Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 40434

Cognitive and Language Sciences

Linguoculturological Analysis of Advertising
Every study of advertising is intrinsically multidisciplinary, as the researcher must take into account the linguistic, social, psychological, economic, political and cultural factors that have all played a significant role in the history of advertising. A linguoculturological analysis of advertising aims to provide insight into the ideologies and archetypal structures that abide in the discourse of advertising messages, and give an overview of the academic research in the area of linguistics, and cultural and social studies that contributed to the demystification of the discourse of advertising. As the process of globalisation is gaining momentum, so is the expansion of businesses and economies, and migration of the population. Yet, the uniqueness of individual cultures prevails, and demonstrates that the process of communication and translation are not only matters of linguistic, but of cultural transferral as well. Therefore, even the world of business and advertising, the world of fast food, fast production, fast living, is programmed in accordance with the uniqueness of those cultures. The fact that culture, beliefs, ideologies, values and societal expectations permeate every sphere of advertising will be addressed through illustrative examples.
Metadiscourse in British and Saudi Newspaper Column Writing: Native/Non-native Differences in Language Use
Metadiscourse is a recent concept in applied linguistics that has become increasingly important in discourse analysis and linguistic research. Metadiscourse is self-reflective linguistic material referring to the evolving text, to the writer and to the imagined reader of that text. It is an important means of facilitating comprehension, supporting a columnist’s arguments, and building a relationship with a reader. This paper extends the investigation of metadiscourse to newspaper opinion columns, by analyzing the use of metadiscourse devices in newspaper opinion columns written by British and Saudi columnists. Metadiscourse was explored in a corpus of 320 opinion columns totaling 273,773 words, 160 columns written by British writers and 160 columns by Saudi writers selected from four elite newspapers. Drawing on Hyland’s (2005) model of metadiscourse, the study seeks to examine the similarities and the differences in the metadiscoursal choices of native and non-native writers in the journalistic discourse of opinion columns, and show how the use of metadiscourse crucially depends on the genre conventions. The 320 columns were searched electronically using concordancing software programs and then all the metadiscourse devices were examined qualitatively in context to determine their actual functions. All frequencies reported have been normalized per 1,000 words to allow for comparisons across the two groups. Further, a Chi-Square test was run to examine if there are any statistically significant differences between the two groups. Results confirmed that there were 33,854 metadiscourse tokens in the corpus, an average of 105.49 occurrences per opinion column or 3 elements of metadiscourse in every 25 words in each of the two corpora: British and Saudi. Results also revealed that both interactive and interactional metadiscourse were evident in British and Saudi newspaper columns, but that there were variations in the distribution of these devices. Interactive devices used to assist comprehension such as transitions and code glosses were more frequent in Saudi texts, whereas interactional devices used to assist persuasion, such as hedges, boosters, and self-mentions, were more frequent in British texts. Statistically significant differences were also found between the two groups. The study reported that metadiscoursal choices are highly influenced by the discourse genre and the context, which involves the intended readers. The study also reported cultural differences between British and Saudi columnists in terms of language and style.
Corpus Linguistic Methods in a Theoretical Study of Quran Verb Tense and Aspect in Translations from Arabic to English
In inflectional morphology of verb, tense and aspect indicate action’s time either past/present or future and their period whether completed or not. The usage and meaning of tense and aspect differ in Arabic and English, therefore is no simple one -to- one mapping from an Arabic verb inflected form an appropriate English translation depends on a range of features, including immediate and wider context of use. The Quranic Arabic Corpus includes seven alternative expertly crafted English translations of each Arabic verses, which provides a test dataset for the study of appropriate Arabic to English translations of verb tense and aspect. We applied Corpus Linguistics Methods in a theoretical study of exemplary verbs, to elicit candidate verbal contexts which influence the choice of English inflection for each verse.
From Victim to Ethical Agent: Oscar Wilde's the Ballad of Reading Gaol as Post-Traumatic Writing
Faced with a sudden, unexpected, and overwhelming event, the individual's normal cognitive processing may cease to function, trapping the psyche in 'speechless terror,' while images, feelings, and sensations are experienced with emotional intensity. Unable to master such situation, the individual becomes a trauma victim who will be susceptible to traumatic recollections like intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and repetitive re-living of the primal event in a way that blurs the distinction between past and present, and forecloses the future. Trauma is timeless, repetitious, and contagious; a trauma observer could fall prey to 'secondary victimhood.' Central to the process of healing the psychic wounds in the aftermath of trauma is verbalizing the traumatic experience (i.e., putting it into words) – an act which provides a chance for assimilation, testimony, and reevaluation. In light of this paradigm, this paper proposes a reading of Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol, written shortly after his release from prison, as a post-traumatic text which traces the disruptive effects of the traumatic experience of Wilde's imprisonment for homosexual offences and the ensuing reversal of fortune he endured. Post-traumatic writing demonstrates the process of 'working through' a trauma which may lead to the possibility of ethical agency in the form of a 'survivor mission'. This paper draws on fundamental concepts and key insights in literary trauma theory which is characterized by interdisciplinarity, combining the perspectives of different fields like critical theory, psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, history, and social studies. Of particular relevance to this paper are the concepts of 'vicarious traumatization' and 'survivor mission', as The Ballad of Reading Gaol was written in response to Wilde's own prison trauma and the indirect traumatization he experienced as a result of witnessing the execution of a fellow prisoner whose story forms the narrative base of the poem. The Ballad displays Wilde's sense of mission which leads him to recognize the social as well as ethical implications of personal tragedy. Through a close textual analysis of The Ballad of Reading Gaol within the framework of literary trauma theory, the paper aims to: (a) demonstrate how the poem's thematic concerns, structure, and rhetorical figures reflect the structure of trauma; (b) highlight Wilde's attempts to come to terms with the effects of the cataclysmic experience which transformed him into a social outcast; and (c) show how Wilde manages to transcend the victim status and assumes the role of ethical agent to voice a critique of the Victorian penal system and the standards of morality underlying the cruelties practiced against wrong doers and to solicit social action.
The Viability and Reliability of Computer-Based Oral Language Testing
The increasing importance of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) as a universally recognised scale to measure language competences has brought with it the need to develop effective, reliable and standard methods of assessment which do not place excessive strain on time and human resources. Given the large number of students enrolled on university language courses who have to be evaluated at the beginning and/or end of their studies, this paper first analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the face-to-face testing formats, before considering the feasibility of a computer-based test as a possible solution when examining large groups. Having gauged the degree of reliability and level of satisfaction of the current computer-based tests, from both the examiners’ and the candidates’ perspectives, our empirical study compares the informants’ performances and results in face-to-face and computer oral test situations, and analyses the degree of variability in outcomes. Based on these findings, we identify the aspects in need of improvement and conclude by proposing a new interactive computer-based test which incorporates the latest technologies. Although further research and cooperation is required to ensure that the process of standardization is achieved across the board, preliminary results suggest that this innovative prototype can overcome many of the problems posed by the assessment tests currently in the market.
Objectives of the Standardization of Technical Terminology Nowadays in Albanian
In the conditions of the rapid development of technics and technology in recent years, the cooperation of the scientific-technical language with the standard Albanian language is continuing with a higher intensity than before. We notice a vigor of enrichment in the vocabulary of technical terminology, due to the birth and formation of new fields and subfields of technics, technology, as computing, mechatronics, telemetry, a multitude of concepts many of which, on the one hand, are marked with names of the languages they come from, mainly from English, but on the other hand, they meet their needs with the lexical mother tongue composition (by common words being raised to terms) and with the activation of other layers, such as compound word terms. Thus, for example, in the field of computing, we notice in it the inclusion of the ordinary vocabulary for reproductive reasons, like mi, dritare, flamur, adresë, skedar (Engl: mouse, window, flag, address, file), and along with them, the compound word terms, serving to differentiate relevant concepts, like, adresë e hiperlidhjes, adresë e uebit, adresë relative, adresë virtuale (Engl. address hyperlink, web address, relative address, virtual address) etc.
Theoretical Reflections on Metaphor and Cohesion and the Coherence of Face-To-Face Interactions
The role of metaphor in creating the coherence and the cohesion of discourse in online interactive talk has almost received no attention. This paper intends to provide some theoretical reflections on metaphorical coherence as a jointly constructed process that evolves in online, face-to-face interactions. It suggests that the presence of a global conceptual structure in a conversation makes it conceptually cohesive. Yet, coherence remains a process largely determined by other variables (shared goals, communicative intentions, and framework of understanding). Metaphorical coherence created by these variables can be useful in detecting bias in media reporting.
Training 'Green Ambassadors' in the Community-Action Learning Course
The action learning course is an academic course which involves academic learning and social activities. The courses deal with processes and social challenges, reveal different ideologies, and develop critical thinking and pragmatic ideas. Students receive course credits and a grade for being part of such courses. Participating students enroll in courses that involve action and activities to engage in the experiential learning process, thereby creating a dialogue and cross-fertilization between being taught in the classroom and experiencing the reality in the real world. A learning experience includes meeting with social organizations, institutions, and state authorities and carrying out practical work with diverse populations. Through experience, students strengthen their academic skills, formulate ethical attitudes toward reality, develop professional and civilian perspectives, and realize how they can influence their surrounding in the present and the hereafter. Under the guidance and supervision of Dr. Hen Friman, H.I.T. has built an innovative course that combines action and activities to increase the awareness and accessibility of the community in an experiential way. The end goal is to create Green Ambassadors—children with a high level of environmental awareness. This course is divided into two parts. The first part, focused on frontal teaching, delivers knowledge from extensive environmental fields to students. These areas include introduction to ecology, the process of electricity generation, air pollution, renewable energy, water economy, waste and recycling, and energy efficiency (first stage). In addition to the professional content in the environment field, students learn the method of effective and experiential teaching to younger learners (4 to 8 years old). With the attainment of knowledge, students are divided into operating groups. The second part of the course shows how the theory becomes practical and concrete. At this stage, students are asked to introduce to the first- and second-graders of ‘Revivim’ School in Holon a lesson of 90 minutes focused on presenting the issues and their importance during the course (second stage). This course is the beginning of a paradigm shift regarding energy usage in the modern society in Israel. The objective of the course is to expand worldwide and train the first and second-graders, and even pre-schoolers, in a wide scope to increase population awareness rate, both in Israel and all over the world, for a green future.
Comparing Russian and American Students’ Metaphorical Competence
The paper is concerned with the study of metaphor production in essays written by Russian and English native speakers in the framework of cognitive metaphor theory. It considers metaphorical competence as individual’s ability to recognize, understand and use metaphors in speech. The work analyzes the influence of visual metaphor on production and density of conventional and novel verbal metaphors. The main methods of research include experiment connected with image interpretation, metaphor identification procedure (MIPVU) and visual conventional metaphors identification procedure proposed by VisMet group. The research findings will be used in the project aimed at comparing metaphorical competence of native and non-native English speakers.
Dislocation and Writing: A Process of Remaking Identity
Creative writers have long followed the tradition of romantic exile, looking inward in an attempt to construct new viewpoints through the power of imagination. The writer, who attempts to resist uncertainty and locate her place in the new country through writing, resists creativity itself. For a writer, certain satisfaction can be achieved through producing a creative art away from the anxiety of the sense of dislocation. Dislocation, whether enforced or self-inflicted, could in many ways be a disaster but it could also cultivate a greater creative capacity and be a source of creative expression. This paper will investigate the idea of the creative writer as exiled self through reflections on the relationship between dislocation and writing.
Articles, Delimitation of Speech and Perception
The paper aims to clarify the function of articles in the English speech and specify their place and role in the English language, taking into account the use of articles for delimitation of speech. A focus of the paper is the use of the definite and the indefinite articles with different types of noun phrases which comprise either one noun with or without attributes, such as the King, the Queen, the Lion, the Unicorn, a dimple, a smile, a new language, an unknown dialect, or several nouns with or without attributes, such as the King and Queen of Hearts, the Lion and Unicorn, a dimple or smile, a completely isolated language or dialect. It is stated that the function of delimitation is related to perception: the number of speech units in a text correlates with the way the speaker perceives and segments the denotation. The two following combinations of words the house and garden and the house and the garden contain different numbers of speech units, one and two respectively, and reveal two different perception modes which correspond to the use of the definite article in the examples given. Thus, the function of delimitation is twofold, it is related to perception and cognition, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to grammar, if the subject of grammar is the structure of speech. Analysis of speech units in the paper is not limited by noun phrases and is amplified by discussion of peripheral phenomena which are nevertheless important because they enable to qualify articles as a syntactic phenomenon whereas they are not infrequently described in terms of noun morphology. With this regard attention is given to the history of linguistic studies, specifically to the description of English articles by Niels Haislund, a disciple of Otto Jespersen. A discrepancy is noted between the initial plan of Jespersen who intended to describe articles as a syntactic phenomenon in ‘A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles’ and the interpretation of articles in terms of noun morphology, finally given by Haislund. Another issue of the paper is correlation between description and denotation, being a traditional aspect of linguistic studies focused on articles. An overview of relevant studies, given in the paper, goes back to the works of G. Frege, which gave rise to a series of scientific works where the meaning of articles was described within the scope of logical semantics. Correlation between denotation and description is treated in the paper as the meaning of article, i.e. a component in its semantic structure, which differs from the function of delimitation and is similar to the meaning of other quantifiers. The paper further explains why the relation between description and denotation, i.e. the meaning of English article, is irrelevant for noun morphology and has nothing to do with nominal categories of the English language.
'Caucasian Mountaineer / Scottish Highlander': Correlation between Semantics and Culture
The research focuses on Russian and English linguoculturemes Caucasian mountaineer and Scottish Highlander, the effort of comparative-contrastive analysis was made. In order to reach the aim, the analysis of the vocabulary definitions of the concepts under consideration was taken, which made it possible to build the lexical-semantic fields of both lexical items in Russian and English. This stage of research helped to turn to the linguistic-cultural fields construction. To build these fields, literary pieces containing the concepts under consideration and the items directly related to them were taken from the works about the Caucasus mountains and mountaineers living there by M. Yu. Lermontov and the ones by W. Scott devoted to the Scottish Highlands and their inhabitants. All collected data was systematized in schemes and tables reflecting the differences and intercrossing areas.
Intonation Salience as an Underframe to Text Intonation Models
It is common knowledge that intonation is not laid over a ready text. On the contrary, intonation forms and accompanies the text on the level of its birth in the speaker’s mind. As a result, intonation plays one of the fundamental roles in the process of transferring a thought into external speech. Intonation structure can highlight the semantic significance of textual elements and become a ranging mark in understanding the information structure of the text. Intonation functions by means of prosodic characteristics, one of which is intonation salience, whose function in texts results in making some textual elements more prominent than others. This function of intonation, therefore, performs as organizing. It helps to form the frame of key elements of the text. The study under consideration made an attempt to look into the inner nature of salience and create a sort of a text intonation model. This general goal brought to some more specific intermediate results. First, there were established degrees of salience on the level of the smallest semantic element - intonation group, as well as prosodic means of creating salience, were examined. Second, the most frequent combinations of prosodic means made it possible to distinguish patterns of salience, which then became constituent elements of a text intonation model. Third, the analysis of the predicate structure allowed to divide the whole text into smaller parts, or units, which performed a specific function in the developing of the general communicative intention. It appeared that such units can be found in any text and they have common characteristics of their intonation arrangement. These findings are certainly very important both for the theory of intonation and their practical application.
Grammar of Repetitions in A. P. Chekhov’s Minor Prose
Composition theory was not included in the scope of linguistics research for a long time. The problem of composition has remained unsolved in literary studies, as well. The focus of the paper is compositional and stylistic structure of text. Composition and speech structure in literary prose can be represented as a manifestation of structural and functional dominating aspects in a text, which convey the action of different techniques and forms of the speech organization in these works and comprise, in essence, a writer’s idostyle. Typified forms of narration and key structural and semantic categories of text formation, such as, for example, repetition and motif, are of major interest. In this study, an attempt has been made to systematize repetitions of various levels in the speech organization of texts (lexical, grammatical and syntactic) characteristic of A. P. Chekhov’s idostyle. The subject of this study is A. P. Chekhov’s individual style, since it is an example of the embodiment of the aesthetic function in language. The goal of this study is to understand the compositional and speech organization of Chekhov’s prose, to analyze its aesthetic constructional and text-forming functions in the repeated speech forms of A.P. Chekhov’s prose. Analysis leads to the conclusion that the author’s or narrator’s point of view is the most important element in understanding the composition of the literary text since it provides the perspective of artistic observation and aesthetic systematization of phenomena, facts, and events in time and space, and is in essence, the determining factor for the speech structure of the work per se.
Transferring Cultural Meanings: A Case of Translation Classroom
Familiarising students with strategies for transferring cultural meanings (intertextual units, culture-specific idioms, culture-specific items, etc.) should be part of a comprehensive translator training programme. The present paper focuses on strategies for transferring such meanings into other languages and explores possibilities for introducing these methods and practice to translation students. The authors (university translation teachers) analyse the means of transferring cultural meanings from English into Lithuanian in a specific travel book, attribute these means to theoretically grounded strategies, and make calculations related to the frequency of adoption of specific strategies; translation students are familiarised with concepts and methods related to transferring cultural meanings and asked to put their theoretical knowledge into practice, i.e. interpret and translate certain culture-specific items from the same source text, and ground their decisions on theory; the comparison of the strategies employed by the professional translator of the source text (as identified by the authors of this study) and by the students is made. As a result, both students and teachers gain valuable experience, and new practices of conducting translation classes for a specific purpose evolve. Conclusions highlight the differences and similarities of non-professional and professional choices, summarise the possibilities for introducing methods of transferring cultural meanings to students, and round up with specific considerations of the impact of theoretical knowledge and the degree of experience on decisions made in the translation process.
Text as Reader Device Improving Subjectivity on the Role of Attestation between Interpretative Semiotics and Discursive Linguistics
Proposed paper is aimed to inquire about the relation between text and reader, focusing on the concept of ‘attestation’. Indeed, despite being widely accepted in semiotic research, even today the concept of text remains uncertainly defined. So, it seems to be undeniable that what is called ‘text’ offers an image of internal cohesion and coherence, that makes it possible to analyze it as an object. Nevertheless, this same object remains problematic when it is pragmatically activated by the act of reading. In fact, as for the T.A.R:D.I.S., that is the unique space-temporal vehicle used by the well-known BBC character Doctor Who in his adventures, every text appears to its own readers not only “bigger inside than outside”, but also offering spaces that change according to the different traveller standing in it. In a few words, as everyone knows, this singular condition raises the questions about the gnosiological relation between text and reader. How can a text be considered the ‘same’, even if it can be read in different ways by different subjects? How can readers can be previously provided with knowledge required for ‘understanding’ a text, but at the same time learning something more from it? In order to explain this singular condition it seems useful to start thinking about text as a device more than an object. In other words, this unique status is more clearly understandable when ‘text’ ceases to be considered as a box designed to move meaning from a sender to a recipient (marking the semiotic priority of the “code”) and it starts to be recognized as performative meaning hypothesis, that is discursively configured by one or more forms and empirically perceivable by means of one or more substances. Thus, a text appears as a “semantic hanger”, potentially offered to the “unending deferral of interpretant", and from time to time fixed as “instance of Discourse”. In this perspective, every reading can be considered as an answer to the continuous request for confirming or denying the meaning configuration (the meaning hypothesis) expressed by text. Finally, ‘attestation’ is exactly what regulates this dynamic of request and answer, through which the reader is able to confirm his previous hypothesis on reality or maybe acquire some new ones.Proposed paper is aimed to inquire about the relation between text and reader, focusing on the concept of ‘attestation’. Indeed, despite being widely accepted in semiotic research, even today the concept of text remains uncertainly defined. So, it seems to be undeniable that what is called ‘text’ offers an image of internal cohesion and coherence, that makes it possible to analyze it as an object. Nevertheless, this same object remains problematic when it is pragmatically activated by the act of reading. In fact, as for the T.A.R:D.I.S., that is the unique space-temporal vehicle used by the well-known BBC character Doctor Who in his adventures, every text appears to its own readers not only “bigger inside than outside”, but also offering spaces that change according to the different traveller standing in it. In a few words, as everyone knows, this singular condition raises the questions about the gnosiological relation between text and reader. How can a text be considered the ‘same’, even if it can be read in different ways by different subjects? How can readers can be previously provided with knowledge required for ‘understanding’ a text, but at the same time learning something more from it? In order to explain this singular condition it seems useful to start thinking about text as a device more than an object. In other words, this unique status is more clearly understandable when ‘text’ ceases to be considered as a box designed to move meaning from a sender to a recipient (marking the semiotic priority of the “code”) and it starts to be recognized as performative meaning hypothesis, that is discursively configured by one or more forms and empirically perceivable by means of one or more substances. Thus, a text appears as a “semantic hanger”, potentially offered to the “unending deferral of interpretant", and from time to time fixed as “instance of Discourse”. In this perspective, every reading can be considered as an answer to the continuous request for confirming or denying the meaning configuration (the meaning hypothesis) expressed by text. Finally, ‘attestation’ is exactly what regulates this dynamic of request and answer, through which the reader is able to confirm his previous hypothesis on reality or maybe acquire some new ones.
Teacher Education and the Impact of Higher Education Foreign Language Requirements on Students with Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities have been extensively and increasingly studied in recent times. In spite of this, there is arguably a scarce number of studies addressing a key issue, which is the impact of foreign-language requirements on students with learning disabilities in higher education, and the lack of training or awareness of teachers regarding language learning disabilities. This study is an attempt to address this issue. An extensive review of the literature in multiple fields will be summarised. This, paired with a case-analysis of a university adopting a more inclusive approach towards special-needs students in its foreign-language programme, this presentation aims to establish a link between different studies and propose a number of suggestions to make language classrooms more inclusive.
Formulaic Language in the EFL Classroom: A Corpus-Based Study of Phraseological Items in British English and American English Conversation with Implications for EFL Teaching
Although the significance of formulaic language for foreign language learning is nowadays widely accepted, we still lack teaching materials and a systematic approach to equipping language learners with the necessary phraseological knowledge. The present study seeks to address this problem by establishing a comprehensive corpus-based list of high- and mid-frequency phrasemes found in spoken British and American English. It will categorize the items by function and pragmatic context. Moreover, it will describe previously unnoticed or insufficiently investigated items using lexicographic criteria. This will provide the basis for the systematic teaching of relevant phraseology to English language learners. The overall objective of the list is to offer a viable alternative approach to teaching phraseological items that go beyond merely subjective approaches such as teachers’ individual preferences or the random occurrence of phraseological items in textbooks. The corpus used to investigate British English consists of subtitle data from BBC TV programmes, whereas the American corpus is based on the spoken part of the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and on subtitle data from American films and TV programmes. As a first step, n-gram lists were generated from the two corpora, and all relevant items above the previously set threshold level were extracted from the two lists. The resulting phraseme lists were then reordered by dividing the items into three categories: referential, structural and communicative phrasemes. In a third step, subcategories were developed in order to further define the items’ functional characteristics. The communicative phrasemes, for example, were classified into different speech acts such as greeting, agreeing or prompting. Close analysis of the American English phrasemes found has already yielded valuable insights into multiword expressions that have so far received inadequate treatment in learner’s dictionaries although they should be part of at least the receptive phraseological core vocabulary of EFL learners. You tell me, you do that, and I can tell are three examples for phrasemes that have gone unrecorded in three major learner’s dictionaries. The present study will not only provide EFL learners with a fairly comprehensive list of useful phraseological items but also with a detailed phraseological analysis that will assist language learners in making correct use of multiword expressions. The aforementioned categorization and investigation of the phrasemes found in the two corpora bring out clearly useful aspects such as the pragmatic and lexico-grammatical contexts in which phrasemes are typically embedded, context-sensitive translations, as well as preferences in grammatical structures. This ensures that the findings of the study can be applied to individual learning situations by everybody involved in the learning process.
Lexico-Semantic and Contextual Analysis of the Concept of Joy in Modern English Fiction
Concepts are part and parcel of everyday text and talk. Their ubiquity predetermines the topicality of the given research which aims at the semantic decomposition of concepts in general and the concept of joy in particular, as well as the study of lexico-semantic variants as means of realization of a certain concept in different “semantic settings”, namely in a certain context. To achieve the stated aim, the given research departs from the methods of componential and contextual analysis, studying lexico-semantic variants /LSVs/ of the concept of joy and the semantic signs embedded in those LSVs, such as the semantic sign of intensity, supporting emotions, etc. in the context of Modern English fiction.
The Principle of a Thought Formation: The Biological Base for a Thought
The thought is a process that underlies consciousness and cognition and understanding its origin and processes is a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines. By integrating over twenty novel ideas and hypotheses of this theoretical proposal, we can speculate that thought is an emergent property of coded neural events, translating the electro-chemical interactions of the body with its environment—the objects of sensory stimulation, X, and Y. The latter is a self- generated feedback entity, resulting from the arbitrary pattern of the motion of a body’s motor repertory (M). A culmination of these neural events gives rise to a thought: a state of identity between an observed object X and a symbol Y. It manifests as a “state of awareness” or “state of knowing” and forms our perception of the physical world. The values of the variables of a construct—X (object), S1 (sense for the perception of X), Y (object), S2 (sense for perception of Y), and M (motor repertory that produces Y)—will specify the particular conscious percept at any given time. The proposed principle of interaction between the elements of a construct (X, Y, S1, S2, M) is universal and applies for all modes of communication (normal, deaf, blind, deaf and blind people) and for various language systems (Chinese, Italian, English, etc.). The particular arrangement of modalities of each of the three modules S1 (5 of 5), S2 (1 of 3), and M (3 of 3) defines a specific mode of communication. This multifaceted paradigm demonstrates a predetermined pattern of relationships between X, Y, and M that passes from generation to generation. The presented analysis of a cognitive experience encompasses the key elements of embodied cognition theories and unequivocally accords with the scientific interpretation of cognition as the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses, and cognition means thinking and awareness. By assembling the novel ideas presented in twelve sections, we can reveal that in the invisible “chaos”, there is an order, a structure with landmarks and principles of operations and mental processes (thoughts) are physical and have a biological basis. This innovative proposal explains the phenomenon of mental imagery; give the first insight into the relationship between mental states and brain states, and support the notion that mind and body are inseparably connected. The findings of this theoretical proposal are supported by the current scientific data and are substantiated by the records of the evolution of language and human intelligence.
Stereotyping of Non-Western Students in Western Universities: Applying Critical Discourse Analysis to Undermine Educational Hegemony
This study applies critical discourse analysis to the language used by educators to frame international students of Asian backgrounds in Anglo-Western universities as quiet, shy, passive and unable to think critically. Emphasis is on the self-promoted ‘internationalised’ Australian tertiary context, where negative stereotypes are commonly voiced not only in the academy but also in the media. Parallels are drawn as well with other Anglo-Western educational contexts. The study critically compares the discourse of these persistent negative stereotypes, with in-class and interview discourses of international students of Asian and Western language, cultural and educational backgrounds enrolled in a Media and Popular Culture unit in an Australian university. The focus of analysis of the student discourse is on their engagement in critical dialogic interactions on the topics of culture and interculturality. The evidence is also drawn from student interviews and focus groups and from observation of whole-class discussion participation rates. The findings of the research project provide evidence that counters the myth of student as problem. They point rather to the widespread lack of intercultural awareness of Western educators and students as being at the heart of the negative perceptions of students of Asian backgrounds. The study suggests the efficacy of an approach to developing intercultural competence that is embedded, or integrated, into tertiary programs. The presentation includes an overview of the main strategies that have been developed by the tertiary educator (author) to support the development of intercultural competence of and among the student cohort. The evidence points to the importance of developing intercultural competence among tertiary educators and students. The failure by educators to ensure that the diverse voices, ideas and perspectives of students from all cultural, educational and language backgrounds are heard in our classrooms means that our universities can hardly be regarded or promoted as genuinely internationalised. They will continue as undemocratic institutions that perpetrate persistent Western educational hegemony.
Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom
Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.
Psychology of Learning English and Motivation in EFL Students
Lack of motivation among students in learning English can be considered as one of the main obstacles faced by parents, teachers and college/school administrators in Gulf countries and Iran. The question is why this problem still exists among EFL students’ despite of various new methodologies that colleges are implementing by native and non-native instructors. In the paper, it has been explained that why many students fail to know the basic knowledge and conversations of English language even after completing academic levels of colleges. In this study, the answers of all questions have been covered by introducing the concept of the psychology of learning and the importance of motivation which are the main discussions of this study. Additionally, the paper has illustrated that how psychology is the key of success in learning English and how it develops motivation and confidence dramatically among students especially on speaking skill. The study shows that psychology is 70% of success and 30% are the methods and materials that we implement to teach in the classroom. Therefore, this is the role of teachers to develop 70% of positive motivation and psychology among students. The approach of study is descriptive, and the focus will be on speaking skill.
Metaphors in Egyptian News Headlines in Relation to the Egyptian Political Situation 2012-2013
This paper examines the use of metaphors in Arabic political news discourse, focusing particularly on the headlines of the news articles relating to the Egyptian political situation in the period from June 2012 to October 2013. Metaphors are skilfully manipulated in the headlines to influence the public stance towards several events and entities including Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood (MB), Morsi, the June 30th uprising, Al-Sisi and the Armed Forces. The findings reveal that Arabic political news discourse shares basic features with its English counterpart, namely the use of metaphors as persuasive strategies and the presence of certain target domains. Insights gained from this study feed back into the conceptual metaphor theory by providing further evidence to the universality of metaphors.
Exploring the Vocabulary and Grammar Advantage of US American over British English Speakers at Age 2;0
The research aims to compare vocabulary size and grammatical development between US American English- and British English-speaking children at age 2;0. As there is evidence that precocious children with large vocabularies develop grammar skills earlier than their typically developing peers, it was investigated if this also holds true across varieties of English. Thus, if US American children start to produce words earlier than their British counterparts, this could mean that US children are also at an advantage in the early developmental stages of acquiring grammar. This research employs a British English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI Words and Sentences (Lincoln Toddler CDI) to compare vocabulary and also grammar scores with the updated US Toddler CDI norms. At first, the Lincoln TCDI was assessed for its concurrent validity with the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-5 UK). This showed high correlations for the vocabulary and grammar subscales between the tests. In addition, the frequency of the Toddler CDI’s words was also compared using American and British English corpora of adult spoken and written language. A paired-samples t-test found a significant difference in word frequency between the British and the American CDI demonstrating that the TCDI’s words were indeed of higher frequency in British English. We then compared language and grammar scores between US (N = 135) and British children (N = 96). A two-way between groups ANOVA examined if the two samples differed in terms of SES (i.e. maternal education) by investigating the impact of SES and country on vocabulary and sentence complexity. The two samples did not differ in terms of maternal education as the interaction effects between SES and country were not significant. In most cases, scores were not significantly different between US and British children, for example, for overall word production and most grammatical subscales (i.e. use of words, over- regularizations, complex sentences, word combinations). However, in-depth analysis showed that US children were significantly better than British children at using some noun categories (i.e. people, objects, places) and several categories marking early grammatical development (i.e. pronouns, prepositions, quantifiers, helping words). However, the effect sizes were small. Significant differences for grammar were found for irregular word forms and progressive tense suffixes. US children were more advanced in their use of these grammatical categories, but the effect sizes were small. In sum, while differences exist in terms of vocabulary and grammar ability, favouring US children, effect sizes were small. It can be concluded that most British children are ‘catching up’ with their US American peers at age 2;0. Implications of this research will be discussed.
Parental Bonding and Cognitive Emotion Regulation
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of parental bonding on adult’s cognitive emotion regulation and also to investigate gender differences in parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulation. Data were collected by using convenience sampling technique from 100 adult students (50 males and 50 females) of different universities of Dhaka city, ages between 20 to 25 years, using Bengali version of Parental Bonding Inventory and Bengali version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. The results revealed that fathers care (β =0.317, p < 0.05) was only significantly positively associated with adult’s cognitive emotion regulation. Adjusted R² indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in adult’s adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. No significant association was found between parental bonding and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulations. Results from independent samples t-test also revealed that there was no significant gender difference in both parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulations.
Adverse Drug Extraction in Twitter Data Using Convolutional Neural Network and Word2vec
Study of health-related topics on social media is an important and growing research area. It can be a useful tool for early detection of different side effects of medications. In particular, it concerns medication related to the treatment of mental diseases. In the paper, we propose to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) with word2vec presentation for binary classification of adverse drug reactions (ADR). The classifier is adjusted on a Twitter dataset collected by DiegoLab and it demonstrates essentially better results on this data then the experiments described in the literature. It became possible with the use of additional dataset from Semeval for constructing word embeddings. With this, we can recommend our tool for solution of the classification problem related to ADR.
Extraction of Compound Words in Malay Sentences Using Linguistic and Statistical Approaches
Malay noun compound are phrases that consist of two or more nouns. The key characteristic behind noun compounds lies on its frequent occurrences within the text. Therefore, extracting these noun compounds is essential for several domains of research such as Information Retrieval, Sentiment Analysis and Question Answering. Many research efforts have been proposed in terms of extracting Malay noun compounds using linguistic and statistical approaches. Most of the existing methods have concentrated on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, extracting noun+verb, noun+adjective and noun+prepositional is challenging due to the difficulty of selecting an appropriate method with effective results. Thus, there is still room for improvement in terms of enhancing the effectiveness of compound word extraction. Therefore, this study proposed a combination of linguistic approach and statistical measures in order to enhance the extraction of compound words. Several preprocessing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization, and stemming. The linguistic approach that has been used in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. In addition, a new linguistic pattern for named entities has been utilized using a list of Malays named entities in order to enhance the linguistic approach in terms of noun compound recognition. The proposed statistical measures consists of NC-value, NTC-value and NLC value.
Rural School English Teacher Motivational Practice on Facilitating Student Motivation
It is generally believed that the teacher’s use of motivational strategies can enhance student motivation, especially in a place like Taiwan where teacher usually dominates student EFL learning. However, only little empirical studies support this claim. This study examined the connection between teachers’ use of motivational teaching practice and observed student motivated behavior in rural junior high schools in Taiwan. The use of motivational strategies by 12 teachers in five recognized rural junior high schools was investigated observed using a classroom observation instrument, the Motivation Orientation of Language Teaching. Meanwhile, post-lesson teacher evaluations accomplished by both the researcher and the teacher were functioning as part of the measure of teacher motivational practice. The data collected through observation scheme follows the real-time coding principle to examine observable teacher motivational practice and learner motivated behaviors. The results support the previous research findings that teachers’ use of motivational strategies is associated with the student motivated behaviors as well as the students’ level of motivation regarding English learning.
A Corpus-Based Analysis of Genre-Specific Discourse of Research in the Ph.D. Theses and Research Articles in International Relations
The aim of this study is threefold: 1) to investigate the discoursal features of the introduction parts of the PhD theses written at a state university in Turkey and research articles (RAs) in the field of International Relations, 2) to find out whether the discoursal features of these two corpora are compatible with the CARS Model, 3) to explore to what extent the discoursal features of the introduction parts of the two corpora in IR correspond. This study presents an example of the descriptive nature of a corpus-based, top-down approach to discourse analysis. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative and quantitative data analyses methods. Move-Step structure based on the CARS Model was analyzed qualitatively. Then, this analysis was further analyzed using SPSS Program (22.00) to see the similarities and/or differences between RAs and PhDTs. During the qualitative data analysis stage, in addition to the researcher, an independent rater coded the 42% of the corpora in order to obtain reliable results. The findings of the study revealed that the CARS Model accounted for the overall pattern of the RA introductions better than the PhDT introductions in IR. The move structures of the introduction parts of the PhDTs and the RAs in the field of IR displayed significant similarities and differences. As for the similarity, the two corpora were quite similar in their Move 1 and Move 3. Concerning the difference, the quantitative analysis revealed that the PhDT introduction sections in IR contained more moves, and were more complex and longer than the RA introduction sections. The findings of this also study suggest that the two corpora are not completely similar in terms of steps. Therefore, a modified version of the CARS Model was suggested. There are two new steps under Move1 and Move3. Of these new steps, Move1- Step1 (presenting a case/situation with factual details to give background information) was a significant one as it was an obligatory step for the PhDTs (61,90%). Although the others were not very frequently used by the RA or PhDT authors, they were important as they did not fit in the steps suggested by the CARS Model. It should also be noted that the two new steps under Move 3, whose functions are stating the limitations of the research study (Move3- Step8) and evaluating the method selected (Move3- Step9), were unique to the PhDTs. In brief, this study can deepen our understanding of how introduction sections are constructed and can increase the awareness about the conventions of the introduction section in the field of IR. Thus, the findings of this study may empower the researchers to become members of their academic discourse community by raising awareness on the possible variations across the introduction parts in the RAs and PhDTs in IR. In this way, it might be possible to improve the academic lives of the doctoral students in international relations who are writing or are planning to write either or both of them.