvae.
Value Added by Spirulina Platensis in Two Different Diets on Growth Performance, Gut Microbiota, and Meat Quality of Japanese Quails
Aim: The growth promoting the effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP) was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD])- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet) on growth performance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old). Results: Data revealed improvement (p< 0.05) of weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP)/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP)/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g(SP)/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP)/kgVPD and 2 g (SP)/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP)/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP) may not be invited to share fishmeal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.
Effect of Supplemental Bacterial Phytase at Different Dietary Levels of Phosphorus on Tibial Bone Characteristics and Body Weight Gain in Broilers
A 5- weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effectiveness of Bacterial Phytase (Phyzyme®) in broilers, at different dietary levels of Phosphorous. 140 d-old broilers (Hubbard) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=4). Birds were fed corn-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 different levels of non Phytate Phosphorous (NPP) (0.45 %, 0.30 % and 0.15 %). Furthermore, the diets were supplemented with bacterial Phytase. Birds were fed ad libitum and kept under thermo neutral conditions. The parameters studied were; body weight gain (BWG), tibial bone characteristics (TBC), serum Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) levels and tibia ash percentage (TAP). BWG of the broilers was calculated at weekly interval and remaining parameters were calculated after slaughtering the birds at 35thday. Results suggested that Phytase supplementation at 0.30% NPP (Non Phytate Phosphorus + Bacterial Phytase) increased (P < 0.05) the BWG, bone length, bone weight, tibiotarsal index, medullary canal diameter and diaphysis diameter however, rubosticity index was reduced to minimum (P < 0.05) at this dietary level of phosphorous when compared with other groups. Maximum (P < 0.05) rubosticity index was observed in control group with 0% Phytase. Furthermore, Phytase addition at 0.30 % NPP also improved (P < 0.05) Ca, P and AP levels in the blood. Phytase supplementation at lower phosphorus level (0.30%NPP) improved BWG and TBC including bone density and bone quality in broilers hence it can be concluded that addition of Phytase at 0.30% NPP may prove beneficial for bone and overall performance in broilers.