Techniques, Models, and Drawings for the Control of the Scenic Space and Theatrical Illusion: The Fixed Scene Renaissance of Serlio and Design Vision for the Theater in the Works of Juvarra and Vanvitelli
The study illustrates the evolution of the theatrical illusionism in the practice scenic Italian of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries through the practice of the stage. Serlio (Second Book of Perspettiva), a view of a process of transition from the "medieval sacred drama" to the concept of the "Renaissance City" where the treatise solve prospective problems (P. della Francesca De prospectiva pingendi by GN Fasola Sansoni 1942 D. Barbaro, The Two Rules of Practice Perspective MJ Barozzi da Vignola, Rome P. Zanetti), makes a dramatic regulation and codification of the three fixed scenes in an undated interpretation schemes Vitruvian. The designs of Juvarra, Piranesi and Vanvitelli later, have a language of innovative design and anticipate the canons of painting-luministic eighteenth (Fig.1). The scenes of Juvarra are relying on dialectics shadow-light, easy to plant stagecraft and a frequency (short and long) for the preparation of “telari” with psychological effects on the viewer. From the methodological point of view the study retrieves the formal aspect of the sets in its main stages: the recovery of the perspective space, the geometry, the succession of different cuts of the stage with scenes of long and short, the turning “bibienesca” of view for angle, the input element realistic and philological. The objectives achieved is known as the sets were examined on the basis of graphical methods "operational", the definition of the stage space by item stagecraft for optimal viewing perspective of the same scenes.
Reading High Rise Residential Development in Istanbul on the Theory of Globalization
One of the major transformations caused by the industrial revolution, technological developments and globalization is undoubtedly acceleration of urbanization process. Globalization, in particular, is one of the major factors that trigger this transformation. In this context, as a result of the global metropolitan city system, multifunctional rising structure forms are becoming undeniable fact of the world’s leading metropolises as the manifestation of prestige and power with different life choices, easy accessibility to services related to the era of technology. The scope of research deals with five different urban centers in İstanbul where high-rise housing is increasing dramatically after 2000’s. Therefore, the research regards multi-centered urban residential pattern being created by high-rise housing structures in the city. The methodology of the research is based on two main issue, one of them is related to sampling method of high-rise housing projects in İstanbul, while the other method of the research is based on the model of Semantics. In the framework of research hypothesis, it is aimed to prove that the character of vertical intensive structuring in Istanbul is based on seeking of different forms and images in the expressive quality, considering the production of existing high-rise buildings in residential areas in recent years. In respect to rising discourse of 'World City' in the globalizing world, it is very important to state the place of Istanbul in other developing world metropolises. In the perspective of 'World City' discourse, Istanbul has different projects concerning with globalization, international finance companies, cultural activities, mega projects, etc. In brief, the aim of this research is examining transformation forms of high-rise housing development in Istanbul within the frame of developing world cities, searching and analyzing discourse and image related to these projects.
Analysis of Tools for Revitalization and Rehabilitation of Brownfields
Typology and specific opportunities of brownfield revitalization are already largely described. Challenges and opportunities that brownfields represent have been adequately studied and presented, as well as specific ways in which these areas can be used or how they are used abroad. In other words, the questions why (revitalize brownfields) and what (we should do with them) are satisfactorily answered, but the question how (we can work with them) is not. This work will focus on answering this question, which will deal with tools that enable the revitalization and rehabilitation projects in the area. Tools can be divided, for example in terms of spatial planning and urban design, from an environmental perspective, from the perspective of cultural heritage protection and from the perspective of investment opportunities. The result is that the issue of brownfields is handled by numerous institutions and instruments. The aim of this paper is to identify, classify and analyze these instruments. Paper will study instruments from other countries with long-term experience with this issue (eg. France, Great Britain, USA, Germany, Denmark, Czech Republic) and analyse their contribution and the feasibility of their implementation in other countries.
Sound Planning to Stop the Abuse of Power in the Planning World
Introduction: Through history, planners are and were confronted by the different manifestations of power. Important power manifestations that influence planning are political, financial, social, technological and informational forms of power. In totalitarian states or free market monopolies and other types of 'empires' where power is exclusive, universal planning goals based on sound planning sense are difficult to achieve. This paper will give an alternative approach for man and society to develop and use power as is seen fit for each society. Method: This paper will use a Dutch academic, prof. H.M. Goudappel’s Urbanistic Concept (1985) to show how ideological, theoretical and practical issues concerning power could be dissected. Argumentation: The Urbanistic Concept advocates sphere sovereignty as a structural principle in planning and society. Sphere sovereignty prevents conflicts of interest in society that exists because of power forms. By identifying the force of power, whether it be the state, the church, the business or any other organisation or person(s) the extent of the power’s authority can be managed by sound senses. Without sphere sovereignty the power’s authority might be unrestricted over people, their lives, their rights, their conscience, their religious beliefs and their planned environment. Sound sense is necessary to confront the different forms in which power manifest in the Western planning environment. In example, some might think that by using the peoples power in our world should be controlled by either the new-Marxist left or the by a free market globalization approach. We are living in a new world where the control of man’s thinking by the media or the state is starting to be effectively neutralised by social media and the internet. Not all people or societies are part of this new world. The majority of the world’s population belongs to the so called fourth world, meaning people who are not connected to the internet. The rise of inequality and social exclusion from being part of the internet society could be through poverty, lack or technology, age of person or other factors. At the lowest level, this means that all these groups are not using the internet or have access to alternative sources of information. These people should have a voice and planners should take their views into consideration. Planners have the power needed to reinvent the social agenda for all communities to live a meaning full life of their choice and not of one of these global solutions that are supposed to solve all problems for all cultures and communities. Conclusion: By accepting that there are set norms for human society and laws for nature, a conscious choice can be made for promoting the social process in communities in a specific direction. Planners should understand the structural principles of different value systems, like humanism, socialism, and capitalism. By offering a value driven alternative like Christian Planning, they can create the conditions for man and society to be led to a greater responsibility, a greater freedom and a richer variety of spatial uses that are in harmony.
Exploring the Activity Fabric of an Intelligent Environment with Hierarchical Hidden Markov Theory
The Internet of Things was designed for widespread convenience. With the smart tag and the sensing network, a large quantity of dynamic information is immediately presented in the Internet of Things. Through the internal communication and interaction, meaningful objects provide real-time services for users. Therefore, the service with appropriate decision-making has become an essential issue. Based on the science of human behavior, this study employed the environment model to record the time sequences and locations of different behaviors and adopted the probability module of the hierarchical Hidden Markov Model for the inference. The statistical analysis was conducted to achieve the following objectives: First, define user behaviors and predict the user behavior routes with the environment model to analyze user purposes. Second, construct the hierarchical Hidden Markov Model according to the logic framework, and establish the sequential intensity among behaviors to get acquainted with the use and activity fabric of the intelligent environment. Third, establish the intensity of the relation between the probability of objects’ being used and the objects. The indicator can describe the possible limitations of the mechanism. As the process is recorded in the information of the system created in this study, these data can be reused to adjust the procedure of intelligent design services.
Application of Optical Fibers in Residential Buildings
Natural light always plays important role in designing of residential apartments in terms of energy saving and health of lifestyle. To find a practical approach for saving electricity energy in lightening of dark places has always been a challenging topic in recent years. Most existing studies on the interior lightening by using sunlight in architectural concepts have focused on position of windows and patio in plans. This paper describes a new application of optical fibers for transferring sunlight into the rooms by conducting an experimental test. The experimental tests indicated that a group of optical fibers can successfully conduct the natural light from the roof of an apartment in to dark spots through walls. Also, from the outcomes it is concluded that the daytime running electricity lamps can decrease in compared with traditional methods.
Design of Reduced Links for Link-to-Column Connections in Eccentrically Braced Frames
Link-to-column connection in eccentrically braced frames (EBF) has been a critical problem since the link flange connected to the column fractured prior to the required link rotation. Even though the problem in link-to-column connection still exist, the use of an eccentrically braced frame (EBF) is increasing day by day as EBF have high elastic stiffness, stable inelastic response under repeated lateral loading, and excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity. In order to address this problem, a reduced web and flange link section is proposed and evaluated in this study. Reducing the web with holes makes the link to control the failure at the edge of holes introduced. Reducing the flange allows the link to control the location at which the plastic hinge is formed. Thus, the failure supposed to occur in the link flange connected at the connection move to the web and to the reduced link flange. Nonlinear FE analysis and experimental investigations have been done on the developed links, and the result shows that the link satisfies the plastic rotation limit recommended in AICS-360-10. Design equations that define the behavior of the proposed link have been recommended, and the equations were verified through the experimental and FE analysis results.
An Investigation into the Use of an Atomised, Hermeneutic, Holistic Approach in Education Relating to the Architectural Design Process
Within architectural education students arrive fore-armed with; their life-experience; knowledge gained from subject-based learning; their brains and more specifically their imaginations. The learning-by-doing that they embark on in studio-based/project-based learning calls for supervision that allows the student to proactively undertake research and experimentation with design solution possibilities. The degree to which this supervision includes direction is subject to debate and differing opinion. It can be argued that if the student is to learn-by-doing, then design decision making within the design process needs to be instigated and owned by the student so that they have the ability to personally reflect on and evaluate those decisions. Within this premise lies the problem that the student's endeavours can become unstructured and unfocused as they work their way into a new and complex activity. A resultant weakness can be that the design activity is compartmented and not holistic or comprehensive and therefore the student's reflections are consequently impoverished in terms of providing a positive, informative feedback loop.
The construct proffered in this paper is that a supportive 'armature' or 'Heuristic-Framework' can be developed that facilitates a holistic approach and reflective learning. The normal explorations of architectural design comprise: Analysing the site and context, reviewing building precedents, assimilating the briefing information. However, the student can still be compromised by 'not knowing what they need to know'. The long-serving triad 'Firmness Commodity and Delight' provides a broad-brush framework of considerations to explore and integrate into good design. If this were further atomised in subdivision formed from the disparate aspects of architectural design that need to be considered within the design process, then the student could sieve through the facts more methodically and reflectively in terms of considering their interrelationship conflict and alliances.
The words facts and Sieve hold the acronym of the aspects that form the Heuristic-Framework: Function, Aesthetics, Context, Tectonics, Spatial, Servicing, Infrastructure, Environmental, Value-managing and Ecological issues. The Heuristic could be used as a Hermeneutic Model with each aspect of design being focussed on and considered in abstraction and then considered in its relation to other aspect and the design proposal as a whole.
Importantly, the heuristic could be used as a method for gathering information and enhancing the design brief. The more poetic, mysterious, intuitive, unconscious processes should still be able to occur for the student. The Heuristic-Framework should not be seen as comprehensive, prescriptive formulaic or inhibiting to the wide exploration of possibilities and solutions within the architectural design process.
Experimental Study on Strength and Durability Properties of Bio-Self Cured Fly Ash Based Concrete under Aggressive Environments
High-performance concrete is not only characterised by its high strength, workability, and durability also in its smartness in performance without human care from the day one it has been produced. If the concrete can cure on its own without external curing without compromising its strength and durability, then it is said to be high-performance self-curing concrete. In this paper an attempt is made on the performance study of internally cured concrete using bio materials namely Spinacea pleracea and Calatropis Gigantea as self-curing agents and compared with the performance of concrete with existing self-cure chemical namely Polyethelene Glycol. The present paper focuses on workability, strength and durability study on M20, M30 and M40 grade concretes replacing 30% of fly ash for cement. The optimum dosage of Spinacea Pleracea, Calatropis gigantea and Polyethelene Glycol were taken as 0.6%, 0.24% and 0.3% by weight of cement from the earlier research studies. From the slump tests performed it was found that there is a minimum variation between conventional concrete and self-cured concrete. The strength activity index is determined by keeping 28 days strength of conventionally cured concrete as unity and found that for self-cured concrete it is more than 1 at 28 days and more than 1.15 at 56 days because of secondary reaction of fly ash. The performance study of concretes in aggressive environment like acid attack, sea water attack and chloride attack was made and the results are positive and encouraging in bio self-cured concretes. These bio materials when used as an additives while making concrete, there is no doubt that bio self-cured concrete will be an eco-friendly, cost effective and high performance.
Railway Accidents: Using the Global Railway Accident Database and Evaluation for Risk Analysis
The risk of train accidents is an ongoing concern for railway organizations, governments, insurance companies and other depended sectors. Safety technologies are installed to reduce and to prevent potential damages of train accidents. Since the budgetary for the safety of railway organizations is limited, it is necessary not only to achieve a high availability and high safety standard but also to be cost effective. Therefore, an economic assessment of safety technologies is fundamental to create an accurate risk analysis. In order to conduct an economical assessment of a railway safety technology and a quantification of the costs of the accident causes, the Global Railway Accident Database & Evaluation (GRADE) has been developed. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure of this accident database and to show how it can be used for risk analyses. A number of risk analysis methods, such as the probabilistic safety assessment method (PSA), was used to demonstrate this accident database’s different possibilities of risk analysis. In conclusion, it can be noted that these analyses would not be as accurate without GRADE. The information gathered in the accident database was not available in this way before. Our findings are relevant for railway operators, safety technology suppliers, assurances, governments and other concerned railway organizations.
Dialogues and Disputes between Preservation and Urbanisation: Analyse of the Historical Manor Landscapes in Urban Planning Process of Helsinki, Finland
Historical landscapes are influenced by accelerating urbanisation and their preservation objectives are competing with infill development and economical interests. Preservation and urbanisation can be successfully reconciled but they often conflict with each other, leading to damage to historical values. This doctoral dissertation analyses over 20 historical manor landscapes and their preservation in urban planning process of Helsinki. The analysis is based on planning documents, interviews of urban planners and empirical observations. Manors have a special position in the history and land policy of Helsinki, as most suburbs have been built on former manor grounds. Manorial estates have been gradually integrated into the urban structure since the early 1900s and their features have given a unique identity to the suburbs. Along with urbanisation, manor landscapes have undergone a transformation process which has balanced with measures for preservation, renewal and destruction. The research analyses the dialogues and disputes between preservation and urbanisation of manor landscapes and discusses the role of historical values in urban planning in Helsinki. Two main approaches are identified: first, historical manors as a valuable resource for urban planning and their preservation in harmonious dialogue with urbanisation. Second approach reveals a major conflict between manor landscapes and urbanisation and indicates the weakness of historical landscape values in decision-making. The successful dialogue between preservation and urbanisation requires better models for integration of historical values within the urban planning process. There are several cases in Helsinki where urban planning took the manor landscape as an essential starting point. Manors act as landmarks in the cityscape and form an important identity factor for suburbs and their residents. Manor houses are in public use, manor parks function as recreational areas, tree alleys as streets and fields as meadows or allotments. The values of manor landscapes have been protected by local detailed plans and restoration projects. The visual and functional integration of historical values within urban planning has created a historically layered, visually interesting and socially rich environment. The objectives of preservation and urbanisation have often conflicted. Agricultural fields have been turned into housing and parks have been split by new roads. Cultural landscapes have not been recognized and their values have not been evaluated as important in decision-making. Furthermore, the communal values attached to manor environments have been neglected in the public hearing process. Several cases indicate that historical values, in general, are regarded as a restriction for the urban development. The balance between preservation and urban growth, permanence and change creates a basic story line of urbanisation. The research emphasizes the need to redefine the role of preservation in the urban densification process and the importance to develop future-oriented strategies of change management, instead of static protection. It is essential to promote the multidimensional values of manor landscapes and safeguard their heritage for future generations. Historical landscapes are a valuable resource for urbanisation, and preservation is an integral part of sustainable urban planning, based on a historical continuum.
A Sociological Investigation on the Population and Public Spaces of Nguyen Cong Tru, a Soviet-Style Collective Housing Complex in Hanoi in Regards to Its New Community-Focused Architectural Design
Many Soviet-style collective housing complexes (also known as KTT) were built since the 1960s in Hanoi to support the post-war population growth. Those low-rise buildings have created well-knitted, robust communities, so much to the point that in most complexes, all families in one housing block would know each other, occasionally interact and provide supports in need. To understand how the community of collective housing complexes have developed and maintained in order to adapt their advantages into modern housing designs, the study is executed on the site of Nguyen Cong Tru KTT. This is one of the oldest KTT in Hanoi, completed in 1954. The complex also has an unique characteristic that is closely related to its community: the symbiotic relationship with Hom – a flea market that has been co-developing with Nguyen Cong Tru KTT since its beginning. The research consists of three phases: the first phase is a sociological investigation with Nguyen Cong Tru KTT’s current residents and a site survey on the complex’s economic and architectural characteristics. In the second phase, the collected data is analyzed to find out people’s opinions with the KTT’s concerning their satisfaction with the current housing status, floor plan organization, community, the relationship between the KTT’s dedicated public spaces with the flea market and their usage. Simultaneously, the master plan and gathered information regarding current architectural characteristics of the complex are also inspected. On the third phase, the analyses’ results will provide information regarding the issues, positive trends and significant historical features of the complex’s architecture in order to generate suitable proposals for the redesigning project of Nguyen Cong Tru KTT, a design focused on vitalizing modern apartments’ communities.
Social Mix Policies in the French Eco-Districts: Discourses, Policies and Social Effects
Since the 1980s, the issue of the social mix has become a public policy aim in France. Included in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major issue on which housing policies have been redesigned. The concept of the social mix is mainly based on who lives where, but it is also raised in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. Nowadays, projects of sustainable neighborhoods called “Eco-quartiers”, driven by the State and local authorities, are implemented. Social mix and social cohesion represent mandatory components in the Eco-quartier framework. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in France through the Eco-quartier framework shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. In most eco-quartiers, the share of social housing is above 30 %. However, there are some doubts and contradictions between the objective of social mixing and others objectives of the projects. One of the goals of the eco-quartier framework is creating high quality of life neighborhoods thus creating spaces which are more attractive than the rest of the city. As a result, the implementation of eco-quartier may create segregation in the access to housing. The objective of green marketing is opposed to the aim of social mix. That study will aim to investigate whether local authorities managed to establish social mix in a context of increasing attractiveness of the neighborhood for the living environment, which causes gentrification.
The Infiltration Interface Structure of Suburban Landscape Forms in Bimen Township, Anji, Zhejiang Province, China
Coordinating and promoting urban and rural development has been a new round of institutional change in Zhejiang province since 2004. And this plan was fully implemented, which showed that the isolation between the urban and rural areas had gradually diminished. Little by little, an infiltration interface that is dynamic, flexible and interactive formed, and this morphological structure start to appear on the landscape form of the surrounding villages. In order to study the specific function and formation of the structure in the context of industrial revolution, Bimen village locating on the interface between Anji Township, Huzhou and Yuhang District, Hangzhou is taken as the case. Anji township is in the cross area between Yangtze River delta economic circle and innovation center in Hangzhou. Awarded with 'Chinese beautiful village', Bimen has witnessed the growing trend of infiltration of ecology, economy, technology and culture across the interface. Within the opportunity, Bimen village presents internal reformations to adapt to the rate of energy exchange with urban areas. In the research, it adjusts the industrial structure, upgrades the special bamboo crafts, releases illegal lands into intelligent space, and establishes public infrastructures on the boundary interface. One of the characteristics is elasticity realized by introducing a ‘Xiaomei Agriculture’ mode using O2O agriculture method in Bimen. ‘Xiao’ means small, ‘Mei’ means beautiful, which indicates the attitude of refining the landscape form. It turns out that, the new mode strengthens the interface by orienting a Third Party Platform upon this dynamic basis and brings new vitality for economy development in Bimen village. The research concludes opportunities and challenges generated by the evolution of the infiltration interface. It also proposes strategies for how to organically adapt to the urbanization process by increasing flexibility of the interface in the landscape forms of suburbs of the Bimen village.
A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Impact of Indoor Environmental Quality on Health and Well-Being in Office Buildings
Post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) have been recognized for documenting occupant well-being and responses to indoor environmental quality (IEQ) factors such as thermal, lighting, and acoustic conditions. Sustainable Post-Occupancy evaluation survey (SPOES) developed by an interdisciplinary team at a Midwest University provides an evidence-based quantitative analysis of occupants’ satisfaction in office, classroom, and residential spaces to help direct attention to successful areas and areas that need improvement in buildings. SPOES is a self-administered and Internet-based questionnaire completed by building occupants. In this study, employees in three different office buildings rated their satisfaction on a Likert-type scale about 12 IEQ criteria including thermal condition, indoor air quality, acoustic quality, daylighting, electric lighting, privacy, view conditions, furnishings, appearance, cleaning and maintenance, vibration and movement, and technology. Employees rated their level of satisfaction on a Likert-type scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). They also rate the influence of their physical environment on their perception of their work performance and the impact of their primary workspaces on their health on a scale from 1 (hinders) to 7 (enhances). Building A is a three-story building that includes private and group offices, classrooms, and conference rooms and amounted to 55,000 square-feet for primary workplace (N=75). Building B, a six-story building, consisted of private offices, shared enclosed office, workstations, and open desk areas for employees and amounted to 14,193 square-feet (N=75). Building C is a three-story 56,000 square-feet building that included classrooms, therapy rooms, an outdoor playground, gym, restrooms, and training rooms for clinicians (N=76). The results indicated that 10 IEQs for Building A except acoustic quality and privacy showed statistically significant correlations on the impact of the primary workspace on health. In Building B, 11 IEQs except technology showed statistically significant correlations on the impact of the primary workspace on health. Building C had statistically significant correlations between all 12 IEQ and the employees’ perception of the impact of their primary workspace on their health in two-tailed correlations (P ≤ 0.05). Out of 33 statistically significant correlations, 25 correlations (76%) showed at least moderate relationship (r ≥ 0.35). For the three buildings, daylighting, furnishings, and indoor air quality IEQs ranked highest on the impact on health. IEQs about vibration and movement, view condition, and electric lighting ranked second, followed by IEQs about cleaning and maintenance and appearance. These results imply that 12 IEQs developed in SPOES are highly related to employees’ perception of how their primary workplaces impact their health. The IEQs in this study offer an opportunity for improving occupants’ well-being and the built environment.
The Chromatic Identity of the Ancestral Architecture of the Ksour of Bechar, Algeria
In this paper, the researchers present a part of their research on the colors of the city of Bechar (Algeria). It is about a chromatic study of the ancient architecture of the Ksour. Being a subject of intervention, regarding their degradable state, the Ksour are the case of their study, especially that the subject of color does not occupy, virtually, the involved on these heritage sites. This research aims to put the basics for methods which allow to know what to preserve as a color and how to do so, especially during a restoration, and to understand the evolution of the chromatic state of the city.
Spatial Differentiation Patterns and Influencing Mechanism of Urban Greening in China: Based on Data of 289 Cities
Significant differences in urban greening have occurred in Chinese cities, which accompanied with China's rapid urbanization. However, few studies focused on the spatial differentiation of urban greening in China with large amounts of data. The spatial differentiation pattern, spatial correlation characteristics and the distribution shape of urban green space ratio, urban green coverage rate and public green area per capita were calculated and analyzed, using Global and Local Moran's I using data from 289 cities in 2014. We employed Spatial Lag Model and Spatial Error Model to assess the impacts of urbanization process on urban greening of China. Then we used Geographically Weighted Regression to estimate the spatial variations of the impacts. The results showed: 1. a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in urban greening values, and the differentiation patterns were featured by the administrative grade and the spatial agglomeration simultaneously; 2. it revealed that urbanization has a negative correlation with urban greening in Chinese cities. Among the indices, the the proportion of secondary industry, urbanization rate, population and the scale of urban land use has significant negative correlation with the urban greening of China. Automobile density and per capita Gross Domestic Product has no significant impact. The results of GWR modeling showed that the relationship between urbanization and urban greening was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggested significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on urban greening.
The Impact of High Labour Turnover on Sustainable Housing Delivery in South Africa
Due to the contractual nature of jobs and employment opportunities in the construction industry and the seeming surplus of potential employees in South Africa, there is a little interest on the part of employers to put in place policies to retain experienced workers. Ironically these are the workers that the companies have expended significant resources on, in terms of training and capabilities development. The construction industry has been experiencing high materials wastages and health and safety issues to score very low on the sustainability agenda as regards resources management and safety. This study carried out an assessment of the poor retention of experienced workers in the construction industry on the capacity to deliver sustainable housing in South Africa. It highlights the economic, safety and resources conservation and other benefits accruable from a high retention of key employees to the South African construction industry towards the delivery of sustainable housing. It presents data that strongly support the hypothesis that high turnover of skilled employees as a result of the industry belief of zero incentive to retain employees beyond the contractual period, is responsible for the high wastages of resources in the industry and the safety issues. A high turnover of experienced employees in the construction industry was found to impact on the industry performance in terms of timely, cost effective and quality delivery of construction projects, particularly when measured against the government sustainable housing agenda. It also results in unplanned expenses required to train replacing employees during project executions as well as company goodwill which ultimately has a huge impact on sustainable housing delivery in South Africa.
The Rational Mode of Affordable Housing Based on the Special Residence Space Form of City Village in Xiamen
Currently, as China is in the stage of rapid urbanization, a large number of rural population have flown into the city and it is urgent to solve the housing problem. Xiamen is the typical city of China characterized by high housing price and low-income. Due to the government failed to provide adequate public cheap housing, a large number of immigrants dwell in the informal rental housing represented by the "city village". Comfortable housing is the prerequisite for the harmony and stability of the city. Therefore, with "city village" and the affordable housing as the main object of study, this paper makes an analysis on the housing status, personnel distribution and mobility of the "city village" of Xiamen, and also carries out a primary research on basic facilities such as the residential form and commercial, property management services, with the combination of the existing status of the affordable housing in Xiamen, and finally summary and comparison are made by the author in an attempt to provide some references and experience for the construction and improvement of the government-subsidized housing to improve the residential quality of the urban-poverty stricken people. In this paper, the data and results are collated and quantified objectively based on the relevant literature, the latest market data and practical investigation as well as research methods of comparative study and case analysis. Informal rental housing, informal economy and informal management of "city village" as social-housing units in many ways fit in the housing needs of the floating population, providing a convenient and efficient condition for the flowing of people. However, the existing urban housing in Xiamen have some drawbacks, for example, the housing are unevenly distributed, the spatial form is single, the allocation standard of public service facilities is not targeted to the subsidized object, the property management system is imperfect and the cost is too high, therefore, this paper draws lessons from the informal model of city village”, and finally puts forward some improvement strategies.
An Implementation of Incentive Systems within Property Life Cycles Will Reward Investors, Planners and Users
The whole life thinking of buildings (independent if these are commercial properties or residential properties) will raise if incentive systems are provided to investors, planners and users. The Use of Building Information Modelling (BIM)-Systems offers planners the possibility to plan and re-plan buildings for decades after a period of utilization without spending many capacities. The strategy-incentive should be to plan the building in a way that makes rescheduling possible by changing just parameters in the system and not re-planning the whole building. If users receive the chance to patient incentive systems, the building stock will have a long life period. Business models of tenant electricity or self-controlled operating costs are incentive systems for building –users to let fixed running costs decline without producing damages due to wrong purposes. BIM is the controlling body to ensure that users do not abuse the incentive solution and take negative influence on the building stock. The investor benefits from the planner’s and user’s incentives: the fact that the building becomes useful for the whole life without making unnecessary investments provides possibilities to make investments in different assets. Moreover, the investor gains the facility to achieve higher rents by merchandise the property with low operating costs. To execute BIM offers whole property life cycles.
Research on Planning Strategy of Characteristic Town from the Perspective of Ecological Concept: A Case Study on Hangzhou Dream Town in Zhejiang
Under the new normal situation, some urban spaces with the industrial base and regional features in Zhejiang, China have been selected to build a characteristic town, a kind of environmentally-friendly development platform with city-industry integrated, in an attempt to achieve the most optimized layout of productivity with the least space resource. After analysis on the connotation, mechanism and mode of characteristic town in Zhejiang, it is suggested in this paper that characteristic town should take improving the regional ecological environment as an important object in planning strategy from the perspective of ecological concept. Improved environmental quality, optimized resource allocation, and compact industrial distribution should be realized so as to drive the regional green and sustainable development. Finally, this paper analyzes location selection, industrial distribution, spatial organization and environment construction based on the exploration of the dream town of Zhejiang province, the first batch of provincial-level characteristic towns to demonstrate how to apply the ecological concept to the design of characteristic town.
The Research on the Transformation of Bottom Space in the Teaching Area of Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University
There is lots of bottom space in the teaching area of Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, which benefits to the ventilation, heat dissipation, circulation, separation of quiet and noisy areas, and the abundance of spaces. Hangzhou is hot in summer but cold in winter, so teachers and students spend much less time in the bottom space of buildings in winter than in summer. Recently, depending on the teachers and students’ proposals, the school transformed the bottom space in the teaching area and provided space for relaxing, chatting and staying in winter. Surveying and analyzing the existing ways to transform, the paper researches deeply on the transformation projects of bottom space in the teaching buildings. It is believed that this paper can be a salutary lesson to make the bottom space in the teaching areas of universities richer and more diverse activities for teachers and students.
Research on Renovation of Existing Interior Space Based on Post Occupancy Evaluation: A Case Study of the Atrium Space of Zhejiang University Library in Hangzhou
The renovation of existing interior space is big issue for architects in today’s China. However the traditional way of space renovation in China mostly focuses on the object itself, and the method also focuses on subjective level without the support of specific data. This research focuses the application of renovation of existing interior space based on post occupancy evaluation by a case study of a typical interior space. The research hopes to give a more scientific method of interior space renovation for architects and help promoting and guiding renovation practice. This research studies the post occupancy evaluation of the atrium space of Zhejiang University Library including subjective satisfaction and physical environmental satisfaction. The result provides necessary data support to conclude the design principles and strategies of renovation. Then the research uses simulation software to verify the availability of the strategy given based on the study. In conclusion, the research summarizes the application process of design methods of renovation of existing interior space based on the post-occupancy evaluation, and testifies to the practical significance of the renovation of existing interior space.
Evaluating Daylight Performance in an Office Environment in Malaysia, Using Venetian Blind Systems
This paper presents fenestration analysis to study the balance between utilizing daylight and eliminating the disturbing parameters in a private office room with interior venetian blinds taking into account different slat angles. Mean luminance of the scene and window, luminance ratio of the workplane and window, work plane illumination and daylight glare probability(DGP) were calculated as a function of venetian blind design properties. Recently developed software, analyzing High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI captured by CCD camera), such as radiance based evalglare and hdrscope help to investigate luminance-based metrics. A total of Eight-day measurement experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of different venetian blind angles in an office environment under daylight condition in Serdang, Malaysia. Detailed result for the selected case study showed that artificial lighting is necessary during the morning session for Malaysian buildings with southwest windows regardless of the venetian blind’s slat angle. However, in some conditions of afternoon session the workplane illuminance level exceeds the maximum illuminance of 2000 lx such as 10° and 40° slat angles. Generally, a rising trend is discovered toward mean window luminance level during the day. All the conditions have less than 10% of the pixels exceeding 2000 cd/m² before 1:00 P.M. However, 40% of the selected hours have more than 10% of the scene pixels higher than 2000 cd/m² after 1:00 P.M. Surprisingly in no blind condition, there is no extreme case of window/task ratio, However, the extreme cases happen for 20°, 30°, 40° and 50° slat angles. As expected mean window luminance level is higher than 2000 cd/m² after 2:00 P.M for most cases except 60° slat angle condition. Studying the daylight glare probability, there is not any DGP value higher than 0.35 in this experiment, due to the window’s direction, location of the building and studied workplane. Specifically, this paper reviews different blind angle’s response to the suggested metrics by the previous standards, and finally conclusions and knowledge gaps are summarized and suggested next steps for research are provided. Addressing these gaps is critical for the continued progress of the energy efficiency movement.
Continuity of Place-Identity: Identifying Regional Components of Kerala Architecture through 1805-1950
Man has the need to know and feel as a part of the historical continuum and it is this continuum that reinforces his identity. Architecture and the built environment contribute to this identity as established by the various identity theories exploring the relationship between the two. Architecture which is organic has been successful in maintaining a continuum of identity until the advent of globalization when the world saw a drastic shift to architecture of ‘placelessness’. The answer to the perfect synthesis of ‘universalization’ and ‘regionalism’ is an ongoing quest. However, history has established a smooth transition from vernacular to colonial to modern unlike the architecture of today. The traditional Kerala architecture has evolved from the tropical climate, geography, local needs, materials, skills and foreign influences. It is unique in contrast to the architecture of the neighboring states as a result of the geographical barriers however influenced by the architecture of the Orient due to trade relations. Through 1805 to 1950, the European influence on the architecture of Kerala resulted in the emergence of the colonial style which managed to establish a continuum of the traditional architecture. The paper focuses on the identification of the components of architecture that established the continuity of place-identity in the architecture of Kerala and examines the transition from the traditional Kerala architecture to colonial architecture during the colonial period. Visual surveys based on the principles of urban design, cognitive mapping, typology analysis followed by the strong understanding of the morphological and built environment along with the matrix method are the research tools used. The understanding of these components of continuity can be useful in creating buildings which people can relate to in the present day. South-Asia shares the history of colonialism and the understanding of these components can pave the way for further research on how to establish a regional identity in the era of globalization.
A Topological Study of an Urban Street Network and Its Use in Heritage Areas
This paper aims to demonstrate how a topological study of an urban street network can be used as a tool to be applied to some heritage conservation areas in a city. In the last decades, we find different kinds of approaches in the discipline of Architecture and Urbanism based in the so-called Sciences of Complexity. In this context, this paper uses mathematics from the Network Theory. Hence, it proposes a methodology based in obtaining information from a graph, which is created from a network of urban streets. Then, it is used an algorithm that establishes a ranking of importance of the nodes of that network, from its topological point of view. The results are applied to a heritage area in a particular city, confronting the data obtained from the mathematical model, with the ones from the field work in the case study. As a result of this process, we may conclude the necessity of implementing some actions in the area, and where those actions would be more effective for the whole heritage site.
Suburban Large Residential Area Development Strategy with an Example of Liangzhu Culture Village in Hangzhou
The development of the large suburban residential area is a product of the leap development during the rapid urbanization process in China. On the process of the large-scale development of large settlements in a short time, various problems arose in the suburban residential area, such as spatial layout being disorder, basic facilities construction lagging behind and being unreasonable, residential neighborhood space and street culture missing. Aimed at the contradictions mentioned above, exploring a way is imminent to construct appropriate residential area. We select a typical Liangzhu Culture Village in Hangzhou and put forward functional composite residential area of fine development strategy, along which business promotes and assists community autonomy and then a good community culture is constructed. All in all, the development and construction mode, contributing to an all-people and full-time participation, is beneficial to create a harmonious community of sustainable development, which gives good implication to a single enterprise development city real estate projects.
A Causal Model for Environmental Design of Residential Community for Elderly Well-Being in Thailand
This article is an extension of previous research presenting the relevant factors related to environmental perceptions, residential community, and the design of a healing environment, which have effects on the well-being and requirements of Thai elderly. Research methodology began with observations and interviews in three case studies in terms of the management processes and environment design of similar existing projects in Thailand. The interview results were taken to summarize with related theories and literature. A questionnaire survey was designed for data collection to confirm the factors of requirements in a residential community intended for the Thai elderly. A structural equation model (SEM) was formulated to explain the cause-effect factors for the requirements of a residential community for Thai elderly. The research revealed that the requirements of a residential community for Thai elderly were classified into three groups when utilizing a technique for exploratory factor analysis. The factors were comprised of (1) requirements for general facilities and activities, (2) requirements for facilities related to health and security, and (3) requirements for facilities related to physical exercise in the residential community. The results from the SEM showed the background of elderly people had a direct effect on their requirements for a residential community from various aspects. The results should lead to the formulation of policies for design and management of residential communities for the elderly in order to enhance quality of life as well as both the physical and mental health of the Thai elderly.
Preliminary Study of the Cost-Effectiveness of Green Walls: Analyzing Cases from the Perspective of Life Cycle
Urban heat island effect is derived from the reduction of vegetative cover by urban development. Because plants can improve air quality and microclimate, green walls have been applied as a sustainable design approach to cool building temperature. By using plants to green vertical surfaces, they decrease room temperature and, as a result, decrease the energy use for air conditioning. Based on their structures, green walls can be divided into two categories, green façades and living walls. A green façade uses the climbing ability of a plant itself, while a living wall assembles planter modules. The latter one is widely adopted in public space, as it is time-effective and less limited. Although a living wall saves energy spent on cooling, it is not necessarily cost-effective from the perspective of a lifecycle analysis. The Italian study shows that the overall benefit of a living wall is only greater than its costs after 47 years of its establishment. In Taiwan, urban greening policies encourage establishment of green walls by referring to their benefits of energy saving while neglecting their low performance on cost-effectiveness. Thus, this research aims at understanding the perception of appliers and consumers on the cost-effectiveness of their living wall products from the lifecycle viewpoint. It adopts semi-structured interviews and field observations on the maintenance of the products. By comparing the two results, it generates insights for sustainable urban greening policies. The preliminary finding shows that stakeholders do not have a holistic sense of lifecycle or cost-effectiveness. Most importantly, a living wall well maintained is often with high input due to the availability of its maintenance budget, and thus less sustainable. In conclusion, without a comprehensive sense of cost-effectiveness throughout a product’s lifecycle, it is very difficult for suppliers and consumers to maintain a living wall system while achieve sustainability.
Rural Tourism Planning from the Perspective of Water Resource Protection and Regional Integration: Taking Villages along Tongji Lake as an Example
Currently, there is a great tendency that more and more villages in China are trying to increase income by development of tourism. Especially in Zhejiang Province, 'Beautiful Rural Construction' provides an excellent opportunity for the development of tourism. In this context, development orientation, transportation routes and tourism service facilities are analyzed under the perspective of water resources protection and regional integration based on the development tourism industry of the six villages in Pujiang County, Zhejiang Province as a research object. In the program, the biggest issue is the contradiction between the ecological protection of the water and the development of economy. How to deal with the relationship between protection and development is the key to the design of this case. Furthermore, the six villages are regarded as a whole, connecting to each other by the system of five-path and the landscape along the lake. Every village has its own features, but cannot develop without one another. The article is actively exploring for suggestions and countermeasures to promote the development premised on protection and based on a regional view.