Identifying Dynamic Structural Parameters of Soil-Structure System Based on Data Recorded during Strong Earthquakes
In many applied engineering problems, structural analysis is usually conducted by assuming a rigid bed, while imposing the effect of structure bed flexibility can affect significantly on the structure response. This article focuses on investigation and evaluation of the effects arising from considering a soil-structure system in evaluation of dynamic characteristics of a steel structure with respect to elastic and inelastic behaviors. The recorded structure acceleration during strong Chi-Chi earthquake on different floors of the structure was our evaluation criteria. The respective structure is an eight-story steel bending frame structure designed using displacement-based direct method assuring weak beam - strong column function. Results indicated that different identification methods, i.e. reverse Fourier transform and transfer functions, are capable to determine specific dynamic parameters of the structures, not all of them. Response evaluation based on the input and output data elucidated that the structure first mode is not significantly affected even considering soil-structure interaction effect, but the upper modes have been changed. Also, it was found that the response transfer function of the different stories in which plastic hinges have occurred, provides similar results.
Failure Analysis of Laminated Veneer Bamboo Dowel Connections
Laminated veneer bamboo (LVB) is a structural engineered composite made from glued layers of bamboo. It is a relatively new building product that is employed in similar sizes and applications as dimensional lumber. Being new, more research is needed to understand key factors and fundamental failure mechanisms that occur in LVB dowel connections to help devise safe standards and further LVB product adoption and design. This study develops 3D elastic Finite Element model for half-hole and full-hole specimens per ASTM 5764 when loaded in compression parallel-to-grain. The model simulates LVB fracture initiation due to shear stresses in the dowel joint by incorporating frictional stresses in the contact region between a steel bolt and LVB. The model also predicts displacement at failure validated through comparison with experimental results: The material fails at 1 and 1.18mm displacement loading parallel to the grain for half-hole and full-hole specimens respectively. It was found that despite the higher load bearing capacity (strength) of half-hole specimen, both specimens failed approximately at the same time due to in plane shear stresses. The paper clarifies the complex interactive state of in-plane shear, tension perpendicular-to-grain, and compression parallel-to-grain stresses that form different distributions in the critical zone beneath the bolt hole for half-hole and full-hole specimens. These findings suggest that care should be taken to select a test method that captures the performance of LVB dowel joints under realistic design conditions.
Numerical Study of Steel Structures Responses to External Explosions
Due to the constant increase in terrorist attacks, the research and engineering communities have given significant attention to building performance under explosions. This paper presents a methodology for studying and simulating the dynamic responses of steel structures during external detonations, particularly for accurately investigating the impact of incrementing charge weight on the members total behavior, resistant and failure. Prediction damage method was introduced to evaluate the damage level of the steel members due to five scenarios of explosions. Johnson–Cook strength and failure model has been used as well as ABAQUS finite element code to simulate the explicit dynamic analysis, and antecedent field tests were used to verify the acceptance and accuracy of the proposed material strength and failure model. Based on the structural response evaluation criteria such as deflection, vertical displacement, drift index, and damage level; the obtained results show the vulnerability of steel columns and un-braced steel frames which designed and optimized to carry dead and live load to resist and endure blast loading.
Variability of Energy Efficiency with the Application of Technologies Embedded in Locomotives of a Heavy Haul Railway: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil
In the transportation sector in Brazil, there is a great challenge that is the maintenance of profit in the face of the great variation in the price of diesel. This directly affects the variable cost of transport companies. Within the railways, part of the great challenges is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported, thus reducing costs compared to previous years, becoming more efficient each year. Within this scenario, the railway companies are looking for effective measures, aiming at reducing the ratio of liter of diesel consumed by KTKB (Kilometer Gross Ton multiplied by thousand). This ratio represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in Brazil and in other countries. In this study, we sought to analyze the behavior of the energy efficiency indicator on two parts: The first, with the application of technologies used in locomotives, such as the start-stop system of the diesel engine and the system of tracking and monitoring of fuel. The second, evaluation of the behavior of the variation of the type of cargo transported (loading mix). The study focused on locomotive technology will be carried out using statistical analysis, behavioral evaluation in different operating conditions, such as maneuvers for trains, service trains and freight trains. The analysis will also cover the evaluation of the loading mix made using statistical analysis of the existing railroad database, comparing the energy efficiency per loading mine and type of product. With the completion of this study, the railway undertakings should be able to better target decision-making in order to achieve substantial reductions in transport costs.
The Influence of Microcapsulated Phase Change Materials on Thermal Performance of Geopolymer Concrete
The total energy consumption is dramatically increasing on over the world, especially for building energy consumption where a significant proportion of energy is used for heating and cooling purposes. One of the solutions to reduce the energy consumption for the building is to improve construction techniques and enhance material technology. Recently, microcapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) with high energy storage capacity within the phase transition temperature of the materials is a potential method to conserve and save energy. A new composite material with high energy storage capacity by mixing MPCM into concrete for passive building technology is the promising candidate to reduce the energy consumption. One of the most unitilized building materials for mixing with MPCM is Portland cement concrete. However, the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to producing cement which plays the important role in the global warming is the main drawback of PCC. Accordingly, an environmentally friendly building material, geopolymer, which is synthesized by the reaction between the industrial waste material (aluminosilicate) and a strong alkali activator, is a potential material to mixing with MPCM. Especially, the effect of MPCM on the thermal and mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete (GPC) is very limited. In this study, high thermal energy storage capacity materials were fabricated by mixing MPCM into geopolymer concrete. This article would investigate the effect of MPCM concentration on thermal and mechanical properties of GPC. The target is to balance the effect of MPCM on improving the thermal performance and maintaining the compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete at an acceptable level for building application.
Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Concrete Containing Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials
Micro encapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) may be utilized to increase the energy efficiency of buildings by the addition of MPCM to concrete structures. However, addition of MPCM to Portland cement concrete is known to reduce the compressive strength of the concrete. Accordingly, it is interesting to also examine the effect of adding MPCM to geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer binder is synthesized by mixing aluminosilicate materials in amorphous form with a strong alkali activator, and have a much lower CO2 footprint than Portland cement concrete. In this study, the mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete with different types and contents of MPCM were investigated at different curing temperatures. The aim was to find the optimum amount of MPCM which still maintain the workability and compressive strength at an acceptable level. The results revealed that both workability and compressive strength of geopolymer concrete decrease after adding MPCM. Also, the percentage of strength reduction can be variable by different types of MPCM.
Swell Characteristics of an Expansive Soil Stabilized with Industrial Wastes
Black cotton soils are highly problematic by virtue of their innate potential to undergo detrimental volume changes corresponding to changes in moisture regime. Alternate swelling and shrinkage of these soils severely damage lightly loaded Civil Engineering structures founded on these soils such as residential buildings, pavements, and linings. The objective of this study is to propose an alternative method to other expensive techniques like the use of geo-textiles and stone columns to control the swell behaviour of expansive soils. Stabilization of these soils with industrial wastes is an alternative to replacement of parent material which also reduces huge stockpiles of industrial waste materials. Identification and quantification of properties of these soils stabilized with industrial wastes and defining shrink-swell potential are essential to evaluate the stability of soil as a foundation material. A series of swell pressure tests have been conducted by the consolidometer method to study the effect of the addition of various percentages of rice husk ash, fly ash and stone dust on swelling behaviour of a black cotton soil. Statically compacted soil specimens have been prepared at optimum moisture content and maximum dry density by adding 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20% by weight of various industrial waste materials to the parent soil. The test specimens have been allowed to swell after giving access to water under a seating load of 0.06 kg/cm². The swollen samples have been subjected to consolidation under different increments of the vertical pressure of 0.11, 0.26, 0.51, 1.002, 2.015 and 4.002 kg/cm² in a fixed ring consolidometer. Swell potential and swell pressure of the soil decrease with the increase in the percentage of additives. It has been observed that rice husk ash reduces the swell potential more proficiently as compared to fly ash and stone dust. Overall, it has been observed that the industrial wastes effectively increase one-dimensional stiffness and therefore, reduce swelling.
Tactical Urbanism and Active Transportation: Temporary Actions for Sustainable Uses
This paper aims to debate the potential of the emergent approach called Tactical Urbanism in promoting sustainable transportation, encouraging walking and cycling, through revealing opportunities of transformation in the urban space of contemporary cities. Due to the recent valorization of automobiles and motorized transportations, the importance of walking and cycling in cities have been reduced and consequently, their public spaces. Tactical urbanism is understood to be an important approach to recover spaces and display possibilities of change within cities using fast and easily executable actions. Urban mobility is presented as a social and cultural activity that affects way-of-life and the urban environment, and active transportation as a means to stimulate social interactions in order to highlight priorities for pedestrians and cyclists. The objective of this paper is then to investigate the ability of temporary experiments in rethinking public spaces and urban mobility in a sustainable way. We aim to investigate cases and examples that enhance the importance of tactical interventions in shifting sustainable mobility. This study may contribute to the knowledge that tactical urbanism can be a helpful solution protecting active transportation modals and encouraging the creation of policies that promote invitations to walking, cycling, and to sustainable uses of public spaces.
Effect of Cement Amount on California Bearing Ratio Values of Different Soil
Due to continued growth and rapid development of road construction in worldwide, road sub-layers consist of soil layers, therefore, identification and recognition of type of soil and soil behavior in different condition help to us to select soil according to specification and engineering characteristic, also if necessary sometimes stabilize the soil and treat undesirable properties of soils by adding materials such as bitumen, lime, cement, etc. If the soil beneath the road is not done according to the standards and construction will need more construction time. In this case, a large part of soil should be removed, transported and sometimes deposited. Then purchased sand and gravel is transported to the site and full depth filled and compacted. Stabilization by cement or other treats gives an opportunity to use the existing soil as a base material instead of removing it and purchasing and transporting better fill materials. Classification of soil according to AASHTOO system and USCS help engineers to anticipate soil behavior and select best treatment method. In this study soil classification and the relation between soil classification and stabilization method is discussed, cement stabilization with different percentages have been selected for soil treatment based on NCHRP. There are different parameters to define the strength of soil. In this study, CBR will be used to define the strength of soil. Cement by percentages, 0%, 3%, 7% and 10% added to soil for evaluation effect of added cement to CBR of treated soil. Implementation of stabilization process by different cement content help engineers to select an economic cement amount for the stabilization process according to project specification and characteristics. Stabilization process in optimum moisture content (OMC) and mixing rate effect on the strength of soil in the laboratory and field construction operation have been performed to see the improvement rate in strength and plasticity. Cement stabilization is quicker than a universal method such as removing and changing field soils. Cement addition increases CBR values of different soil types by the range of 22-69%.
Thickness Measurement and Void Detection in Concrete Elements through Ultrasonic Pulse
This research analyses the accuracy of the ultrasound and the pulse echo ultrasound technic to find voids and to measure thickness of concrete elements. These mentioned air voids are simulated by polystyrene expanded and hollow containers of thin thickness made of plastic or cardboard of different sizes and shapes. These targets are distributed strategically inside concrete at different depths. For this research, a shear wave pulse echo ultrasonic device of 50 KHz is used to scan the concrete elements. Despite the small measurements of the concrete elements and because of voids’ size are near the half of the wavelength, pre and post processing steps like voltage, gain, SAFT, envelope and time compensation were made in order to improve imaging results.
Identification of Toxic Metal Deposition in Food Cycle and Its Associated Public Health Risk
Food chain contamination by heavy metals has become a critical issue in recent years because of their potential accumulation in bio systems through contaminated water, soil and irrigation water. Industrial discharge, fertilizers, contaminated irrigation water, fossil fuels, sewage sludge and municipality wastes are the major sources of heavy metal contamination in soils and subsequent uptake by crops. The main objectives of this project were to determine the levels of minerals, trace elements and heavy metals in major foods and beverages consumed by the poor and non-poor households of Dhaka city and assess the dietary risk exposure to heavy metal and trace metal contamination and potential health implications as well as recommendations for action. Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density of at least 5 times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment; raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, and carcinogenicity.
Seismic Fragility of Weir Structure Considering Aging Degradation of Concrete Material
This study presented the seismic fragility framework of concrete weir structure subjected to strong seismic ground motions and in particular, concrete aging condition of the weir structure was taken into account in this study. in order to understand the influence of concrete aging on the weir structure, by using probabilistic risk assessment, the analytical seismic fragility of the weir structure was derived for pre- and post-deterioration of concrete. The performance of concrete weir structure after five years was assumed for the concrete aging or deterioration, and according to after five years’ condition, the elastic modulus was simply reduced about one–tenth compared with initial condition of weir structures. A 2D nonlinear finite element analysis was performed considering the deterioration of concrete in weir structures using ABAQUS platform, a commercial structural analysis program. Simplified concrete degradation was resulted in the increase of almost 45% of the probability of failure at Limit State 3, in comparison to initial construction stage, by analyzing the seismic fragility.
Comparisons of Surveying with Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total Station for Volume Determination of Overburden and Coal Excavations in Large Open-Pit Mine
The volume of overburden and coal excavations in open-pit mine is generally determined by conventional survey such as total station. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) used to measure overburden and coal excavations, and to compare TLS survey data sets with the data of the total station. Results revealed that the reference points measured with the total station showed 0.2 mm precision for both horizontal and vertical coordinates. When using TLS on the same points, the standard deviations of 4.93 cm and 0.53 cm for horizontal and vertical coordinates respectively were achieved. For volume measurements covering the mining areas of 79,844 m2, TLS yielded the mean difference of about 1 percent and the surface error margin of 6 cm at the 95% confidence level when compared to the volume obtained by total station.
Experimental Research on Ductility of Regional Confined Concrete Beam
In efforts to study the shear ductility of regional confined concrete beam, 5 reinforced concrete beams were tested to examine its shear performance. These beams has the same shear span ratio, concrete strength, different ratios of tension reinforcement and shapes of stirrup. The purpose of the test is studying the effects of stirrup shape and tension reinforcement ratio on failure mode and shear ductility. The test shows that the regional confined part can be used as an independent part and the rest of the beam is good to work together so that the ductility of the beam is more one time higher than that of the normal confined concrete beam. The related laws of the effect of tension reinforcement ratio and stirrup shapes on beam’s shear ductility are founded.
TRAC: A Software Based New Track Circuit for Traffic Regulation
Following the development of the ERTMS system, we think it is interesting to develop another software-based track circuit system which would fit secondary railway lines with an easy-to-work implementation and a low sensitivity to rail-wheel impedance variations. We called this track circuit 'Track Railway by Automatic Circuits.' To be internationally implemented, this system must not have any mechanical component and must be compatible with existing track circuit systems. For example, the system is independent from the French 'Joints Isolants Collés' that isolate track sections from one another, and it is equally independent from component used in Germany called 'Counting Axles,' in French 'compteur d’essieux.' This track circuit is fully interoperable. Such universality is obtained by replacing the train detection mechanical system with a space-time filtering of train position.
The various track sections are defined by the frequency of a continuous signal. The set of frequencies related to the track sections is a set of orthogonal functions in a Hilbert Space.
Thus the failure probability of track sections separation is precisely calculated on the basis of signal-to-noise ratio. SNR is a function of the level of traction current conducted by rails. This is the reason why we developed a very powerful algorithm to reject noise and jamming to obtain an SNR compatible with the precision required for the track circuit and SIL 4 level. The SIL 4 level is thus reachable by an adjustment of the set of orthogonal functions.
Our major contributions to railway engineering signalling science are i) Train space localization is precisely defined by a calibration system. The operation bypasses the GSM-R radio system of the ERTMS system. Moreover, the track circuit is naturally protected against radio-type jammers. After the calibration operation, the track circuit is autonomous. ii) A mathematical topology adapted to train space localization by following the train through a linear time filtering of the received signal.
Track sections are numerically defined and can be modified with a software update. The system was numerically simulated, and results were beyond our expectations. We achieved a precision of one meter. Rail-ground and rail-wheel impedance sensitivity analysis gave excellent results. Results are now complete and ready to be published.
This work was initialised as a research project of the French Railways developed by the Pi-Ramses Company under SNCF contract and required five years to obtain the results.
This track circuit is already at Level 3 of the ERTMS system, and it will be much cheaper to implement and to work.
The traffic regulation is based on variable length track sections. As the traffic growths, the maximum speed is reduced, and the track section lengths are decreasing. It is possible if the elementary track section is correctly defined for the minimum speed and if every track section is able to emit with variable frequencies.
Effective Emergency Response and Disaster Prevention: A Decision Support System for Urban Critical Infrastructure Management
Currently more than half of the world’s populations are living in cities, and the number and sizes of cities are growing faster than ever. Cities rely on the effective functioning of complex and interdependent critical infrastructures networks to provide public services, enhance the quality of life, and save the community from hazards and disasters. In contrast, complex connectivity and interdependency among the urban critical infrastructures bring management challenges and make the urban system prone to the domino effect. Unplanned rapid growth, increased connectivity, and interdependency among the infrastructures, resource scarcity, and many other socio-political factors are affecting the typical state of an urban system and making it susceptible to numerous sorts of diversion. In addition to internal vulnerabilities, urban systems are consistently facing external threats from natural and manmade hazards. Cities are not just complex, interdependent system, but also makeup hubs of the economy, politics, culture, education, etc. For survival and sustainability, complex urban systems in the current world need to manage their vulnerabilities and hazardous incidents more wisely and more interactively.
Coordinated management in such systems makes for huge potential when it comes to absorbing negative effects in case some of its components were to function improperly. On the other hand, ineffective management during a similar situation of overall disorder from hazards devastation may make the system more fragile and push the system to an ultimate collapse. Following the quantum, the current research hypothesizes that a hazardous event starts its journey as an emergency, and the system’s internal vulnerability and response capacity determine its destination. Connectivity and interdependency among the urban critical infrastructures during this stage may transform its vulnerabilities into dynamic damaging force. An emergency may turn into a disaster in the absence of effective management; similarly, mismanagement or lack of management may lead the situation towards a catastrophe.
Situation awareness and factual decision-making is the key to win a battle. The current research proposed a contextual decision support system for an urban critical infrastructure system while integrating three different models: 1) Damage cascade model which demonstrates damage propagation among the infrastructures through their connectivity and interdependency, 2) Restoration model, a dynamic restoration process of individual infrastructure, which is based on facility damage state and overall disruptions in surrounding support environment, and 3) Optimization model that ensures optimized utilization and distribution of available resources in and among the facilities. All three models are tightly connected, mutually interdependent, and together can assess the situation and forecast the dynamic outputs of every input. Moreover, this integrated model will hold disaster managers and decision makers responsible when it comes to checking all the alternative decision before any implementation, and support to produce maximum possible outputs from the available limited inputs. This proposed model will not only support to reduce the extent of damage cascade but will ensure priority restoration and optimize resource utilization through adaptive and collaborative management.
Complex systems predictably fail but in unpredictable ways. System understanding, situation awareness, and factual decisions may significantly help urban system to survive and sustain.
Studies on Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash under Sodium Phosphate Medium
Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a green product contains carbon and also loaded with silica. For the development of durability and strength of any concrete, curing phenomenon shall be very important. In this communication, we reported the exposure of partial replacement of cement with RHA at different percentages of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight under sodium phosphate curing atmosphere. The mix is designed for M40 grade concrete with the proportions of 1:2.2:3.72. The tests conducted on concrete was a compressive strength, and the specimens were cured in normal water & exposed to the chemical solution for 7, 28 & 56 days. For chemical curing 0.5% & 1% concentrated sodium phosphates were used and were compared with normal concrete strength results. The strength of specimens of 1% sodium phosphate exposure showed that the compressive strength decreased with increase in RHA percentages.
An Introduction to Critical Chain Project Management Methodology
Construction has existed in our lives since time immemorial. However, unlike any other industry, construction projects have their own unique challenges – project type, purpose and end use of the project, geographical conditions, logistic arrangements, largely unorganized manpower and requirement of diverse skill sets, etc. These unique characteristics bring in their own level of risk and uncertainties to the project, which cause the project to deviate from its planned objectives of time, cost, quality, etc. over the many years, there have been significant developments in the way construction projects are conceptualized, planned, and managed. With the rapid increase in the population, increased rate of urbanization, there is a growing demand for infrastructure development, and it is required that the projects are delivered timely, and efficiently. In an age where ‘Time is Money,' implementation of new techniques of project management is required in leading to successful projects. This paper proposes a different approach to project management, which if applied in construction projects, can help in the accomplishment of the project objectives in a faster manner.
Component Comparison of Polyaluminum Chloride Producing from Various Methods
The main objective of this research was to study the differences of aluminum hydrolytic products between two PACl preparation methods. These two methods were the acidification process of freshly formed amorphous Al(OH)3 and the conventional alkalization process of aluminum chloride solution. According to Ferron test and 27Al NMR analysis of those two PACl preparation procedures, the reaction rate constant (k) values and Al13 percentage of acid addition process at high Basicity value were both lower than those values of the alkaline addition process. The results showed that the molecular structure and size distribution of the aluminum species in both preparing methods were suspected to be significantly different at high Basicity value.
Seismic Behaviour of CFST-RC Columns
Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFST) columns are widely used in Civil Engineering Structures due to their abundant properties. CFST-RC column is a built up column in which CFST members are connected with RC web. The CFST-RC column has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties, such as high strength, high ductility and large energy absorption capacity. CFST-RC columns have been adopted as piers in Ganhaizi Bridge in high seismic risk zone with a highest pier of 107m. The experimental investigation on scaled models of similar type of the CFST-RC pier are carried out. The experimental investigation on scaled models of similar type of the CFST-RC pier are carried out. Under cyclic loading, the hysteretic performance of CFST-RC columns, such as failure modes, ductility, load displacement hysteretic curves, energy absorption capacity, strength and stiffness degradation are studied in this paper.
Finite Element Modelling of Mechanical Connector in Steel Helical Piles
Pile-to-pile mechanical connections are used if the depth of the soil layers with sufficient bearing strength exceeds the original (“leading”) pile length, with the additional pile segment being termed “extension” pile. Mechanical connectors permit a safe transmission of forces from leading to extension pile while meeting strength and serviceability requirements. Common types of connectors consist of an assembly of sleeve-type external couplers, bolts, pins, and other mechanical interlock devices that ensure the transmission of compressive, tensile, torsional and bending stresses between leading and extension pile segments. While welded connections allow for a relatively simple structural design, mechanical connections are advantageous over welded connections because they lead to shorter installation times and significant cost reductions since specialized workmanship and inspection activities are not required. However, common practices followed to design mechanical connectors neglect important aspects of the assembly response, such as stress concentration around pin/bolt holes, torsional stresses from the installation process, and interaction between the forces at the installation (torsion), service (compression/tension-bending), and removal stages (torsion). This translates into potentially unsatisfactory designs in terms of the ultimate and service limit states, exhibiting either reduced strength or excessive deformations. In this study, the experimental response under compressive forces of a type of mechanical connector is presented, in terms of strength, deformation and failure modes. The tests revealed that the type of connector used can safely transmit forces from pile to pile. Using the results from the compressive tests, an analysis model was developed using the finite element (FE) method to study the interaction of forces under installation and service stages of a typical mechanical connector. The response of the analysis model is used to identify potential areas for design optimization, including size, gap between leading and extension piles, number of pin/bolts, hole sizes, and material properties. The results show the design of mechanical connectors should take into account the interaction of forces present at every stage of their life cycle, and that the torsional stresses occurring during installation are critical for the safety of the assembly.
Statistical Analysis for Assessing Sample Exams in Undergraduate Highway Design Course
The inclusion of practice exams in Geotechnical Engineering (CE462) course was assessed utilizing survey results and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tools. Data collected was from the survey completed by students and students’ grades spanning over two semesters one with implementing practice exams and the other without. Results based on survey results indicated that there was a very strong consensus among students about the usefulness and validity of such course improvement. Furthermore, the statistical analysis results using the ANOVA statistical analysis tool also showed a significant increase, on the 0.05 significance level (or 95% confidence level), in students’ academic procurement when utilizing the practice exams technique as opposed to not using it. Therefore, it is recommended that sample exams be used in undergraduate different civil engineering courses to enhance students’ learning process.
Mechanical Properties Analysis of Masonry Residue Mortar as Cement Replacement
The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residues in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. Previous researches demonstrate the feasibility of using brick and rust residues, separately, as a cement replacement. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of mortars by incorporating masonry residue composed of clay bricks and cement mortar. In order to improve the mechanical properties of masonry residue, this was subjected to a heat treatment of 650 ° C for four hours and its effect is analyzed in this study. Masonry residue was obtained from a demolition of masonry perimetral walls. The residues were crushed and sieved and the maximum size of particles used was 75 microns. The percentages of cement replaced by masonry residue were 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of masonry residue addition and its heat treatment in the mechanical properties of mortars is evaluated through compressive and flexural strength tests after 7, 14 and 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of masonry residue used increases the losses in compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the use of up to a 20% of masonry residue, when a heat treatment is applied, allows obtaining mortars with similar compressive strength to the control mortar. Masonry residues mortars without a heat treatment show losses in compressive strengths between 15% and 27% with respect to masonry residues with heat treatment, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the heat treatment. From this analysis it can be conclude that it is possible to use up to 20% of masonry residue with heat treatment as cement replacement without significant losses in mortars mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.
The Influence of Water and Salt Crystals Content on Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Red Clay Brick
This paper presents results of experiments aimed at studying hygro-thermal properties of red clay brick. The main objective of research was to investigate the relation between thermal conductivity coefficient of brick and its water or Na2SO4 solution content. The research was conducted using stationary technique for the totally dried specimens, as well as the ones 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% imbued with water or sodium sulfate solution. Additionally, a sorption isotherm test was conducted for seven relative humidity levels. Furthermore the change of red clay brick pore structure before and after imbuing with water and salt solution was investigated by multi-cycle mercury intrusion test. The experimental results confirm negative influence of water or sodium sulphate on thermal properties of material. The value of thermal conductivity coefficient increases along with growth of water or Na₂SO₄ solution content. The study shows that the presence of Na₂SO₄ solution has less negative influence on brick’s thermal conductivity coefficient than water.
Vulnerability Assessment of Vertically Irregular Structures during Earthquake
Vulnerability assessment of buildings with irregularity in the vertical direction has been carried out in this study. The constructions of vertically irregular buildings are increasing in the context of fast urbanization in the developing countries including India. During two reconnaissance based survey performed after Nepal earthquake 2015 and Imphal (India) earthquake 2016, it has been observed that so many structures are damaged due to the vertically irregular configuration. These irregular buildings are necessary to perform safely during seismic excitation. Therefore, it is very urgent demand to point out the actual vulnerability of the irregular structure. So that remedial measures can be taken for protecting those structures during natural hazard as like earthquake. This assessment will be very helpful for India and as well as for the other developing countries. A sufficient number of research has been contributed to the vulnerability of plan asymmetric buildings. In the field of vertically irregular buildings, the effort has not been forwarded much to find out their vulnerability during an earthquake. Irregularity in vertical direction may be caused due to irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and geometrically irregular configuration. Detailed analysis of such structures, particularly non-linear/ push over analysis for performance based design seems to be challenging one. The present paper considered a number of models of irregular structures. Building models made of both reinforced concrete and brick masonry are considered for the sake of generality. The analyses are performed with both help of finite element method and computational method.The study, as a whole, may help to arrive at a reasonably good estimate, insight for fundamental and other natural periods of such vertically irregular structures. The ductility demand, storey drift, and seismic response study help to identify the location of critical stress concentration. Summarily, this paper is a humble step for understanding the vulnerability and framing up the guidelines for vertically irregular structures.
Eco-design of Construction Industrial Park in China with Selection of Candidate Tenants
Offsite construction is an innovative alternative to conventional site-based construction, with wide-ranging benefits. It requires building components, elements or modules were prefabricated and pre-assembly before installed into their final locations. To improve efficiency and achieve synergies, in recent years, construction companies were clustered into construction industrial parks (CIPs) in China. A CIP is a community of construction manufacturing and service businesses located together on a common property. Companies involved in industrial clusters can obtain environment and economic benefits by sharing resources and information in a given region. Therefore, the concept of industrial symbiosis (IS) can be applied to the traditional CIP to achieve sustainable industrial development or redevelopment through the implementation of eco-industrial parks (EIP). However, before designing a symbiosis network between companies in a CIP, candidate support tenants need to be selected to complement the existing construction companies. In this study, an access indicator system and a linear programming model are established to select candidate tenants in a CIP while satisfying the degree of connectivity among the enterprises in the CIP, minimizing the environmental impact, and maximizing the annualized profit of the CIP. The access indicator system comprises three primary indicators and fifteen secondary indicators, is proposed from the perspective of park-based level. The fifteen indicators are classified as three primary indicators including industrial symbiosis, environment performance and economic benefit, according to the three dimensions of sustainability (environment, economic and social dimensions) and the three R's of the environment (reduce, reuse and recycle). The linear programming model is a method to assess the satisfactoriness of all the indicators and to make an optimal multi-objective selection among candidate tenants. This method provides a practical tool for planners of a CIP in evaluating which among the candidate tenants would best complement existing anchor construction tenants. The reasonability and validity of the indicator system and the method is worth further study in the future.
Performance of Buildings with Base-Isolation System under Geometric Irregularities
Earthquake causes significant loss of lives and severe damage to infrastructure. Base isolator is one of the most suitable solutions to make a building earthquake resistant. Base isolation consists of installing an isolator along with the steel plates covered with pads of strong material like steel, rubber, etc. In our study, we have used lead rubber bearing (LRB). The basic idea of seismic isolation is based on the reduction of the earthquake-induced inertia forces by shifting the fundamental period of the structure out of dangerous resonance range, and concentration of the deformation and energy dissipation demands at the isolation and energy dissipation systems, which are designed for this purpose. In this paper, RC frame buildings have been modeled and analyzed by response spectrum method using ETABS software. The LRB used in the model is designed as per uniform building code (UBC) 97. It is found that time period for the base isolated structures are higher than that of the fixed base structure and the value of base shear significantly reduces in the case of base-isolated buildings. It has also been found that buildings with vertical irregularities give better performance as compared to building with plan irregularities using base isolators.
Adhesion Performance According to Lateral Reinforcement Method of Textile
Reinforced concrete has been mainly used in construction field because of excellent durability. However, corrosion of the reinforced steel due to the damage of the concrete surface is decrease the durability and safety. Recently, research of textile is ongoing to complement weakness of reinforced concrete. In previous research, only experiment of longitudinal length were performed. Therefore, in order to investigate the adhesion performance according to the lattice shape and the embedded length, the pull-out test was performed on the roving with parameter of the lateral reinforcement number, the lateral reinforcement length and the lateral reinforcement interval. As a result, the number of reinforcement and the length of reinforcement did not significantly affect the load variation depending on the adhesion performance, and only the load analysis results according to the reinforcement interval are affected.
Pullout Strength of Textile Reinforcement in Concrete by Embedd
The deterioration of the reinforced concrete is continuously accelerated due to aging of the reinforced concrete, enlargement of the structure, increase if the self-weight due to the manhattanization and cracking due to external force. Also, due to the abnormal climate phenomenon, cracking of reinforced concrete structures is accelerated. Therefore, research on the Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) which replaced reinforcement with textile is under study. However, in previous studies, adhesion performance to single yarn was examined without parameters, which does not reflect the effect of fiber twisting and concrete strength. In the present paper, the effect of concrete strength and embedded length on 2400tex (gram per 1000 meters) and 640tex textile were investigated. The result confirm that the increasing compressive strength of the concrete did not affect the pullout strength. However, as the embedded length increased, the pullout strength tended to increase gradually, especially at 2400tex with more twists.
Aerodynamic Optimum Nose Shape Change of High-Speed Train by Design Variable Variation
Nose shape optimizations of high-speed train are performed for the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the commercial train, KTX-Sancheon, multi-objective optimizations are conducted for the improvement of the side wind stability and the micro-pressure wave following the optimization for the reduction of aerodynamic drag. 3D nose shapes are modelled by the Vehicle Modeling Function. Aerodynamic drag and side wind stability are calculated by three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and micro pressure wave is done by axi-symmetric compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The Maxi-min Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used to extract sampling points to construct the approximation model. The kriging model is constructed for the approximation model and the NSGA-II algorithm was used as the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Nose length, nose tip height, and lower surface curvature are design variables. Because nose length is a dominant variable for aerodynamic characteristics of train nose, two optimization processes are progressed respectively with and without the design variable, nose length. Each pareto set was obtained and each optimized nose shape is selected respectively considering Honam high-speed rail line infrastructure in South Korea. Through the optimization process with the nose length, when compared to KTX Sancheon, aerodynamic drag was reduced by 9.0%, side wind stability was improved by 4.5%, micro-pressure wave was reduced by 5.4% whereas aerodynamic drag by 7.3%, side wind stability by 3.9%, micro-pressure wave by 3.9%, without the nose length. As a result of comparison between two optimized shapes, similar shapes are extracted other than the effect of nose length.