Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54358

Chemical and Molecular Engineering

1880
96713
3D Nanostructured Assembly of 2D Transition Metal Chalcogenide/Graphene as High Performance Electrocatalysts
Abstract:
Design and development of highly efficient, inexpensive, and long-term stable earth-abundant electrocatalysts hold tremendous promise for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in water electrolysis. The 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, especially molybdenum disulfide attracted a great deal of interests due to its high electrocatalytic activity. However, due to its poor electrical conductivity and limited exposed active sites, the performance of these catalysts is limited. In this context, a facile and scalable synthesis method for fabrication nanostructured electrocatalysts composed 3D graphene porous aerogels supported with MoS₂ and WS₂ is highly desired. Here we developed a highly active and stable electrocatalyst catalyst for the HER by growing it into a 3D porous architecture on conducting graphene. The resulting nanohybrids were thoroughly investigated by means of several characterization techniques to understand structure and properties. Moreover, the HER performance of these 3D catalysts is expected to greatly improve in compared to other, well-known catalysts which mainly benefits from the improved electrical conductivity of the by graphene and porous structures of the support. This technologically scalable process can afford efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) and hydrodesulfurization catalysts for sulfur-rich petroleum fuels. Owing to the lower cost and higher performance, the resulting materials holds high potential for various energy and catalysis applications. In typical hydrothermal method, sonicated GO aqueous dispersion (5 mg mL⁻¹) was mixed with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) and tungsten molybdate was treated in a sealed Teflon autoclave at 200 ◦C for 4h. After cooling, a black solid macroporous hydrogel was recovered washed under running de-ionized water to remove any by products and metal ions. The obtained hydrogels were then freeze-dried for 24 h and was further subjected to thermal annealing driven crystallization at 600 ◦C for 2h to ensure complete thermal reduction of RGO into graphene and formation of highly crystalline MoS₂ and WoS₂ phases. The resulting 3D nanohybrids were characterized to understand the structure and properties. The SEM-EDS clearly reveals the formation of highly porous material with a uniform distribution of MoS₂ and WS₂ phases. In conclusion, a novice strategy for fabrication of 3D nanostructured MoS₂-WS₂/graphene is presented. The characterizations revealed that the in-situ formed promoters uniformly dispersed on to few layered MoS₂¬-WS₂ nanosheets that are well-supported on graphene surface. The resulting 3D hybrids hold high promise as potential electrocatalyst and hydrodesulfurization catalyst.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1879
96528
Protective Role of CoQ10 or L-Carnitine on the Integrity of the Myocardium in Doxorubicin Induced Toxicity
Abstract:
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of different cancers and its clinical usage is hindered by the oxidative injury-related cardiotoxicity. This work aims to declare if the harmful effects of DOX on the heart can be alleviated with the use of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or L-carnitine. The study was performed on seventy-two female Wistar albino rats divided into six groups, 12 animals each: Control group; DOX group (10 mg/kg); CoQ10 group (200 mg/kg); L-carnitine group (100 mg/kg); DOX + CoQ10 group; DOX + L-carnitine group. CoQ10 and L-carnitine treatment orally started five days before a single dose of 10 mg/kg DOX that injected intraperitoneally (IP) then the treatment continued for ten days. At the end of the study, serum biochemical parameters of cardiac damage, oxidative stress indices, and histopathological changes were investigated. CoQ10 or L-carnitine showed noticeable effects in improving cardiac functions evidenced reducing serum enzymes as serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), leptin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiotrophin-1, Troponin-I and Troponin-T. Also, alleviate oxidative stress, decrease of cardiac Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) and restoring cardiac reduced glutathione levels to normal levels. Both corrected the cardiac alterations histologically and ultrastructurally. With visible improvements in -SMA, vimentin and eNOS immunohistochemical markers. CoQ10 or L-carnitine supplementation improves the functional and structural integrity of the myocardium.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1878
96012
Temperature Dependent Magneto-Transport Properties of MnAl Binary Alloy Thin Films
Abstract:
High perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and low damping constant (α) in ferromagnets are one of the few necessary requirements for their potential applications in the field of spintronics. In this regards, ferromagnetic τ-phase of MnAl possesses the highest PMA (Ku > 107 erg/cc) at room temperature, high saturation magnetization (Ms~800 emu/cc) and a Curie temperature of ~395K. In this work, we have investigated the magnetotransport behaviour of this potentially useful binary system MnₓAl₁₋ₓ films were synthesized by co-sputtering (pulsed DC magnetron sputtering) on Si/SiO₂ (where SiO₂ is native oxide layer) substrate using 99.99% pure Mn and Al sputtering targets. Films of constant thickness (~25 nm) were deposited at the different growth temperature (Tₛ) viz. 30, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ºC with a deposition rate of ~5 nm/min. Prior to deposition, the chamber was pumped down to a base pressure of 2×10⁻⁷ Torr. During sputtering, the chamber was maintained at a pressure of 3.5×10⁻³ Torr with the 55 sccm Ar flow rate. Films were not capped for the purpose of electronic transport measurement, which leaves a possibility of metal oxide formation on the surface of MnAl (both Mn and Al have an affinity towards oxide formation). In-plane and out-of-plane transverse magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on films sputtered under optimized growth conditions revealed non-saturating behavior with MR values ~6% and 40% at 9T, respectively at 275 K. Resistivity shows a parabolic dependence on the field H, when the H is weak. At higher H, non-saturating positive MR that increases exponentially with the strength of magnetic field is observed, a typical character of hopping type conduction mechanism. An anomalous decrease in MR is observed on lowering the temperature. From the temperature dependence of reistivity, it is inferred that the two competing states are metallic and semiconducting, respectively and the energy scale of the phenomenon produces the most interesting effects, i.e., the metal-insulator transition and hence the maximum sensitivity to external fields, at room temperature. Theory of disordered 3D systems effectively explains the crossover temperature coefficient of resistivity from positive to negative with lowering of temperature. These preliminary findings on the MR behavior of MnAl thin films will be presented in detail. The anomalous large MR in mixed phase MnAl system is evidently useful for future spintronic applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1877
95973
Asymmetric Synthesis of Catalponol Using Chiral Iridium Catalyst
Abstract:
The development of catalytic asymmetric reaction is important for the synthesis of natural products. To construct the multiple stereogenic centers, the desymmetrization of meso compounds is powerful strategy for the synthesis of chiral molecules. Oxidative desymmetrization of meso diols using chiral iridium catalyst provides a chiral hydroxyl ketone. The reaction is practical and an environmentally benign method which does not require the use of stoichiometric amount of heavy metals. This time we report here catalytic asymmetric synthesis of catalponol based on tandem coupling of meso-diols and an aldehyde. The tandem reaction includes oxidative desymmetrization of meso-diols, aldol condensation with an aldehyde. The reaction of meso-diol, benzaldehyde in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral Ir complex and CsOH in tetrahydrofuran afforded the desired benzylidene ketone in 82% yield with 96% ee (enantiomeric excess). Next, we applied this benzylidene ketone derivative to the synthesis of catalponol. The corresponding benzylidene ketone was obtained in 87% yield with 99% ee. Finally, catalponol was synthesized by the regio- and stereo-selective reduction of dienone moiety in good yield.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1876
95887
Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO₂/CH₄ Feed Ratio
Abstract:
Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH₄ and CO₂) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H₂ and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO₂ and CH₄ conversions, H₂ and CO yields and syngas H₂/CO ratio and were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO₂/CH₄ molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH₄, CO₂ and N₂ of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH₄ and CO₂ yield of H₂, CO and H₂/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively were achieved. The results of this work show the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO₂/CH₄ ratio.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1875
95533
Magnetic Carriers of Organic Selenium (IV) Compounds: Physicochemical Properties and Possible Applications in Anticancer Therapy
Abstract:
Despite the significant progress in cancer treatment, there is a need to search for new therapeutic methods in order to minimize side effects. Chemotherapy, the main current method of treating cancer, is non-selective and has a number of limitations. Toxicity to healthy cells is undoubtedly the biggest problem limiting the use of many anticancer drugs. The problem of how to kill cancer without harming a patient can be solved by using organic selenium (IV) compounds. Organic selenium (IV) compounds are a new class of materials showing a strong anticancer activity. They are first organic compounds containing selenium at the +4 oxidation level and therefore they eliminate the multidrug-resistance for all tumor cell lines tested so far. These materials are capable of selectively killing cancer cells without damaging the healthy ones. They are obtained by the incorporation of selenous acid (H2SeO3) into molecules of fatty acids of sunflower oil and therefore, they are inexpensive to manufacture. Attaching these compounds to magnetic carriers enables their precise delivery directly to the tumor area and the simultaneous application of the magnetic hyperthermia, thus creating a huge opportunity to effectively get rid of the tumor without any side effects. Polylactic-co-glicolic acid (PLGA) nanocapsules loaded with maghemite (-Fe2O3) nanoparticles and organic selenium (IV) compounds are successfully prepared by nanoprecipitation method. In vitro antitumor activity of the nanocapsules were evidenced using murine melanoma (B16-F10), oral squamos carcinoma (OSCC) and murine (4T1) and human (MCF-7) breast lines. Further exposure of these cells to an alternating magnetic field increased the antitumor effect of nanocapsules. Moreover, the nanocapsules presented antitumor effect while not affecting normal cells. Magnetic properties of the nanocapsules were investigated by means of dc magnetization, ac susceptibility and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The nanocapsules presented a typical superparamagnetic behavior around room temperature manifested itself by the split between zero field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC/FC) magnetization curves and the absence of hysteresis on the field-dependent magnetization curve above the blocking temperature. Moreover, the blocking temperature decreased with increasing applied magnetic field. The superparamagnetic character of the nanocapsules was also confirmed by the occurrence of a maximum in temperature dependences of both real ′(T) and imaginary ′′ (T) components of the ac magnetic susceptibility, which shifted towards higher temperatures with increasing frequency. Additionally, upon decreasing the temperature the ESR signal shifted to lower fields and gradually broadened following closely the predictions for the ESR of superparamagnetoc nanoparticles. The observed superparamagnetic properties of nanocapsules enable their simple manipulation by means of magnetic field gradient, after introduction into the blood stream, which is a necessary condition for their use as magnetic drug carriers. The observed anticancer and superparamgnetic properties show that the magnetic nanocapsules loaded with organic selenium (IV) compounds should be considered as an effective material system for magnetic drug delivery and magnetohyperthermia inductor in antitumor therapy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1874
95277
N₂O₂ Salphen-Like Ligand and Its Pd(II), Ag(I) and Cu(II) Complexes as Potentially Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis, Antimicrobial, CT-DNA Binding and Molecular Docking
Abstract:
In this investigation, Cu(II), Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes with the tetra-dentate DSPH Schiff base ligand were synthesized. The DSPH Schiff base and its complexes were characterized by using different physicochemical and spectral analysis. The results revealed that the metal ions coordinated with DSPH ligand through azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen. Cu(II), Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes are present in a 1:1 molar ratio. Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes have square planar geometries while, Cu(II) has a distorted octahedral (Oh) geometry. All investigated complexes are nonelectrolytes. The investigated compounds were tested against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Both prepared compounds showed good results of inhibition against the selected pathogenic microorganism. Moreover, the interaction of investigated complexes with CT-DNA was studied via various techniques and the binding modes are mainly intercalative and grooving modes. Operating Environment MOE package was used to do docking studies for the investigated complexes to explore the potential binding mode and energy. Furthermore, the growth inhibitory effect of the investigated compounds was examined on some cancer cells lines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1873
94830
Single Ion Conductors for Lithium-Ion Battery Application
Abstract:
Next generation lithium batteries are taking more attention and single-ion polymer electrolytes are expected to play a significant role in the development of these kinds of energy storage systems. In the present work we used a different strategy to design of novel solid single-ion conducting inorganic polymer electrolytes based on lithium polyvinyl alcohol oxalate borate (Li(PVAOB), lithium polyacrylic acid oxalate borate (LiPAAOB) and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). Free radical polymerization was used to convert PEGMA into PPEGMA and LiPAAOB is prepared from poly (acrylic acid), oxalic acid and boric acid. Blend polymer electrolytes were produced by mixing of LiPAAOB or Li (PVAOB with PPEGMA at different stoichiometric ratios to enhance the single ion conductivity of the systems. To exploit the flexible chemistry and increase the segmental mobility of the blend electrolyte, the composition was changed up to 80% with respect to the guest polymer, PPEGMA. FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter techniques confirmed the interaction between the host and guest polymers. TGA verified that the thermal stability of the blends increased up to approximately 200 C. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the homogeneity of the blend electrolytes. CV studies showed that electrochemical stability electrochemical stability window is approximately 5 V versus Li/Li⁺. The effect of PPEGMA on to the Lithium-ion conductivity was investigated using dielectric impedance analyzer. The maximum single ion conductivity was measured as 1.3 × 10⁻⁴ S/cm at 100 C for the sample LiPAAOB-80PPEGMA. Clearly, the results confirmed the positive effect to the increment in ionic conductivity of the blend electrolytes with the addition of PPEGMA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1872
94598
Silica Nanoparticles Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in MRC-5 Human Lung Fibroblasts
Abstract:
Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) are widely used in consumer products such as paints, plastics, insulation materials, tires, concrete production, as well as in gene delivery systems and imaging procedures. Environmental human exposure to them occurs during utilization of these products, in a time-dependent manner, the uptake being by topic and inhalation route especially. SiO2-NPs enter cells and induce membrane damage, oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in a concentration-dependent manner. In this study, MRC-5 cells (human fetal lung fibroblasts) were exposed to amorphous SiO2-NPs at a dose of 62.5 μg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The size distribution of NPs was a lognormal function, in the range 3-14 nm. A time-dependent decrease of total reduced glutathione concentration by 36%, 50%, and 78% and an increase of NO level by 62%, 32%, respectively 24% compared to control were noticed. An up-regulation of NF-kB expression by 20%, 50% respectively 10% and of Nrf-2 by 139%, 58%, and 16% compared to control after 24, 48 and 72 hours was noticed also. The expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2 was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. Also, the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were down-regulated after 48 and 72 hours, whereas their activities raised in a time-dependent manner. Exposure of cells to NPs up-regulated the expression of inducible NO synthase, as previously was shown, and probably this is the reason for the increased level of NO, that can react with the thiol groups of reduced glutathione molecules, diminishing its concentration Nrf2 is a transcription factor translocated in nucleus, under oxidative stress, where downstream gene expression activates in order to modulate the adaptive intracellular response against oxidative stress. The cross-talk between Nrf2 and NF-kB activities regulates the inflammatory processes. The activation of NF-kB could activate up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. The increase of COX-2 expression could be correlated with IL-1β one. Also, probably in response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were induced and activated. In conclusion, the exposure of MRC-5 cells to SiO2-NPs generated inflammation in a time-dependent manner.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1871
94596
A Computational Study Concerning the Biological Effects of the Most Commonly Used Phthalates
Abstract:
Phthalates are a class of plastic additives that are used to enhance the physical properties of plastics and as solvents in paintings and some of them proved to be of particular concern for the human health. There are insufficient data concerning the health risks of phthalates and further research on evaluating their effects in humans is needed. As humans are not volunteers for such experiments, computational analysis may be used to predict the biological effects of phthalates in humans. Within this study we have used some computational approaches (SwissADME, admetSAR, FAFDrugs) for predicting the absorption, distribution, metabolization, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiles and pharmacokinetics for the most common used phthalates. These computational tools are based on quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling approach. The predictions are further compared to the known effects of each considered phthalate in humans and correlations between computational results and experimental data are discussed. Our data revealed that phthalates are a class of compounds reflecting high toxicity both when ingested and when inhaled, but by inhalation their toxicity is even greater. The predicted harmful effects of phthalates are: toxicity and irritations of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, dyspnea, skin and eye irritations and disruption of the functions of liver and of the reproductive system. Many of investigated phthalates are predicted to be able to inhibit some of the cytochromes involved in the metabolism of numerous drugs and consequently to affect the efficiency of administrated treatments for many diseases and to intensify the adverse drugs reactions. The obtained predictions are in good agreement with clinical data concerning the observed effects of some phthalates in cases of acute exposures. Our study emphasizes the possible health effects of numerous phthalates and underlines the applicability of computational methods for predicting the biological effects of xenobiotics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1870
94508
A Near Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study on Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks
Abstract:
The first near ambient pressure (NAP)-XPS study of CO oxidation over Pt nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into Zr-based UiO (UiO for Universitetet i Oslo) MOFs was carried out. For this purpose, the MOF-based Catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation ([email protected]) and linker design ([email protected]) methods along with [email protected]₂ as the control catalyst. Firstly, the as-synthesized catalysts were reduced in situ prior to the operando XPS analysis. The existence of Pt(II) species was proved in UiO-67 by observing Pt 4f core level peaks at a high binding energy of 72.6 ± 0.1 eV. However, by heating the [email protected] catalyst in situ to 200 °C under vacuum, the higher BE components disappear, leaving only the metallic Pt 4f doublet, confirming the formation of Pt NPs. The complete reduction of [email protected] is achieved at 250 °C and 1 mbar H₂. To understand the chemical state of Pt NPs in UiO-67 during catalytic turnover, we analyzed the Pt 4f region using operando NAP-XPS in the temperature-programmed measurements (100-260 °C) with reference to [email protected]₂ catalyst. CO conversion during NAP-XPS experiments with the stoichiometric mixture shows that [email protected] has a better CO turnover frequency (TOF, 0.066 s⁻¹ at 260 °C) than the other two (ca. 0.055 s⁻¹). Pt 4f peaks only show one chemical species present at all temperatures, but the core level BE shifts change as a function of reaction temperature, i.e., Pt 4f peak from 71.8 eV at T < 200 °C to 71.2 eV at T > 200 °C. As this higher BE state of 71.8 eV was not observed after in situ reductions of the catalysts and only once the CO/O₂ mixture was introduced, we attribute it to the surface saturation of Pt NPs with adsorbed CO. In general, the quantitative analysis of Pt 4f data from the operando NAP-XPS experiments shows that the surface chemistry of the Pt active phase in the two [email protected] catalysts is the same, comparable to that of [email protected]₂. The observed difference in the catalytic activity can be attributed to the particle sizes of Pt NPs, as well as the dispersion of active phase in the support, which are different in the three catalysts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1869
94448
[Keynote Talk]: Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of ZnO of Different Morphologies by Solvent Variation
Abstract:
ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation from simple linear alcohols and water/ethanolic mixtures, at 50 oC. By changing the composition of the solvent, the shape could be altered. While no product was obtained from methanolic solutions, in ethanol, sheet like lamellar structures prevail.n-propanol and n-butanol resulted in needle like structures. The morphology of ZnO could be thus tailored in a simple way, by varying the solvent, under ultrasonic irradiation, in a relatively less time consuming method. Variation of the morphology and size of Zn also provides a means for modulating the band-gap. Although the chemical effects of ultrasound do not come from direct interaction with molecular species, the high energy derived from acoustic cavitation creates a unique interaction of energy and matter with great potential for synthesis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1868
94178
Selective Conversion of Biodiesel Derived Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol over Highly Efficient γ-Al2O3 Supported Bimetallic Cu-Ni Catalyst
Abstract:
During past two decades, considerable attention has been given to the value addition of biodiesel derived glycerol (~10wt.%) to make the biodiesel industry economically viable. Among the various glycerol value-addition methods, hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol is one of the attractive and promising routes. In this study, highly active and selective γ-Al₂O₃ supported bimetallic Cu-Ni catalyst was developed for selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol in the liquid phase. The catalytic performance was evaluated in a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The formation of mixed oxide indicated the strong interaction of Cu, Ni with the alumina support. Experimental results demonstrated that bimetallic copper-nickel catalyst was more active and selective to 1,2-PDO as compared to monometallic catalysts due to bifunctional behavior. To verify the effect of calcination temperature on the formation of Cu-Ni mixed oxide phase, the calcination temperature of 20wt.% Cu:Ni(1:1)/Al₂O₃ catalyst was varied from 300°C-550°C. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as specific surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction study (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The BET surface area and pore volume of the catalysts were in the range of 71-78 m²g⁻¹, and 0.12-0.15 cm³g⁻¹, respectively. The peaks at the 2θ range of 43.3°-45.5° and 50.4°-52°, was corresponded to the copper-nickel mixed oxidephase [JCPDS: 78-1602]. The formation of mixed oxide indicated the strong interaction of Cu, Ni with the alumina support. The crystallite size decreased with increasing the calcination temperature up to 450°C. Further, the crystallite size was increased due to agglomeration. Smaller crystallite size of 16.5 nm was obtained for the catalyst calcined at 400°C. Total acidic sites of the catalysts were determined by NH₃-TPD, and the maximum total acidic of 0.609 mmol NH₃ gcat⁻¹ was obtained over the catalyst calcined at 400°C. TPR data suggested the maximum of 75% degree of reduction of catalyst calcined at 400°C among all others. Further, 20wt.%Cu:Ni(1:1)/γ-Al₂O₃ catalyst calcined at 400°C exhibited highest catalytic activity ( > 70%) and 1,2-PDO selectivity ( > 85%) at mild reaction condition due to highest acidity, highest degree of reduction, smallest crystallite size. Further, the modified Power law kinetic model was developed to understand the true kinetic behaviour of hydrogenolysis of glycerol over 20wt.%Cu:Ni(1:1)/γ-Al₂O₃ catalyst. Rate equations obtained from the model was solved by ode23 using MATLAB coupled with Genetic Algorithm. Results demonstrated that the model predicted data were very well fitted with the experimental data. The activation energy of the formation of 1,2-PDO was found to be 45 kJ mol⁻¹.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1867
94053
Cross-Validation of the Data Obtained for ω-6 Linoleic and ω-3 α-Linolenic Acids Concentration of Hemp Oil Using Jackknife and Bootstrap Resampling
Abstract:
Hemp (Cannabis sativa) possesses a rich content of ω-6 linoleic and ω-3 linolenic essential fatty acid in the ratio of 3:1, which is a rare and most desired ratio that enhances the quality of hemp oil. These components are beneficial for the development of cell and body growth, strengthen the immune system, possess anti-inflammatory action, lowering the risk of heart problem owing to its anti-clotting property and a remedy for arthritis and various disorders. The present study employs supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) approach on hemp seed at various conditions of parameters; temperature (40 - 80) °C, pressure (200 - 350) bar, flow rate (5 - 15) g/min, particle size (0.430 - 1.015) mm and amount of co-solvent (0 - 10) % of solvent flow rate through central composite design (CCD). CCD suggested 32 sets of experiments, which was carried out. As SFE process includes large number of variables, the present study recommends the application of resampling techniques for cross-validation of the obtained data. Cross-validation refits the model on each data to achieve the information regarding the error, variability, deviation etc. Bootstrap and jackknife are the most popular resampling techniques, which create a large number of data through resampling from the original dataset and analyze these data to check the validity of the obtained data. Jackknife resampling is based on the eliminating one observation from the original sample of size N without replacement. For jackknife resampling, the sample size is 31 (eliminating one observation), which is repeated by 32 times. Bootstrap is the frequently used statistical approach for estimating the sampling distribution of an estimator by resampling with replacement from the original sample. For bootstrap resampling, the sample size is 32, which was repeated by 100 times. Estimands for these resampling techniques are considered as mean, standard deviation, variation coefficient and standard error of the mean. For ω-6 linoleic acid concentration, mean value was approx. 58.5 for both resampling methods, which is the average (central value) of the sample mean of all data points. Similarly, for ω-3 linoleic acid concentration, mean was observed as 22.5 through both resampling. Variance exhibits the spread out of the data from its mean. Greater value of variance exhibits the large range of output data, which is 18 for ω-6 linoleic acid (ranging from 48.85 to 63.66 %) and 6 for ω-3 linoleic acid (ranging from 16.71 to 26.2 %). Further, low value of standard deviation (approx. 1 %), low standard error of the mean (< 0.8) and low variance coefficient (< 0.2) reflect the accuracy of the sample for prediction. All the estimator value of variance coefficients, standard deviation and standard error of the mean are found within the 95 % of confidence interval.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1866
93987
Biosorption of Methylene Blue and Acid Red-88 from Wastewater by Using Cypress Cones
Authors:
Abstract:
This study represents the removal of harmful dye substances from wastewaters by using waste and cheap adsorbents. Rapid population growth and industrialization occasion anthropogenic pollution which gives irreversible damage to the environment. One of the ways in which water pollution occurs is caused by the release of the dyestuffs in the textile industry. The release of dyestuffs to the environment directly damages the living creatures that have acquired water habitat. Especially, wastewater cannot be used for nutritional purposes. In addition, some adsorbents have mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effects. By blocking photosynthesis, it hinders the inhibition of photosynthetic bacteria in the water, which damages the ecological balance and also causes the formation of malodorous compounds. Moreover, the lack of oxygen can pose a serious danger to the lives of other living organisms that need oxygen. In recent years, some physical and chemical methods are preferred for the removal of dyestuffs. However, the utilization of these methods is expensive. For this reason, the availability of new and cheap adsorbents becomes the more significant issue. In this study, an investigation of various variables on the removal of Methylene Blue and Acid Red-88 dyestuffs from wastewaters by the usage of pulverized cypress cones has been carried out. Thus, various masses of absorbent (0.1-0.25-0.5-1-2-4-5 grams) are used in 50, 100, 150, 200, 300 ppm concentrations of Methylene Blue and Acid Red-88 dyestuffs’ solutions, and with a variety of the interaction time (0.25-0.5-1-2-4-5 hours). The mixtures were centrifuged and the absorbance of the filtrates was measured on a UV spectrophotometer to determine their remaining concentrations. In the study, the highest removal ratio of Acid Red-88 dyestuff was found to be 81% at 200 ppm of dyestuff with 2 grams of adsorbent at 300 minutes. For Methylene Blue experiments, the removal percentage was found as 98% where 2 grams of adsorbent is used in 200 ppm dyestuff solution at 120 minutes of interaction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1865
93791
Comparative Study of Solid State and Solution Aldol Reaction of Lithium Enolate of Pinacolone
Abstract:
We reported a systematic study of the solid-state aldol reactions of lithium pinacolone enolate with various aromatic solid aldehydes, in comparison with the same reactions performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. In solution, the reactions are selective with the aldol condensation product, except for the reaction involving 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. In the solid state, the reactions with THF-solvated lithium enolate of pinacolone showed the mixture of aldol condensation and aldol addition products. The usage of unsolvated lithium enolate of pinacolone in the solid-state reactions resulted in a higher ratio of aldol addition to aldol condensation product than THF-solvated lithium enolate of pinacolone. At lower temperatures (0 °C), the solid-state reactions can afford a higher ratio of aldol addition to aldol condensation product in the system. The solid-state reactions generally afforded low yields and low conversion of the aldehydes. For those aldehydes with halogen group on the para position of benzaldehyde, the Tishchenko product was formed in a large amount in the system catalyzed by lithium enolate of pinacolone (as the strong base).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1864
93787
Participation in IAEA Proficiency Test to Analyse Cobalt, Strontium and Caesium in Seawater Using Direct Counting and Radiochemical Techniques
Abstract:
Radiation monitoring in the environment and foodstuffs is one of the main responsibilities of Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) as the nuclear regulatory body of Thailand. The main goal of the OAP is to assure the safety of the Thai people and environment from any radiological incidents. Various radioanalytical methods have been developed to monitor radiation and radionuclides in the environmental and foodstuff samples. To validate our analytical performance, several proficiency test exercises from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been performed. Here, the results of a proficiency test exercise referred to as the Proficiency Test for Tritium, Cobalt, Strontium and Caesium Isotopes in Seawater 2017 (IAEA-RML-2017-01) are presented. All radionuclides excepting &sup3;H were analysed using various radioanalytical methods, i.e. direct gamma-ray counting for determining ⁶⁰Co, &sup1;&sup3;⁴Cs and &sup1;&sup3;⁷Cs and developed radiochemical techniques for analysing &sup1;&sup3;⁴Cs, &sup1;&sup3;⁷Cs using AMP pre-concentration technique and 90Sr using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) liquid extraction technique. The analysis results were submitted to IAEA. All results passed IAEA criteria, i.e. accuracy, precision and trueness and obtained &lsquo;Accepted&rsquo; statuses. These confirm the data quality from the OAP environmental radiation laboratory to monitor radiation in the environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1863
93748
Effect of Lithium Bromide Concentration on the Structure and Performance of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Wastewater Treatment
Abstract:
The requirements for quality drinking and industrial water are increasing and water resources are depleting. Moreover large amount of wastewater is being generated and dumped into water bodies without treatment. These have made improvement in water treatment efficiency and its reuse, an important agenda. Membrane technology for wastewater treatment is an advanced process and has become increasingly popular in past few decades. There are many traditional methods for tertiary treatment such as chemical coagulation, adsorption, etc. However recent developments in membrane technology field have led to manufacturing of better quality membranes at reduced costs. This along with the high costs of conventional treatment processes, high separation efficiency and relative simplicity of the membrane treatment process has made it an economically viable option for municipal and industrial purposes. Ultrafiltration polymeric membranes can be used for wastewater treatment and drinking water applications. The proposed work focuses on preparation of one such UF membrane - Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) doped with LiBr for wastewater treatment. Majorly all polymeric membranes are hydrophobic in nature. This property leads to repulsion of water and hence solute particles occupy the pores, decreasing the lifetime of a membrane. Thus modification of membrane through addition of small amount of salt such as LiBr helped us attain certain characteristics of membrane, which can then be used for wastewater treatment. The membrane characteristics are investigated through measuring its various properties such as porosity, contact angle and wettability to find out the hydrophilic nature of the membrane and morphology (surface as well as structure). Pure water flux, solute rejection and permeability of membrane is determined by permeation experiments. A study of membrane characteristics with various concentration of LiBr helped us to compare its effectivity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1862
93377
Kinetics Analysis of Lignocellulose Hydrolysis and Glucose Consumption Using Aspergillus niger in Solid State
Abstract:
One decisive stage in bioethanol production from plant biomass is the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials into simple sugars such as glucose. The produced glucose is then fermented into ethanol. This stage is popularly done in biological method by using cellulase that is produced by certain fungi. As it is known, glucose is the main source of nutrition for most microorganisms. Therefore, cutting cellulose into glucose is actually an attempt of microorganism to provide nutrition for itself. So far, this phenomenon has received less attention while it is necessary to identify the quantity of sugar consumed by the microorganism. In this study, we examined the phenomenon of sugar consumption by microorganism on lignocellulosic hydrolysis. We used oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) as the source of lignocellulose and Aspergillus niger as cellulase-producing fungus. In Indonesia, OPEFB is plantation waste that is difficult to decompose in nature and causes environmental problems. First, OPEFB was pretreated with 1% of NaOH at 170 oC to destroy lignin that hindered A.niger from accessing cellulose. The hydrolysis was performed by growing A.niger on pretreated OPEFB in solid state to minimize the possibility of contamination. The produced glucose was measured every 24 hours for 9 days. We analyzed the kinetics of both reactions, i.e., hydrolysis and glucose consumption, simultaneously. The constants for both reactions were assumed to follow the Monod equation. The results showed that the reaction constant of glucose consumption (μC) was higher than of cellulose hydrolysis (μH), i.e., 11.8 g/L and 0.62 g/L for glucose consumption and hydrolysis respectively. However, in general, the reaction rate of hydrolysis is greater than of glucose consumption since the cellulose concentration as substrate in hydrolysis is much higher than glucose as substrate in the consumption reaction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1861
93321
Kinetics of Growth Rate of Microalga: The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Light Intensity
Abstract:
Microalga is one of the organisms that can be considered ideal and potential for raw material of bioenergy production because the content of lipids in microalga is relatively high. Microalga is aquatic organism that produces complex organic compounds from inorganic molecules using carbon dioxide as carbon source, and sunlight for energy supply. Microalga-CO₂ fixation has potential advantages over other carbon captures and storage approaches, such as wide distribution, high photosynthetic rate, good environmental adaptability, and ease of operation. The rates of growth and CO₂ capture of microalga are influenced by CO₂ concentration and light intensity. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of CO₂ concentration and light intensity on the rates of growth and CO₂ capture of a type of microalga, C. vulgaris, cultivated in bioreactors. The works include laboratory experiments as well as mathematical modeling. The mathematical models were solved numerically, and the accuracy of the model was tested by the experimental data. It turned out that the mathematical model proposed can well quantitatively describe the growth and CO₂ capture of microalga, in which the effects of CO₂ concentration and light intensity can be observed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1860
93052
Analysis of Bio-Oil Produced from Sugar Cane Bagasse Pyrolysis
Abstract:
Currently, fossil fuel is supplying most of world’s energy resources. However, fossil fuel resources are depleted rapidly and require an alternative energy to overcome the increasing of energy demands. Bio-oil is one of a promising alternative renewable energy resources which is converted from biomass through pyrolysis or fast pyrolysis process. Bio-oil is a dark liquid fuel, has a smelling smoke and usually obtained from sugar cane, wood, coconut shell and any other biomass. Sugar cane content analysis showed that the content of oligosaccharide, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was 16.69%, 25.66%, 51.27% and 6.38% respectively. Sugar cane is a potential sources for bio-oil production shown by its high content of cellulose. In this study, production of bio-oil from sugar cane bagasse was investigated via fast pyrolysis reactor. Fast pyrolysis was carried out at 500 °C with a heating rate of 10 °C and 1 hour holding time at pyrolysis temperature. Physical properties and chemical composition of bio-oil were analyzed. The viscosity, density, calorific value and molecular weight of produced bio-oil was 3.12 cp, 2.78 g/cm3, 11,048.44 cals/g, and 222.67 respectively. The Bio-oil chemical composition was investigated using GC-MS. Percentage value of furfural, phenol, 3-methyl 1,2-cyclopentanedione, 5-methyl-3-methylene 5-hexen-2-one, 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, and 2,6-dimethoxy phenol was 20.76%, 16.42%, 10.86%, 7.54%, 7.05%, 7.72%, 5.27% and 6.79% respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1859
92927
Rapid Plasmonic Colorimetric Glucose Biosensor via Biocatalytic Enlargement of Gold Nanostars
Abstract:
Frequent glucose monitoring is essential to the management of diabetes. Plasmonic enzyme-based glucose biosensors have the advantages of greater specificity, simplicity and rapidity. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid plasmonic colorimetric glucose biosensor based on biocatalytic enlargement of AuNS guided by GOx. Gold nanoparticles of 18 nm in diameter were synthesized using the citrate method. Using these as seeds, a modified seeded method for the synthesis of monodispersed gold nanostars was followed. Both the spherical and star-shaped nanoparticles were characterized using ultra-violet visible spectroscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The feasibility of a plasmonic colorimetric assay through growth of AuNS by silver coating in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by several control and optimization experiments. Conditions for excellent sensing such as the concentration of the detection solution in the presence of 20 µL AuNS, 10 mM of 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), ammonia and hydrogen peroxide were optimized. Using the optimized conditions, the glucose assay was developed by adding 5mM of GOx to the solution and varying concentrations of glucose to it. Kinetic readings, as well as color changes, were observed. The results showed that the absorbance values of the AuNS were blue shifting and increasing as the concentration of glucose was elevated. Control experiments indicated no growth of AuNS in the absence of GOx, glucose or molecular O₂. Increased glucose concentration led to an enhanced growth of AuNS. The detection of glucose was also done by naked-eye. The color development was near complete in ± 10 minutes. The kinetic readings which were monitored at 450 and 560 nm showed that the assay could discriminate between different concentrations of glucose by ± 50 seconds and near complete at ± 120 seconds. A calibration curve for the qualitative measurement of glucose was derived. The magnitude of wavelength shifts and absorbance values increased concomitantly with glucose concentrations until 90 µg/mL. Beyond that, it leveled off. The lowest amount of glucose that could produce a blue shift in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption maxima was found to be 10 – 90 µg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.12 µg/mL. This enabled the construction of a direct sensitivity plasmonic colorimetric detection of glucose using AuNS that was rapid, sensitive and cost-effective with naked-eye detection. It has great potential for transfer of technology for point-of-care devices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1858
92833
Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Studies of Magnesium-Iron Galvanic Couple
Abstract:
Magnesium galvanic corrosion plays an important role in the commercialization of Mg alloys in the automobile industry. This study aims at visualizing the electrochemical activity of the magnesium surface being coupled with pure iron in sulfate-chloride solutions. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to monitor the chemical activity of the surface and the data was compared with the conventional corrosion results such as potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and immersion tests. The SECM results showed that the chemical reactivity of Mg is higher than phosphate-permanganate-coated Mg. Regions in the vicinity of the galvanic couple boundary are very active in the magnesium phase and fully protected in the iron phase. Scanning electrochemical microscopy results showed that the conversion coating provided good corrosion resistance for magnesium in the short-term but fails at long-term testing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1857
92661
Prediction of the Regioselectivity of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Nitrile Oxides with 2(5H)-Furanones Using Recent Theoretical Reactivity Indices
Abstract:
The regioselectivity of a series of 16 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of nitrile oxides with 2(5H)-furanones has been analysed by means of global and local electrophilic and nucleophilic reactivity indices using density functional theory at the B3LYP level together with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The local electrophilicity and nucleophilicity indices, based on Fukui and Parr functions, have been calculated for the terminal sites, namely the C1 and O3 atoms of the 1,3-dipole and the C4 and C5 atoms of the dipolarophile. These local indices were calculated using both Mulliken and natural charges and spin densities. The results obtained show that the C5 atom of the 2(5H)-furanones is the most electrophilic site whereas the O3 atom of the nitrile oxides is the most nucleophilic centre. It turns out that the experimental regioselectivity is correctly reproduced, indicating that both Fukui- and Parr-based indices are efficient tools for the prediction of the regiochemistry of the studied reactions and could be used for the prediction of newly designed reactions of the same kind.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1856
92625
Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil to Biodiesel in a Continuous Spinning Disc Reactor
Abstract:
In the present work, spinning disc reactor has been used for the intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from refined palm oil (RPO) based on the transesterification reaction. Experiments have been performed using different spinning disc surface and under varying operating parameters viz. molar ratio of oil to methanol (over the range of 1:4.5–1:9), rotational speed (over the range of 500–2,000 rpm), total flow rate (over the range of 260-520 ml/min), and KOH catalyst loading of 1.50% by weight of oil. Maximum FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) yield (97.5 %) of biodiesel from RPO was obtained at oil to methanol ratio of 1:6, temperature of 60 °C, and rotational speed of 1500 rpm and flow rate of 520 mL/min using groove disc at KOH catalyst loading of 1.5 wt%. Also, higher yield efficiency (biodiesel produced per unit energy consumed) was obtained for using the spinning disc reactor based approach as compared to the ultrasound hydrodynamic cavitation and conventional mechanical stirrer reactors. It obviously offers a significant reduction in the reaction time for the transesterification, especially when compared with the reaction time of 90 minutes required for the conventional mechanical stirrer. It can be concluded that the spinning disk reactor is a promising alternative method for continuous biodiesel production.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1855
92220
Altering Surface Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Single-Step Surface Modification with Various Surface Active Agents
Abstract:
Owing to the dominating surface forces and large-scale surface interactions, the nano-scale particles face difficulties in getting suspended in various media. Magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide offer a great deal of promise due to their ease of preparation, reasonable magnetic properties, low cost and environmental compatibility. We intend to modify the surface of magnetic Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles with selected surface modifying agents using simple and effective single-step chemical reactions in order to enhance dispersibility of magnetic nanoparticles in non-polar media. Magnetic particles were prepared by hydrolysis of Fe²⁺/Fe³⁺ chlorides and their subsequent oxidation in aqueous medium. The dried particles were then treated with Octadecyl quaternary ammonium silane (Terrasil™), stearic acid and gallic acid ester of stearyl alcohol in ethanol separately to yield S-2 to S-4 respectively. The untreated Fe₂O₃ was designated as S-1. The surface modified nanoparticles were then analysed with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDAX). Characterization reveals the particle size averaging 20-50 nm with and without modification. However, the crystallite size in all cases remained ~7.0 nm with the diffractogram matching to Fe₂O₃ crystal structure. FT-IR suggested the presence of surfactants on nanoparticles’ surface, also confirmed by SEM-EDAX where mapping of elements proved their presence. TGA indicated the weight losses in S-2 to S-4 at 300°C onwards suggesting the presence of organic moiety. Hydrophobic character of modified surfaces was confirmed with contact angle analysis, all modified nanoparticles showed super hydrophobic behaviour with average contact angles ~129° for S-2, ~139.5° for S-3 and ~151° for S-4. This indicated that surface modified particles are super hydrophobic and they are easily dispersible in non-polar media. These modified particles could be ideal candidates to be suspended in oil-based fluids, polymer matrices, etc. We are pursuing elaborate suspension/sedimentation studies of these particles in various oils to establish this conjecture.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1854
92195
The Ameliorative Effects of Nanoencapsulated Triterpenoids from Petri-Dish Cultured Antrodia cinnamomea on Reproductive Function of Diabetic Male Rats
Abstract:
Male reproductive dysfunction is predominantly due to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia result in inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, nanotechnology provides an alternative approach to improve the bioavailability of natural active food ingredients. Therefore, the aim of this study were to investigate nanoencapsulated triterpenoids from petri-dish cultured Antrodia cinnamomea (PAC) nanoparticles whether it could increase the bioavailability; in addition, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects could more effectively ameliorate the reproductive function of diabetic male rats. First, PAC encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles (Nano-PAC) were prepared by biosilicification method. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the average particle size is about 30 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency is 83.7% by HPLC. Diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by high fat diet (40% kcal from fat) and streptozotocin (35 mg/kg). Nano-PAC was administered by oral gavage in three doses (4, 8 and 20 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Besides, metformin (300 mg/kg) and nanoparticles (Nano) were treated as the positive and negative control respectively. Results indicated that 4 mg/kg Nano-PAC administration for 6 weeks improved hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and also reduced advanced glycation end products in plasma. In addition, 8 mg/kg Nano-PAC ameliorated morphological of testicular seminiferous tubules, sperm morphology and motility, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, 20 mg/kg Nano-PAC restored reproductive endocrine system function and increased KiSS-1 level in plasma. In plasma or testis anti-oxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were increased whereas malondialdehyde, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-gamma, decreased. Most importantly, 8 mg/kg Nano-PAC down-regulated the oxidative stress induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Our study successfully nanoencapsulated PAC to form nanoparticles and low-dose Nano-PAC improved diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, inflammation and oxidative stress to ameliorate the reproductive function of diabetic male rats.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1853
92184
Effects of Nanoencapsulated Echinacea purpurea Ethanol Extract on the Male Reproductive Function in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem that affects patients’ life quality throughout the world due to its many complications. It characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with oxidative stress, which impaired male reproductive function. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator that is required for normal spermatogenesis and protects against diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis. Echinacea purpurea ethanol extract (EE), which contain phenolic acid and isobutylamide, had been proven to have antidiabetic property. Silica-chitosan nanoparticles (Nano-CS) has drug delivery and controlled release properties. This study aims to investigate whether silica-chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated EE (Nano-EE) had more ameliorating male infertility by analyzing the effect of testicular FGF21. The Nano-EE was characterized before used to treatment the diabetic rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were obtained and divided into seven groups. A group was no induced Streptozotocin (STZ), marked as normal group. Diabetic rats were induced into diabetes by STZ (33 mg/kg). A diabetic group was no treatment with sample (diabetic control group), and other groups were treatment by Nano-CS (465 mg/kg), Nano-EE (93, 279, 465 mg/kg), and metformin (Met) (200 mg/kg) used as reference drug for 7 weeks. Our results indicated that the average nanoparticle size and zeta potential of Nano-EE were 2630 nm and -21.3 mV, respectively. The encapsulation ratio of Nano-EE was about 70%. It also confirmed the antioxidative activity was unchanged by comparing the DPPH and ABTS scavenging of Nano-EE and EE. In vivo test, Nano-EE can improve the STZ induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and plasma FGF21 levels. Nano-EE has increased sperm motility, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), plasma testosterone level, and reduction of abnormal sperm, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide production as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, in plasma antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, and IL-1β were decreased. Further, in testis, protein content of FGF21, PGC-1α, and SIRT1 were improved. Nano-EE might improve diabetes-induced down-regulation of testicular FGF21 and SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling hence maintain spermatogenesis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1852
92068
Reaction Kinetics for the Pyrolysis of Urea Phosphate
Abstract:
The production of the clear liquid fertilizer ammonium polyphosphate (APP) is best achieved by the pyrolysis of urea phosphate, as it produces a product that is free from any of the impurities present in the raw phosphoric acid it was made from. This is a multiphase, multi-step reaction that produces carbon dioxide and ammonia as gasses and ammonium polyphosphate as liquid products. The polyphosphate chain length affects the solubility and thus the applicability of the product as liquid fertiliser, thus proper control of the reaction conditions is thus required for the use of this reaction in the production of fertilisers. This study investigates the reaction kinetics of the aforementioned reaction, describing a mathematical model for the kinetics of the reaction along with the accompanying rate constants. The reaction is initially exothermic, producing only carbon dioxide as a gas product and ammonium diphosphate, at higher temperatures the reaction becomes endothermic, producing ammonia gas as an additional by-product and longer chain polyphosphates, which when condensed too far becomes highly water insoluble. The aim of this study was to (i) characterise the pyrolysis reaction of urea phosphate by determining the mechanisms and the associated kinetic constants, and (ii) to determine the optimum conditions for ammonium diphosphate production. A qualitative investigation was also done to find the rate of hydrolysis of APP as this provides an estimate of the shelf life of an APP clear liquid fertiliser solution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1851
92023
Carbon Nanotubes Functionalization via Ullmann-Type Reactions Yielding C-C, C-O and C-N Bonds
Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent a combination of lightness and nanoscopic size with high tensile strength, excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. By now, CNTs have been used as a support in heterogeneous catalysis (CuCl anchored to pre-functionalized CNTs) in the Ullmann-type coupling with aryl halides toward formation of C-N and C-O bonds. The results indicated that the stability of the catalyst was much improved and the elaborated catalytic system was efficient and recyclable. However, CNTs have not been considered as the substrate itself in the Ullmann-type reactions. But if successful, this functionalization would open new areas of CNT chemistry leading to enhanced in-solvent/matrix nanotube individualization. The copper-catalyzed Ullmann-type reaction is an attractive method for the formation of carbon-heteroatom and carbon-carbon bonds in organic synthesis. This condensation reaction is usually conducted at temperature as high as 200 oC, often in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of copper reagent and with activated aryl halides. However, a small amount of organic additive (e.g. diamines, amino acids, diols, 1,10-phenanthroline) can be applied in order to increase the solubility and stability of copper catalyst, and at the same time to allow performing the reaction under mild conditions. The copper (pre-)catalyst is prepared by in situ mixing of copper salt and the appropriate chelator. Our research is focused on the application of Ullmann-type reaction for the covalent functionalization of CNTs. Firstly, CNTs were chlorinated by using iodine trichloride (ICl3) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). This method involves formation of several chemical species (ICl, Cl2 and I2Cl6), but the most reactive is the dimer. The fact (that the dimer is the main individual in CCl4) is the reason for high reactivity and possibly high functionalization levels of CNTs. This method, indeed, yielded a notable amount of chlorine onto the MWCNT surface. The next step was the reaction of CNT-Cl with three substrates: aniline, iodobenzene and phenol for the formation C-N, C-C and C-O bonds, respectively, in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as a base. As the CNT substrates, two multi-wall CNT (MWCNT) types were used: commercially available Nanocyl NC7000™ (9.6 nm diameter, 1.5 µm length, 90% purity) and thicker MWCNTs (in-house) synthesized in our laboratory using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD). In-house CNTs had diameter ranging between 60-70 nm and length up to 300 µm. Since classical Ullmann reaction was found as suffering from poor yields, we have investigated the effect of various solvents (toluene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and N,N-dimethylformamide) on the coupling of substrates. Owing to the fact that the aryl halides show the reactivity order of I>Br>Cl>F, we have also investigated the effect of iodine presence on CNT surface on reaction yield. In this case, in first step we have used iodine monochloride instead of iodine trichloride. Finally, we have used the optimized reaction conditions with p-bromophenol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene for the control of CNT dispersion.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):