Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 52590

Chemical and Molecular Engineering

1795
91532
Photochemical Degradation of Ibuprofren in Aqueous Solutions
Abstract:
Day after day more pharmaceutical compounds that are not efficiently removed by conventional treatment methods are found in treated wastewaters and drinking waters. Due to their refractory nature, they escape conventional wastewater treatment facilities, and thus advanced oxidation processes have to be utilized to effectively eliminate them. In the present study, the removal of Ibuprofen from aqueous solutions containing the commercial drug Algofren (non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory) using UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide, titanium dioxide and ferric ions was examined. All experiments were conducted in a batch photoreactor operated for 120 min. The main target was to select the most effective operating conditions for the mineralization of the solutions treated. The combination of Fe(III)/ H₂O₂/UV proved to be very efficient in terms of total organic carbon removal and ibuprofen conversion. For solutions containing 5 mg/L ibuprofen and initial total carbon 51.1 mg/L, complete mineralization was achieved by means of 2.2 ppm Fe(III) and 333 mg/L H₂O₂.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1794
91429
Design Considerations on Cathodic Protection for X65 Steel Tank Containing Fresh Water
Abstract:
The present study focused on critical and detailed approach for using aluminum electrode as impressed current anode for cathodic protection of X65 steel tank containing fresh water. The impressed current design calculation showed 0.6 A of current demand and voltage of 0.33 V required to adequately protect the X65 steel tank with internal surface area of 421 m². We used here one transformer rectifier with current and voltage output of 25 A and 25 V, respectively. The data showed that the potentials ranged from -0.474 to -0.509 V (vs. Cu/CuSO₄), prior to the application of cathodic protection. When the potential was measured 1 h after the application of cathodic protection, the potential values showed considerable shift within protection range (-0.950 V vs. Cu/CuSO₄). The results confirmed that aluminum anode can be used in freshwater applications with high efficiency (current capacity) and low consumption rate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1793
91010
Understanding the Origins of Pesticides Metabolites in Natural Waters through the Land Use, Hydroclimatic Conditions and Water Quality
Abstract:
Brittany (France) is an agricultural region, where emerging pollutants are highly at risk to reach water bodies. Among them, pesticides metabolites are frequently detected in surface waters. The Vilaine watershed (11 000 km²) is of great interest, as a large drinking water treatment plant (100 000 m³/day) is located at the extreme downstream of it. This study aims to provide an evaluation of the pesticides metabolites pollution in the Vilaine watershed, and an understanding of their availability, in order to protect the water resource. Hydroclimatic conditions, land use, and water quality parameters controlling metabolites availability are emphasized. Later this knowledge will be used to understand the favoring conditions resulting in metabolites export towards surface water. 19 sampling points have been strategically chosen along the 220 km of the Vilaine river and its 3 main influents. Furthermore, the intakes of two drinking water plants have been sampled, one is located at the extreme downstream of the Vilaine river and the other is the riparian groundwater under the Vilaine river. 5 sampling campaigns with various hydroclimatic conditions have been carried out. Water quality parameters and hydroclimatic conditions have been measured. 15 environmentally relevant pesticides and metabolites have been analyzed. Also, these compounds are recalcitrant to classic water treatment that is why they have been selected. An evaluation of the watershed contamination has been done in 2016-2017. First observations showed that aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (MESA) are the most detected compounds in surface waters samples with 100 % and 98 % frequency of detection respectively. They are the main pollutants of the watershed regardless of the hydroclimatic conditions. AMPA concentration in the river strongly increases downstream of Rennes agglomeration (220k inhabitants) and reaches a maximum of 2.3 µg/l in low waters conditions. Groundwater contains mainly MESA, Diuron and metazachlor ESA at concentrations close to limits of quantification (LOQ) (0.02 µg/L). Metolachlor, metazachlor and alachlor due to their fast degradation in soils were found in small amounts (LOQ – 0.2 µg/L). Conversely glyphosate was regularly found during warm and sunny periods up to 0.6 µg/L. Soil uses (agricultural cultures types, urban areas, forests, wastewater treatment plants implementation), water quality parameters, and hydroclimatic conditions have been correlated to pesticides and metabolites concentration in waters. Statistical treatments showed that chloroacetamides metabolites and AMPA behave differently regardless of the hydroclimatic conditions. Chloroacetamides are correlated to each other, to agricultural areas and to typical agricultural tracers as nitrates. They are present in waters the whole year, especially during rainy periods, suggesting important stocks in soils. Also Chloroacetamides are negatively correlated with AMPA, the different forms of phosphorus, and organic matter. AMPA is ubiquitous but strongly correlated with urban areas despite the recent French regulation, restricting glyphosate to agricultural and private uses. This work helps to predict and understand metabolites present in the water resource used to craft drinking water. As the studied metabolites are difficult to remove, this project will be completed by a water treatment part.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1792
90974
Application of Stabilized Polyaniline Microparticles for Better Protective Ability of Zinc Coatings
Abstract:
Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. In this work, the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO2 particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel, is described. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO2 particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO2 particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH>5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO2 particles. The PANI-SiO2 particles are incorporated by electrodeposition into the metal matrix of zinc in order to obtain composite (hybrid) coatings. The latter are aimed to ensure sacrificial protection of steel mainly in aggressive media leading to local corrosion damages. The surface morphology of the composite zinc coatings is investigated with SEM. The influence of PANI-SiO2 particles on the cathodic and anodic processes occurring in the starting electrolyte for obtaining of the coatings is followed with cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical and corrosion behavior is evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization curves and polarization resistance measurements. The beneficial effect of the stabilized PANI-SiO2 particles for the increased protective ability of the composites is commented and discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1791
90935
Formation of Stable Aqueous Dispersions of Polyaniline-Silica Particles for Application in Anticorrosive Coatings on Steel
Abstract:
Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. Two forms of PANI are generally accepted to have effective protection of steel: the conducting emeraldine salt (ES) and the non-conducting emeraldine base (EB). The ability to intercept electrons at the metal surface and to transport them is typically attributed to ES, while the success of EB as an anticorrosive additive in the coating is attributed to its ability to oxidize and reduce in a reversible way. This electrochemical mechanism is probably combined with barrier effect against corrosion species. In this work, we describe the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO₂ particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO₂ particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO₂ particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH > 5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO₂ particles. We anticipate that incorporation of the small particles will provide a more homogeneous distribution in the coating matrix and will decrease the negative effect on barrier properties of the composite coating.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1790
90131
Separation Performance of CO₂ by Mixed Matrix Membrane Comprising Carbide-Derived Carbon
Abstract:
In this study, the development of mixed matrix membrane (MMM) containing carbide-derived carbon (CDC) for the separation of CO₂ was investigated. MMM with four different loadings (0.1 to 2 wt%) were prepared by the dry/wet phase inversion technique. Prior to this, the formula of the control polysulfone (PSF) membrane was optimized in terms of the PSF concentration in a mixture of NMP/THF solvents and ethanol. Prepared samples were characterized and tested for CO₂ and CH₄ gas permeation. The optimization of the control PSF membrane revealed that 30 wt% PSF is the critical polymer concentration in the formulation. Characterization results unveiled reinforcement of thermal stability and improved polarity imparted by CDC in the MMM, in addition to uniform dispersion of filler up to 1 wt% loading. Furthermore, the incorporation of CDC in PSF membrane formulation enhanced both the CO₂ permeance and ideal selectivity over the control membrane. A CDC loading of 0.5 wt% resulted in the highest CO₂ permeance of 5.5 GPU corresponding to 120% increase in permeance while a CDC loading of 1 wt% resulted in the highest selectivity (CO₂ /CH₄) of 27 corresponding to 29% increase in selectivity. Studies of operating temperature effect showed that an optimum operating temperature for M1.0 membrane is 20 ⁰C. In addition, the feed pressure studies showed that high pressure feeds will favor high performance of the membrane and a good CO₂ /CH₄ separation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1789
90107
Segmental Motion of Polymer Chain at Glass Transition Probed by Single Molecule Detection
Authors:
Abstract:
The glass transition phenomenon has been extensively studied for a long time. The glass transition of polymer materials is assigned to the transition of the dynamics of the chain backbone segment. However, the detailed mechanism of the transition behavior of the segmental motion is still unclear. In the current work, the single molecule detection technique was employed to reveal the trajectory of the molecular motion of the single polymer chain. The center segment of poly(butyl methacrylate) chain was labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule and observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was analyzed near the glass transition temperature. The direct observation of the individual polymer chains revealed the intermittent behavior of the segmental motion, indicating the spatial inhomogeneity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1788
89958
Eu³⁺ PVC Membrane Sensor Based on 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-Tetraacetic Acid
Abstract:
A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane sensor produced by using 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DAPTA) as active material is described. The electrode displays Nernstian behavior over the concentration range 1.0×10⁻⁶ to 1.0×10⁻² M. The detection limit of the electrode is 7.2×10⁻⁷ M. The best performance was obtained with the membrane containing 30% polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 65% nitrobenzene (NB), 2% sodium tetra phenyl borate (Na TPB), 3% DAPTA. The potentiometric response of the proposed electrode is pH independent in the range of 2.5–‎‎9.1. ‎The proposed sensor displays a fast response time 'less than 10s'. The electrode shows a good selectivity for Eu (III) ion with respect to most common cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric ‎titration of 25 mL of a 1.0×10⁻⁴ M Eu (III) solution with a 1.0×10⁻² M EDTA solution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1787
89747
Natural Mexican Zeolite Modified with Iron to Remove Arsenic Ions from Water Sources
Abstract:
Arsenic is an element present in the earth's crust and is dispersed in the environment through natural processes and some anthropogenic activities. Naturally released into the environment through the weathering and erosion of sulphides mineral, some activities such as mining, the use of pesticides or wood preservatives potentially increase the concentration of arsenic in air, water, and soil. The natural arsenic release of a geological material is a threat to the world's drinking water sources. In aqueous phase is found in inorganic form, as arsenate and arsenite mainly, the contamination of groundwater by salts of this element originates what is known as endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorizes the inorganic As within group I, as a substance with proven carcinogenic action for humans. It has been found the presence of As in groundwater in several countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Bangladesh, Canada and the United States. Regarding the concentration of arsenic in drinking water according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish maximum concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹. In Mexico, in some states as Hidalgo, Morelos and Michoacán concentrations of arsenic have been found in bodies of water around 1000 μg L⁻¹, a concentration that is well above what is allowed by Mexican regulations with the NOM-127- SSA1-1994 that establishes a limit of 25 μg L⁻¹. Given this problem in Mexico, this research proposes the use of a natural Mexican zeolite (clinoptilolite type) native to the district of Etla in the central valley region of Oaxaca, as an adsorbent for the removal of arsenic. The zeolite was subjected to a conditioning with iron oxide by the precipitation-impregnation method with 0.5 M iron nitrate solution, in order to increase the natural adsorption capacity of this material. The removal of arsenic was carried out in a column with a fixed bed of conditioned zeolite, since it combines the advantages of a conventional filter with those of a natural adsorbent medium, providing a continuous treatment, of low cost and relatively easy to operate, for its implementation in marginalized areas. The zeolite was characterized by XRD, SEM/EDS, and FTIR before and after the arsenic adsorption tests, the results showed that the modification methods used are adequate to prepare adsorbent materials since it does not modify its structure, the results showed that with a particle size of 1.18 mm, an initial concentration of As (V) ions of 1 ppm, a pH of 7 and at room temperature, a removal of 98.7% was obtained with an adsorption capacity of 260 μg As g⁻¹ zeolite. The results obtained indicated that the conditioned zeolite is favorable for the elimination of arsenate in water containing up to 1000 μg As L⁻¹ and could be suitable for removing arsenate from pits of water.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1786
89543
The Role of Piceatannol in Counteracting Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Aggregation and Nuclear Translocation
Abstract:
In the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, protein and peptide aggregation processes play a vital role in contributing to the formation of intracellular and extracellular protein deposits. One of the major components of these deposits is the oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Therefore, the purpose of this research was to answer the question whether piceatannol, a stilbene derivative, counteracts and/or slows down oxidative stress-induced GAPDH aggregation. The study also aimed to determine if this natural occurring compound prevents unfavorable nuclear translocation of GAPDH in hippocampal cells. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis indicated that one molecule of GAPDH can bind up to 8 molecules of piceatannol (7.3 ± 0.9). As a consequence of piceatannol binding to the enzyme, the loss of activity was observed. Parallel with GAPDH inactivation the changes in zeta potential, and loss of free thiol groups were noted. Nevertheless, the ligand-protein binding does not influence the secondary structure of the GAPDH. Precise molecular docking analysis of the interactions inside the active center allowed to presume that these effects are due to piceatannol ability to assemble a covalent binding with nucleophilic cysteine residue (Cys149) which is directly involved in the catalytic reaction. Molecular docking also showed that simultaneously 11 molecules of ligand can be bound to dehydrogenase. Taking into consideration obtained data, the influence of piceatannol on level of GAPDH aggregation induced by excessive oxidative stress was examined. The applied methods (thioflavin-T binding-dependent fluorescence as well as microscopy methods - transmission electron microscopy, Congo Red staining) revealed that piceatannol significantly diminishes level of GAPDH aggregation. Finally, studies involving cellular model (Western blot analyses of nuclear and cytosolic fractions and confocal microscopy) indicated that piceatannol-GAPDH binding prevents GAPDH from nuclear translocation induced by excessive oxidative stress in hippocampal cells. In consequence, it counteracts cell apoptosis. These studies demonstrate that by binding with GAPDH, piceatannol blocks cysteine residue and counteracts its oxidative modifications, that induce oligomerization and GAPDH aggregation as well as it prevents hippocampal cells from apoptosis by retaining GAPDH in the cytoplasm. All these findings provide a new insight into the role of piceatannol interaction with GAPDH and present a potential therapeutic strategy for some neurological disorders related to GAPDH aggregation. This work was supported by the by National Science Centre, Poland (grant number 2017/25/N/NZ1/02849).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1785
89460
Electrophoretic Deposition of Ultrasonically Synthesized Nanostructured Conducting Poly(o-phenylenediamine)-Co-Poly(1-naphthylamine) Film for Detection of Glucose
Abstract:
The ultrasonic synthesis of nanostructured conducting copolymer is an effective technique to synthesize polymer with desired chemical properties. This tailored nanostructure, shows tremendous improvement in sensitivity and stability to detect a variety of analytes. The present work reports ultrasonically synthesized nanostructured conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine)-co-poly(1-naphthylamine) (POPD-co-PNA). The synthesized material has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed random copolymerization, while UV-visible studies reveal the variation in polaronic states upon copolymerization. High crystallinity was achieved via ultrasonic synthesis which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and the controlled morphology of the nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry shows that POPD-co-PNA has rather high electrochemical activity. This behavior was explained on the basis of variable orientations adopted by the conducting polymer chains. The synthesized material was electrophoretically deposited at onto indium tin oxide coated glass substrate which is used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. The fabricated bioelectrode was further used for detection of glucose by crosslinking of glucose oxidase in the PODP-co-PNA film. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (α) of 0.72, charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 21.77 s⁻¹ and diffusion coefficient 7.354 × 10⁻¹⁵ cm²s⁻¹.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1784
89402
Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Glycerol Reforming Using Ternary Cu/TiO2/Graphene
Abstract:
A ternary Cu/TiO2/rGO photocatalysts was prepared using solvothermal method. Firstly, pure anatase TiO2 hollow spheres were prepared with titanium butoxide, ethanol, ammonium sulphate, and urea via hydrothermal method; and Cu nanoparticles were subsequently loaded on the surface of the hollow spheres by wet impregnation. During the solvothermal process, the deposition and well dispersion of Cu-TiO2 hollow spheres composites onto the graphene oxide surface, as well as the reduction of graphene oxide to graphene were achieved. The morphological and structural properties of the prepared samples were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet (BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis DRS, and photoelectrochemical. The activities of the prepared catalysts were tested for hydrogen production via simultaneous photocatalytic water-splitting and glycerol reforming under visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of the Cu-TiO2-hollow-spheres/rGO catalyst was attributed the rGO which acts as both storage and transferor of electrons generated at the Cu and TiO2 heterojunction, thus increasing the electron-hole pairs separation. This paper reports the preparation of photocatalyst which is highly active by coupling reduced graphene oxide with nano-structured TiO2 with high surface area that can efficiently harvest the visible light for effective water-splitting and glycerol photocatalytic reforming in order to achieve efficient hydrogen evolution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1783
89245
Quantum Modelling of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄ and AgCsMoO₄ Chemistry in the Field of Nuclear Power Plant Safety
Abstract:
In a major nuclear accident, the released fission products (FPs) and the structural materials are likely to influence the transport of iodine in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). So far, the thermodynamic data on cesium and silver species used to estimate the magnitude of FP release show some discrepancies, data are scarce and not reliable. For this reason, it is crucial to review the thermodynamic values related to cesium and silver materials. To this end, we have used state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods to compute the formation enthalpies and entropies of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄ in the gas phase. Different quantum chemical methods have been investigated (DFT and CCSD(T)) in order to predict the geometrical parameters and the energetics including the correlation energy. The geometries were optimized with TPSSh-5%HF method, followed by a single point calculation of the total electronic energies using the CCSD(T) wavefunction method. We thus propose with a final uncertainty of about 2 kJmol⁻¹ standard enthalpies of formation of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1782
89209
Towards a Rigorous Analysis for a Supercritical Particulate Process
Abstract:
Crystallization with supercritical fluids (SCFs), as a developed technology to produce particles of micron and sub-micron size with narrow size distribution, has found appreciable importance as an environmentally friendly technology. Particle synthesis using SCFs can be achieved employing a number of special processes involving solvent and antisolvent mechanisms. In this study, the compressed antisolvent (PCA) process is utilized as a model to analyze the theoretical complexity of crystallization with supercritical fluids. The population balance approach has proven to be an effectual technique to simulate and predict the particle size and size distribution. The nucleation and growth mechanisms of the particles formation in the PCA process is investigated using the population balance equation, which describes the evolution of the particle through coalescence and breakup levels with time. The employed mathematical population balance model contains a set of the partial differential equation with algebraic constraints, which demands a rigorous numerical approach. The combined Collocation and Galerkin finite element method are proposed as a high-resolution technique to solve the dynamics of the PCA process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1781
89193
A Comparative Study: Influences of Polymerization Temperature on Phosphoric Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes
Abstract:
Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which convert the chemical energy of hydrogen into the electricity. Among the types of fuel cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are attracting considerable attention as non-polluting power generators with high energy conversion efficiencies in mobile applications. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is one of the essential components of PEMFCs. Perfluorosulfonic acid based membranes known as Nafion® is widely used as PEMs. Nafion® membranes water dependent proton conductivity which limits the operating temperature below 100ᵒC. At higher temperatures, proton conductivity and mechanical stability of these membranes decrease because of dehydration. Polybenzimidazole (PBI), which has good anhydrous proton conductivity after doped with acids, as well as excellent thermal stability, shows great potential in the application of high temperature PEMFCs. In the present study, PBI polymers were synthesized by solution polycondensation at 190 and 210ᵒC. The synthesized polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and TGA. Phosphoric acid doped PBI membranes were prepared and tested in a PEMFC. The influences of reaction temperature on structural properties of synthesized polymers were investigated. Mechanical properties, acid-doping level, proton conductivity, and fuel cell performances of prepared phosphoric acid doped PBI membranes were evaluated. The maximum power density was found as 32.5 mW/cm² at 120ᵒC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1780
89192
Conventional and Computational Investigation of the Synthesized Organotin(IV) Complexes Derived from o-Vanillin and 3-Nitro-o-Phenylenediamine
Abstract:
Schiff base with general formula H₂L was derived from condensation of o-vanillin and 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. This Schiff base was used for the synthesis of organotin(IV) complexes with general formula R₂SnL [R=Phenyl or n-octyl] using equimolar quantities. Elemental analysis UV-Vis, FTIR, and multinuclear spectroscopic techniques (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹⁹Sn) NMR were carried out for the characterization of the synthesized complexes. These complexes were coloured and soluble in polar solvents. Computational studies have been performed to obtain the details of the geometry and electronic structures of ligand as well as complexes. Geometry of the ligands and complexes have been optimized at the level of Density Functional Theory with B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and B3LYP/MPW1PW91 respectively followed by vibrational frequency analysis using Gaussian 09. Observed ¹¹⁹Sn NMR chemical shifts of one of the synthesized complexes showed tetrahedral geometry around Tin atom which is also confirmed by DFT. HOMO-LUMO energy distribution was calculated. FTIR, ¹HNMR and ¹³CNMR spectra were also obtained theoretically using DFT. Further IRC calculations were employed to determine the transition state for the reaction and to get the theoretical information about the reaction pathway. Moreover, molecular docking studies can be explored to ensure the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized organotin(IV) complexes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1779
88987
Electrochemical Properties of Li-Ion Batteries Anode Material: Li₃.₈Cu₀.₁Ni₀.₁Ti₅O₁₂
Abstract:
In some types of Li-ion batteries carbon in the form of graphite is used. Unfortunately, carbon materials, in particular graphite, have very good electrochemical properties, but increase their volume during charge/discharge cycles, which may even lead to an explosion of the cell. The cell element may be replaced by a composite material consisting of lithium-titanium oxide Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) modified with copper and nickel ions and carbon derived from sucrose. This way you can improve the conductivity of the material. LTO is appropriate only for applications which do not require high energy density because of its high operating voltage (ca. 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+). Specific capacity of Li4Ti5O12 is high enough for utilization in Li-ion batteries (theoretical capacity 175 mAh·g-1) but it is lower than capacity of graphite anodes. Materials based on Li4Ti5O12 do not change their volume during charging/discharging cycles, however, LTO has low conductivity. Another positive aspect of the use of sucrose in the carbon composite material is to eliminate the addition of carbon black from the anode of the battery. Therefore, the proposed materials contribute significantly to environmental protection and safety of selected lithium cells. New anode materials in order to obtain Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1Ti5O12 have been prepared by solid state synthesis using three-way: i) stoichiometric composition of Li2CO3, TiO2, CuO, NiO (A- Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1Ti5O12); ii) stoichiometric composition of Li2CO3, TiO2, Cu(NO3)2, Ni(NO3)2 (B-Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1Ti5O12); and iii) stoichiometric composition of Li2CO3, TiO2, CuO, NiO calcined with 10% of saccharose (Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1Ti5O12-C). Structure of materials was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical properties were performed using appropriately prepared cell Li|Li+|Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1Ti5O12 for cyclic voltammetry and discharge/charge measurements. The cells were periodically charged and discharged in the voltage range from 1.3 to 2.0 V applying constant charge/discharge current in order to determine the specific capacity of each electrode. Measurements at various values of the charge/discharge current (from C/10 to 5C) were carried out. Cyclic voltammetry investigation was carried out by applying to the cells a voltage linearly changing over time at a rate of 0.1 mV·s-1 (in the range from 2.0 to 1.3 V and from 1.3 to 2.0 V). The XRD method analyzes show that composite powders were obtained containing, in addition to the main phase, 4.78% and 4% TiO2 in A-Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1O12 and B-Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1O12, respectively. However, Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1O12-C material is three-phase: 63.84% of the main phase, 17.49 TiO2 and 18.67 Li2TiO3. Voltammograms of electrodes containing materials A-Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1O12 and B-Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1O12 are correct and repeatable. Peak cathode occurs for both samples at a potential approx. 1.52±0.01 V relative to a lithium electrode, while the anodic peak at potential approx. 1.65±0.05 V relative to a lithium electrode. Voltammogram of Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1Ti5O12-C (especially for the first measurement cycle) is not correct. There are large variations in values of specific current, which are not characteristic for materials LTO. From the point of view of safety and environmentally friendly production of Li-ion cells eliminating soot and applying Li3.8Cu0.1Ni0.1Ti5O12-C as an active material of an anode in lithium-ion batteries seems to be a good alternative to currently used materials.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1778
88973
Enhanced Near-Infrared Upconversion Emission Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Background-Free Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses
Abstract:
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are the primary cause of highly contagious respiratory diseases caused by type A influenza viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AIV are categorized on the basis of types of surface glycoproteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Certain H5 and H7 subtypes of AIV have evolved to the high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, which has caused considerable economic loss to the poultry industry and led to severe public health crisis. Several commercial kits have been developed for on-site detection of AIV. However, the sensitivity of these methods is too low to detect low virus concentrations in clinical samples and opaque stool samples. Here, we introduced a background-free near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconversion nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay (NNLFA) platform to yield a sensor that detects AIV within 20 minutes. Ca²⁺ ion in the shell was used to enhance the NIR-to-NIR upconversion photoluminescence (PL) emission as a heterogeneous dopant without inducing significant changes in the morphology and size of the UCNPs. In a mixture of opaque stool samples and gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are components of commercial AIV LFA, the background signal of the stool samples mask the absorption peak of GNPs. However, UCNPs dispersed in the stool samples still show strong emission centered at 800 nm when excited at 980 nm, which enables the NNLFA platform to detect 10-times lower viral load than a commercial GNP-based AIV LFA. The detection limit of NNLFA for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 and HPAI H5N6 viruses was 10² EID₅₀/mL and 10³.⁵ EID₅₀/mL, respectively. Moreover, when opaque brown-colored samples were used as the target analytes, strong NIR emission signal from the test line in NNLFA confirmed the presence of AIV, whereas commercial AIV LFA detected AIV with difficulty. Therefore, we propose that this rapid and background-free NNLFA platform has the potential of detecting AIV in the field, which could effectively prevent the spread of these viruses at an early stage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1777
88958
Technical Evaluation of Upgrading a Simple Gas Turbine Fired by Diesel to a Combined Cycle Power Plant in Kingdom of Suadi Arabistan Using WinSim Design II Software
Abstract:
As environmental regulations increase, the need for a clean and inexpensive energy is becoming necessary these days using an available raw material with high efficiency and low emissions of toxic gases. This paper presents a study on modifying a gas turbine power plant fired by diesel, which is located in Saudi Arabia in order to increase the efficiency and capacity of the station as well as decrease the rate of emissions. The studied power plant consists of 30 units with different capacities and total net power is 1470 MW. The study was conducted on unit number 25 (GT-25) which produces 72.3 MW with 29.5% efficiency. In the beginning, the unit was modeled and simulated by using WinSim Design II software. In this step, actual unit data were used in order to test the validity of the model. The net power and efficiency obtained from software were 76.4 MW and 32.2% respectively. A difference of about 6% was found in the simulated power plant compared to the actual station which means that the model is valid. After the validation of the model, the simple gas turbine power plant was converted to a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). In this case, the exhausted gas released from the gas turbine was introduced to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which consists of three heat exchangers: an economizer, an evaporator and a superheater. In this proposed model, many scenarios were conducted in order to get the optimal operating conditions. The net power of CCPP was increased to 116.4 MW while the overall efficiency of the unit was reached to 49.02%, consuming the same amount of fuel for the gas turbine power plant. For the purpose of comparing the rate of emissions of carbon dioxide on each model. It was found that the rate of CO₂ emissions was decreased from 15.94 kg/s to 9.22 kg/s by using the combined cycle power model as a result of reducing of the amount of diesel from 5.08 kg/s to 2.94 kg/s needed to produce 76.5 MW. The results indicate that the rate of emissions of carbon dioxide was decreased by 42.133% in CCPP compared to the simple gas turbine power plant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1776
88856
A Comparison between Reagents Extracted from Tree Leaves for Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV)
Abstract:
The main goal of this paper was to make use of green reagents as a substitute of perilous synthetic reagents and organic solvents for spectrophotometric determination of hafnium(IV). The extracts taken from six different kinds of tree leaves including Acer negundo, Ficus carica, Cerasus avium, Chimonanthus, Salix babylonica and Pinus brutia, were applied as green reagents for the experiments. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacted with the reagent to form a yellow product and showed maximum absorbance at 421 nm. Among tree leaves, Chimonanthus showed satisfactory results with a molar absorptivity value of 0.61 × 104 l mol-1 cm-1 and the method was linear in the 0.3-9 µg mL -1 concentration range. The detection limit value was 0.064 µg mL-1. The proposed method was simple, low cost, clean, and selective.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1775
88855
A Green Method for Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV) with Aqueous Extract of Ficus carica Tree Leaves
Abstract:
A clean spectrophotometric method for the determination of hafnium by using a green reagent, acidic extract of Ficus carica tree leaves is developed. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacts with this reagent to form a yellow product. The formed product shows maximum absorbance at 421 nm with a molar absorptivity value of 0.28 × 104 l mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹, and the method was linear in the 2-11 µg ml⁻¹ concentration range. The detection limit value was found to be 0.312 µg ml⁻¹. Except zirconium and iron, the selectivity was good, and most of the ions did not show any significant spectral interference at concentrations up to several hundred times. The proposed method was green, simple, low cost, and selective.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1774
88804
Influence of Wavelengths on Photosensitivity of Copper Phthalocyanine Based Photodetectors
Abstract:
We demonstrated an organic field effect transistor based photodetector using phthalocyanine as the active material that exhibited high photosensitivity under varying light wavelengths. The thermally grown SiO₂ layer on silicon wafer act as a substrate. The critical parameters, such as photosensitivity, responsivity and detectivity, are comparatively high and were 3.09, 0.98AW⁻¹ and 4.86 × 10¹⁰ Jones, respectively, under a bias of 5 V and a monochromatic illumination intensity of 4mW cm⁻². The photodetector has a linear I-V curve with a low dark current. On comparing photoresponse of copper phthalocyanine at four different wavelengths, 560 nm shows better photoresponse and the highest value of photosensitivity is also obtained.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1773
88750
Electrochemical and Microstructure Properties of Chromium-Graphene and SnZn-Graphene Oxide Composite Coatings
Abstract:
Coatings plays an important role in providing protection for a substrate and in improving the surface quality. Graphene/graphene oxide (GO) using in coating systems provides an environmental friendly solution towards protection against corrosion. Issues such as, lack of scale, high cost, low quality limits the practical application of graphene/GO as corrosion resistant coating material. One other way to employ these materials for corrosion protection is to incorporate them into coatings that are conventionally used for corrosion protection. Due to the extraordinary properties of graphene/GO, it has been demonstrated that the coatings containing graphene/GO are more corrosion resistant than pure metal/alloy coatings. In the present work, Cr-graphene and SnZn-GO composite coatings were investigated in enhancing the corrosion resistant property when compared to pure Cr coating and pure SnZn coating respectively. All the coatings were electrodeposited over mild-steel substrate. Graphene and GO were synthesized by electrochemical exfoliation method and modified Hummers’ method respectively. In Cr coatings, the microstructural study revealed that the addition of formic acid in the coatings reduced the number of cracks in the coatings. Further addition of graphene in Cr coating enhanced the Cr coating’s morphology. Chemically synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were also embedded in the as-deposited Cr and Cr-graphene coatings to enhance the adhesion of the coating, to improve the surface finish and to increase the corrosion resistant property of the coatings. Diffraction analysis revealed that the addition of graphene also altered the texture of the Cr coatings. In SnZn alloy coatings, the morphological and topographical characterization revealed that the relative smoothness and compactness of the coatings increased with increase in the addition of GO in the coatings. The microstructural investigation revealed large-scale segregation of Zn-rich and Sn-rich phases in the pure SnZn coating. However, in SnZn-GO composite coating the uniform distribution of Zn phase in the Sn-rich matrix was observed. This distribution caused the early and uniform formation of ZnO, which is the corrosion product, yielding better corrosion resistance for the SnZn-GO composite coatings as compared to pure SnZn coating. A significant improvement in corrosion resistance in terms of reduction in corrosion current and corrosion rate and increase in the polarization resistance was observed in Cr coating containing graphene and in SnZn coatings containing GO.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1772
88715
Role of Calcination Treatment on the Structural Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of Nanorice N-Doped TiO₂ Catalyst
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were to synthesize titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with nitrogen (N-doped TiO₂) by hydrothermal method and to test the photocatalytic degradation of paraquat under UV and visible light illumination. The effect of calcination treatment temperature on their physical and chemical properties and photocatalytic efficiencies were also investigated. The characterizations of calcined N-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts such as specific surface area, textural properties, bandgap energy, surface morphology, crystallinity, phase structure, elements and state of charges were investigated by Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) and Barrett, Joyner, Halenda (BJH) equations, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS) by using the Kubelka-Munk theory, Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Focussed ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), respectively. The results showed that the effect of calcination temperature was significant on surface morphology, crystallinity, specific surface area, pore size diameter, bandgap energy and nitrogen content level, but insignificant on phase structure and oxidation state of titanium (Ti) atom. The N-doped TiO₂ samples illustrated only anatase crystalline phase due to nitrogen dopant in TiO₂ restrained the phase transformation from anatase to rutile. The samples presented the nanorice-like morphology. The expansion on the particle was found at 650 and 700°C of calcination temperature, resulting in increased pore size diameter. The bandgap energy was determined by Kubelka-Munk theory to be in the range 3.07-3.18 eV, which appeared slightly lower than anatase standard (3.20 eV), resulting in the nitrogen dopant could modify the optical absorption edge of TiO₂ from UV to visible light region. The nitrogen content was observed at 100, 300 and 400°C only. Also, the nitrogen element disappeared at 500°C onwards. The nitrogen (N) atom can be incorporated in TiO₂ structure with the interstitial site. The uncalcined (100°C) sample displayed the highest percent paraquat degradation under UV and visible light irradiation due to this sample revealed both the highest specific surface area and nitrogen content level. Moreover, percent paraquat removal significantly decreased with increasing calcination treatment temperature. The nitrogen content level in TiO₂ accelerated the rate of reaction with combining the effect of the specific surface area that generated the electrons and holes during illuminated with light. Therefore, the specific surface area and nitrogen content level demonstrated the important roles in the photocatalytic activity of paraquat under UV and visible light illumination.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1771
88160
Multi-Functional Metal Oxides as Gas Sensors, Photo-Catalysts and Bactericides
Authors:
Abstract:
Nano- to submicron size particles of narrow particle size distribution of semi-conducting TiO₂, ZnO, NiO, CuO, Fe₂O₃ have been synthesized by novel hydrazine method and tested for their gas sensing, photocatalytic and bactericidal activities and the behavior found to be enhanced when the oxides in the thin film forms, that obtained in a specially built spray pyrolysis reactor. Hydrazine method is novel in the sense, say, the UV absorption edge of the white pigment grade wide band gap (~3.2eV) TiO₂ and ZnO shifted to the visible region turning into yellowish particles, indicating modification occurring the band structure. The absorption in the visible region makes these oxides visible light sensitive photocatalysis in degrading pollutants, especially the organic dyes which otherwise increase the chemical oxygen demand of the drinking water, enabling the process feasible not under the harsh energetic UV radiation regime. The electromagnetic radiations on irradiation produce electron-hole pairs Semiconductor + hν → e⁻ + h⁺ The electron-hole pairs thus produced form Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS, on the surface of the semiconductors, O₂(adsorbed)+e⁻ → O₂• - superoxide ion OH-(surface)+h⁺ →•OH - Hydroxyl radical The ROS attack the organic material and micro-organisms. Our antibacterial studies indicate the metal oxides control the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of drinking water which had beyond the safe level normally found in the municipal supply. Metal oxides in the thin film form show overall enhanced properties and the films are reusable. The results of the photodegradation and antibactericidal studies are discussed. Gas sensing studies too have been done to find the versatility of the multifunctional metal oxides.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1770
88054
Use of the Gas Chromatography Method for Hydrocarbons' Quality Evaluation in the Offshore Fields of the Baltic Sea
Abstract:
Currently, there is an active geological exploration and development of the subsoil shelf of the Kaliningrad region. To carry out a comprehensive and accurate assessment of the volumes and degree of extraction of hydrocarbons from open deposits, it is necessary to establish not only a number of geological and lithological characteristics of the structures under study, but also to determine the oil quality, its viscosity, density, fractional composition as accurately as possible. In terms of considered works, gas chromatography is one of the most capacious methods that allow the rapid formation of a significant amount of initial data. The aspects of the application of the gas chromatography method for determining the chemical characteristics of the hydrocarbons of the Kaliningrad shelf fields are observed in the article, as well as the correlation-regression analysis of these parameters in comparison with the previously obtained chemical characteristics of hydrocarbon deposits located on the land of the region. In the process of research, a number of methods of mathematical statistics and computer processing of large data sets have been applied, which makes it possible to evaluate the identity of the deposits, to specify the amount of reserves and to make a number of assumptions about the genesis of the hydrocarbons under analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1769
88053
Comparative Analysis of the Computer Methods' Usage for Calculation of Hydrocarbon Reserves in the Baltic Sea
Abstract:
Nowadays, the depletion of hydrocarbon deposits on the land of the Kaliningrad region leads to active geological exploration and development of oil and natural gas reserves in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. LLC 'Lukoil-Kaliningradmorneft' implements a comprehensive program for the development of the region's shelf in 2014-2023. Due to heterogeneity of reservoir rocks in various open fields, as well as with ambiguous conclusions on the contours of deposits, additional geological prospecting and refinement of the recoverable oil reserves are carried out. The key element is use of an effective technique of computer stock modeling at the first stage of processing of the received data. The following step uses information for the cluster analysis, which makes it possible to optimize the field development approaches. The article analyzes the effectiveness of various methods for reserves' calculation and computer modelling methods of the offshore hydrocarbon fields. Cluster analysis allows to measure influence of the obtained data on the development of a technical and economic model for mining deposits. The relationship between the accuracy of the calculation of recoverable reserves and the need of modernization of existing mining infrastructure, as well as the optimization of the scheme of opening and development of oil deposits, is observed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1768
88020
Iron Catalyst for Decomposition of Methane: Influence of Al/Si Ratio Support
Abstract:
Hydrogen is the expected future fuel since it produces energy without any pollution. It can be used as a fuel directly or through the fuel cell. It is also used in chemical and petrochemical industry as reducing agent or in hydrogenation processes. It is produced by different methods such as reforming of hydrocarbon, electrolytic method and methane decomposition. The objective of the present paper is to study the decomposition of methane reaction at 700°C and 800°C. The catalysts were prepared via impregnation method using 20%Fe and different proportions of combined alumina and silica support using the following ratios [100%, 90%, 80%, and 0% Al₂O₃/SiO₂]. The prepared catalysts were calcined and activated at 600 OC and 500 OC respectively. The reaction was carried out in fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure using 0.3g of catalyst and feed gas ratio of 1.5/1 CH₄/N₂ with a total flow rate 25 mL/min. Catalyst characterizations (TPR, TGA, BET, XRD, etc.) have been employed to study the behavior of catalysts before and after the reaction. Moreover, a brief description of the weight loss and the CH₄ conversions versus time on stream relating the different support ratios over 20%Fe/Al₂O₃/SiO₂ catalysts has been added as well. The results of TGA analysis provided higher weights losses for catalysts operated at 700°C than 800°C. For the 90% Al₂O₃/SiO₂, the activity decreases with the time on stream using 800°C reaction temperature from 73.9% initial CH₄ conversion to 46.3% for a period of 300min, whereas the activity for the same catalyst increases from 47.1% to 64.8% when 700°C reaction temperature is employed. Likewise, for 80% Al₂O₃/SiO₂ the trend of activity is similar to that of 90% Al₂O₃/SiO₂ but with a different rate of activity variation. It can be inferred from the activity results that the ratio of Al₂O₃ to SiO₂ is crucial and it is directly proportional with the activity. Whenever the Al/Si ratio decreases the activity declines. Indeed, the CH₄ conversion of 100% SiO₂ support was less than 5%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1767
87718
Quantum Chemical Prediction of Standard Formation Enthalpies of Uranyl Nitrates and Its Degradation Products
Abstract:
All spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants use the PUREX process (Plutonium Uranium Refining by Extraction), which is a liquid-liquid extraction method. The organic extracting solvent is a mixture of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and hydrocarbon solvent such as hydrogenated tetra-propylene (TPH). By chemical complexation, uranium and plutonium (from spent fuel dissolved in nitric acid solution), are separated from fission products and minor actinides. During a normal extraction operation, uranium is extracted in the organic phase as the UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂ complex. The TBP solvent can form an explosive mixture called red oil when it comes in contact with nitric acid. The formation of this unstable organic phase originates from the reaction between TBP and its degradation products on the one hand, and nitric acid, its derivatives and heavy metal nitrate complexes on the other hand. The decomposition of the red oil can lead to violent explosive thermal runaway. These hazards are at the origin of several accidents such as the two in the United States in 1953 and 1975 (Savannah River) and, more recently, the one in Russia in 1993 (Tomsk). This raises the question of the exothermicity of reactions that involve TBP and all other degradation products, and calls for a better knowledge of the underlying chemical phenomena. A simulation tool (Alambic) is currently being developed at IRSN that integrates thermal and kinetic functions related to the deterioration of uranyl nitrates in organic and aqueous phases, but not of the n-butyl phosphate. To include them in the modeling scheme, there is an urgent need to obtain the thermodynamic and kinetic functions governing the deterioration processes in liquid phase. However, little is known about the thermodynamic properties, like standard enthalpies of formation, of the n-butyl phosphate molecules and of the UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂ UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)(TBP) and UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)₂ complexes. In this work, we propose to estimate the thermodynamic properties with Quantum Methods (QM). Thus, in the first part of our project, we focused on the mono, di, and tri-butyl complexes. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed to study several reactions leading to the formation of mono-(H₂MBP), di-(HDBP), and TBP in gas and liquid phases. In the gas phase, the optimal structures of all species were optimized using the B3LYP density functional. Triple-ζ def2-TZVP basis sets were used for all atoms. All geometries were optimized in the gas-phase, and the corresponding harmonic frequencies were used without scaling to compute the vibrational partition functions at 298.15 K and 0.1 Mpa. Accurate single point energies were calculated using the efficient localized LCCSD(T) method to the complete basis set limit. Whenever species in the liquid phase are considered, solvent effects are included with the COSMO-RS continuum model. The standard enthalpies of formation of TBP, HDBP, and H2MBP are finally predicted with an uncertainty of about 15 kJ mol⁻¹. In the second part of this project, we have investigated the fundamental properties of three organic species that mostly contribute to the thermal runaway: UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂, UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)(TBP), and UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)₂ using the same quantum chemical methods that were used for TBP and its derivatives in both the gas and the liquid phase. We will discuss the structures and thermodynamic properties of all these species.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1766
87396
Synthetic, Characterization and Biological Studies of Bis(Tetrathiomolybdate) Compounds of Pt (II), Pd (II) and Ni (II)
Abstract:
The chemistry of compounds containing transition metals bound to sulfur containing ligands has been actively studied. Interest in these compounds arises from the identification of the biological importance of iron-sulfur containing proteins as well as the unusual behaviour of several types of synthetic metal-sulfur complexes. Metal complexes (C₆H₅)₄P)₂ Pt(Mos₄)₂, (C₆H₅)₄P)₂ Pd(MoS₄)₂, (C₆H₅)₄P)₂ Ni(MoS₄)₂ of bioinorganic relevance were investigated. The complexes [M(M'S₄)₂]²⁻ were prepared with high yield and purity as salts of the variety of organic cations. The diamagnetism and spectroscopic properties of these complexes confirmed that their structures are essentially equivalent with two bidentate M'S₄²⁻ ligands coordinated to the central d⁸ metal in a square planer geometry. The interaction of the complexes with CT-DNA was studied. Results showed that metal complexes increased DNA's relative viscosity and quench the fluorescence intensity of EB bound to DNA. In antimicrobial activities, all complexes showed good antimicrobial activity higher than ligand against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The antitumor properties have been tested in vitro against two tumor human cell lines, Hela (derived from cervical cancer) and MCF-7 (derived from breast cancer) using metabolic activity tests. Result showed that the complexes are promising chemotherapeutic alternatives in the search of anticancer agents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):