Mobile Learning and Student Engagement in English Language Teaching: The Case of First-Year Undergraduate Students at Ecole Normal Superieur, Algeria
The aim of the current paper is to explore educational practices in contemporary Algeria. Researches explain such practices bear traditional approach and the overlooks modern teaching methods such as mobile learning. That is why the research output of examining student engagement in respect of mobile learning was obtained from the following objectives: (1) To evaluate the current practice of English language teaching within Algerian higher education institutions, (2) To explore how social constructivism theory and m-learning help students’ engagement in the classroom and (3) To explore the feasibility and acceptability of m-learning amongst institutional leaders. The methodology underpins a case study and action research. For the case study, the researcher engaged with 6 teachers, 4 institutional leaders, and 30 students subjected for semi-structured interviews and classroom observations to explore the current teaching methods for English as a foreign language. For the action research, the researcher applied an intervention course to investigate the possibility and implications for future implementation of mobile learning in higher education institutions. The results were deployed using thematic analysis. The research outcome showed that the disengagement of students in English language learning has many aspects. As seen from the interviews from the teachers, the researcher found that they do not have enough resources except for using ppt for some teacher. According to them, the teaching method they are using is mostly communicative and competency-based approach. Teachers informed that students are disengaged because they have psychological barriers. In classroom setting, the students are conscious about social approval from the peer, and thus if they are to face negative reinforcement which would damage their image, it is seen as a preventive mechanism to be scared of committing mistakes. This was also very reflective in this finding. A lot of other arguments can be given for this claim; however, in Algerian setting, it is usual practice where teachers do not provide positive reinforcement which is open up students for possible learning. Thus, in order to overcome such a psychological barrier, proper measures can be taken. On a conclusive remark, it is evident that teachers, students, and institutional leaders provided positive feedback for using mobile learning. It is not only motivating but also engaging in learning processes. Apps such as Kahoot, Padlet and Slido were well received and thus can be taken further to examine its higher impact in Algerian context. Thus, in the future, it will be important to implement m-learning effectively in higher education to transform the current traditional practices into modern, innovative and active learning. Persuasion for this change for stakeholder may be challenging; however, its long-term benefits can be reflective from the current research paper.
Inductive Grammar, Student-Centered Reading, and Interactive Poetry: The Effects of Teaching English with Fun in Schools of Two Villages in Lebanon
Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) is a common practice in many Lebanese schools. However, ESL teaching is done in traditional ways. Methods such as constructivism are seldom used, especially in villages. Here lies the significance of this research which joins constructivism and Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in ESL classes in Lebanese villages. The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of applying constructivist student-centered strategies in teaching grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry on students in elementary ESL classes in two villages in Lebanon, Zefta in South Lebanon and Boqaata in Mount Lebanon. 20 English teachers participated in a training titled "Teaching English with Fun", which focused on strategies that create a student-centered class where active learning takes place and there is increased learner engagement and autonomy. The training covered three main areas in teaching English: grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry. After participating in the training, the teachers applied the new strategies and methods in their ESL classes. The methodology comprised two phases: in phase one, practice-based research was conducted as the teachers attended the training and applied the constructivist strategies in their respective ESL classes. Phase two included the reflections of the teachers on the effects of the application of constructivist strategies. The results revealed the educational benefits of constructivist student-centered strategies; the students of teachers who applied these strategies showed improved engagement, positive attitudes towards poetry, increased motivation, and a better sense of autonomy. Future research is required in applying constructivist methods in the areas of writing, spelling, and vocabulary in ESL classrooms of Lebanese villages.
Analytical Study: An M-Learning App Reflecting the Factors Affecting Student’s Adoption of M-Learning
This study aims to introduce a mobile bite-sized learning concept, a mobile application with social networks motivation factors that will encourage students to practice critical thinking, improve analytical skills and learn knowledge sharing. We do not aim to propose another e-learning or distance learning based tool like Moodle and Edmodo; instead, we introduce a mobile learning tool called Interactive M-learning Application. The tool reconstructs and strengthens the bonds between educators and learners and provides a foundation for integrating mobile devices in education. The application allows learners to stay connected all the time, share ideas, ask questions and learn from each other. It is built on Android since the Android has the largest platform share in the world and is dominating the market with 74.45% share in 2018. We have chosen Google-Firebase server for hosting because of flexibility, ease of hosting and real time update capabilities. The proposed m-learning tool was offered to four groups of university students in different majors. An improvement in the relation between the students, the teachers and the academic institution was obvious. Student’s performance got much better added to better analytical and critical skills advancement and moreover a willingness to adopt mobile learning in class. We have also compared our app with another tool in the same class for clarity and reliability of the results. The student’s mobile devices were used in this experimental study for diversity of devices and platform versions.
A Development of Creative Instruction Model through Digital Media
This research paper aims to: 1) enable learners to learn from instruction media; 2) learners can implement instruction media appropriately; and 3) learners can apply technology for searching data and practicing creative technology application. The sample group consists of 130 cases of secondary students studying in Bo Kluea School, Bo Kluea Nuea Sub-district, Bo Kluea District, Nan Province. The probability sampling was selected through the simple random sampling. And, the statistics used in this research are percentage, mean, standard deviation and One group Pretest – Posttest Design. The findings are summarized as follows: The congruence index of instruction media for occupation and technology subjects is appropriate. The comparison between pretest results before implementing the instruction media and posttest after implementing the instruction media, it is found that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. For the learning achievements from instruction media implementation, pretest mean is 16.24 while posttest mean is 26.28. Besides, pretest results and posttest results are compared and differences of mean are tested, the test results show that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. This can be interpreted that the learners achieve learning progress.
Effectiveness of an Intervention to Increase Physics Students' STEM Self-Efficacy: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study
Increasing the number of US university students who attain degrees in STEM and enter the STEM workforce is a national priority. Demographic groups vary in their rates of participation in STEM, and the US produces just 10% of the world’s science and engineering degrees (2014 figures). To address these gaps, we have developed and tested a practical, 30-minute, single-session classroom-based intervention to improve students’ self-efficacy and academic performance in University STEM courses.
Self-efficacy is a psychosocial construct that strongly correlates with academic success. Self-efficacy is a construct that is internal and relates to the social, emotional, and psychological aspects of student motivation and performance. A compelling body of research demonstrates that university students’ self-efficacy beliefs are strongly related to their selection of STEM as a major, aspirations for STEM-related careers, and persistence in science.
The development of an intervention to increase students’ self-efficacy is motivated by research showing that short, social-psychological interventions in education can lead to large gains in student achievement. Our intervention addresses STEM self-efficacy via two strong, but previously separate, lines of research into attitudinal/affect variables that influence student success. The first is ‘attributional retraining,’ in which students learn to attribute their successes and failures to internal rather than external factors. The second is ‘mindset’ about fixed vs. growable intelligence, in which students learn that the brain remains plastic throughout life and that they can, with conscious effort and attention to thinking skills and strategies, become smarter. Extant interventions for both of these constructs have significantly increased academic performance in the classroom.
We developed a 34-item questionnaire (Likert scale) to measure STEM Self-efficacy, Perceived Academic Control, and Growth Mindset in a University STEM context, and validated it with exploratory factor analysis, Rasch analysis, and multi-trait multi-method comparison to coded interviews. Four iterations of our 42-week research protocol were conducted across two academic years (2017-2018) at three different Universities in North Carolina, USA (UNC-G, NC A&T SU, and NCSU) with varied student demographics. We utilized a quasi-experimental prospective multiple-group time series research design with both experimental and control groups, and we are employing linear modeling to estimate the impact of the intervention on Self-Efficacy,wth-Mindset, Perceived Academic Control, and final course grades (performance measure).
Preliminary results indicate statistically significant effects of treatment vs. control on Self-Efficacy, Growth-Mindset, Perceived Academic Control. Analyses are ongoing and final results pending.
This intervention may have the potential to increase student success in the STEM classroom—and ownership of that success—to continue in a STEM career. Additionally, we have learned a great deal about the complex components and dynamics of self-efficacy, their link to performance, and the ways they can be impacted to improve students’ academic performance.
Engaging Students in Multimedia Constructivist Learning: Analysis of Students' Science Achievement
This study examined whether there was a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest achievement scores for students who received multimedia-based instructions in science. The paired samples t-test was used to address the research question and to establish whether there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores that may have occurred based on the students’ learning experience with multimedia technology. Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement scores before and after a multimedia-based instruction. Students’ achievement scores were increased by approximately two points, after students received multimedia-based instruction. On a paired samples t-test, a high level of significance was found, p = 0.000. Opportunities to learn with multimedia are more likely to result in sustained improvements in student achievement and a deeper understanding of science content. Multimedia can make learning more active and student-centered and activate student motivation.
Improving Teaching in English-Medium Instruction Classes at Japanese Universities through Needs-Based Professional Development Workshops
In order to attract more international students to study for undergraduate degrees in Japan, many universities have been developing English-Medium Instruction degree programs. This means that many faculty members must now teach their courses in English, which raises a number of concerns. A common misconception of English-Medium Instruction (EMI) is that teaching in English is simply a matter of translating materials. Since much of the teaching in Japan still relies on a more traditional, teachercentered, approach, continuing with this style in an EMI environment that targets international students can cause a clash between what is happening and what students expect in the classroom, not to mention what the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) has shown is effective teaching. A variety of considerations need to be taken into account in EMI classrooms such as varying English abilities of the students, modifying input material, and assuring comprehension through interactional checks. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of the English-Medium Instruction (EMI) undergraduate degree programs in engineering, agriculture, and science at a large research university in Japan by presenting the results from student surveys regarding the areas where perceived improvements need to be made. The students were the most dissatisfied with communication with their teachers in English, communication with Japanese students in English, adherence to only English being used in the classes, and the quality of the education they received. In addition, the results of a needs analysis survey of Japanese teachers having to teach in English showed that they believed they were most in need of English vocabulary and expressions to use in the classroom and teaching methods for teaching in English. The result from the student survey and the faculty survey show similar concerns between the two groups. By helping the teachers to understand student-centered teaching and the benefits for learning that it provides, teachers may begin to incorporate more student-centered approaches that in turn help to alleviate the dissatisfaction students are currently experiencing. Through analyzing the current environment in Japanese higher education against established best practices in teaching and EMI, three areas that need to be addressed in professional development workshops were identified. These were “culture” as it relates to the English language, “classroom management techniques” and ways to incorporate them into classes, and “language” issues. Materials used to help faculty better understand best practices as they relate to these specific areas will be provided to help practitioners begin the process of helping EMI faculty build awareness of better teaching practices.
Finally, the results from faculty development workshops participants’ surveys will show the impact that these workshops can have. Almost all of the participants indicated that they learned something new and would like to incorporate the ideas from the workshop into their teaching. In addition, the vast majority of the participants felt the workshop provided them with new information, and they would like more workshops like these.
Building Education Leader Capacity through an Integrated Information and Communication Technology Leadership Model and Tool
Educational systems and schools worldwide are increasingly reliant on information and communication technology (ICT). Unfortunately, most educational leadership development programs do not offer formal curricular and/or field experiences that prepare students for managing ICT resources, personnel, and processes. The result is a steep learning curve for the leader and his/her staff and dissipated organizational energy that compromises desired outcomes. To address this gap in education leaders’ development, Arafeh’s Integrated Technology Leadership Model (AITLM) was created. It is a conceptual model and tool that educational leadership students can use to better understand the ICT ecology that exists within their schools. The AITL Model consists of six 'infrastructure types' where ICT activity takes place: technical infrastructure, communications infrastructure, core business infrastructure, context infrastructure, resources infrastructure, and human infrastructure. These six infrastructures are further divided into 16 key areas that need management attention. The AITL Model was created by critically analyzing existing technology/ICT leadership models and working to make something more authentic and comprehensive regarding school leaders’ purview and experience. The AITL Model then served as a tool when it was distributed to over 150 educational leadership students who were asked to review it and qualitatively share their reactions. Students said the model presented crucial areas of consideration that they had not been exposed to before and that the exercise of reviewing and discussing the AITL Model as a group was useful for identifying areas of growth that they could pursue in the leadership development program and in their professional settings. While development in all infrastructures and key areas was important for students’ understanding of ICT, they noted that they were least aware of the importance of the intangible area of the resources infrastructure. The AITL Model will be presented and session participants will have an opportunity to review and reflect on its impact and utility. Ultimately, the AITL Model is one that could have significant policy and practice implications. At the very least, it might help shape ICT content in educational leadership development programs through curricular and pedagogical updates.
Reinventing Business Education: Filling the Knowledge Gap on the Verge of the 4th Industrial Revolution
As the world approaches the 4th industrial revolution, income inequality has become one of the major societal concerns. Displacement of workers by technology becomes a reality, and in return, new skills and competencies are required. More important than ever, education needs to help individuals understand the wider world around them and make global connections. The author argues for the necessity to incorporate business, economics and finance studies as a part of primary education and offer access to business education to the general population with the primary objective to understand how the world functions. The paper offers a fresh look at existing business theory through an innovative program called 'Usefulnomics'. Realizing that the subject of Economics, Finance and Business are perceived as overwhelming for a large part of the population, the author has taken a holistic approach and created a program that simplifies the definitions of the existing concepts and shifts from the traditional breakdown into subjects and specialties to a teaching method that is based exclusively on real-life example case studies and group debates, in order to better grasp the concepts and put them into context. The paper findings are the result of a two-year project and experimental work with students from UK, USA, Malaysia, Russia, and Spain. The author conducted extensive research through on-line and in-person classes and workshops as well as in-depth interviews of primary and secondary grade students to assess their understanding of what is a business, how businesses operate and the role businesses play in their communities. The findings clearly indicate that students of all ages often understood business concepts and processes only in an intuitive way, which resulted in misconceptions and gaps in knowledge. While knowledge gaps were easier to identify and correct in primary school students, as students’ age increased, the learning process became distorted by career choices, political views, and the students’ actual (or perceived) economic status. While secondary school students recognized more concepts, their real understanding was often on par with upper primary school age students. The research has also shown that lack of correct vocabulary created a strong barrier to communication and real-life application or further learning. Based on these findings, each key business concept was practiced and put into context with small groups of students in order to design the content and format which would be well accepted and understood by the target group. As a result, the final learning program package was based on case studies from daily modern life and used a wide range of examples: from popular brands and well-known companies to basic commodities. In the final stage, the content and format were put into practice in larger classrooms. The author would like to share the key findings from the research, the resulting learning program as well as present new ideas on how the program could be further enriched and adapted so schools and organizations can deliver it.
The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Levels of Delinquency among Senior High School Students with Secured Attachment to Their Mothers
The research is entitled “The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Levels of Delinquency among Senior High School Students with Secured Attachment to their Mothers”. The researchers had explored the relationship between socioeconomic status and delinquent tendencies among grade 11 students. The objective of the research is to discover if delinquent behavior will have a relationship with the current socio-economic status of an adolescent student having a warm relationship with their mothers. The researchers utilized three questionnaires that would measure the three variables of the study, namely: (1) 1SEC 2012: The New Philippines Socioeconomic Classification System was used to show the current socioeconomic status of the respondents, (2) Self-Reported Delinquency – Problem Behavior Frequency Scale was utilized to determine the individual's frequency in engaging to delinquent behavior, and (3) Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment Revised (IPPA-R) was used to determine the attachment style of the respondents. The researchers utilized a quantitative research design, specifically correlation research. The study concluded that there is no significant relationship between socioeconomic status and academic delinquency despite the fact that these participants had secured attachment to their mother hence this research implies that delinquency is not just a problem for students belonging in the lower socio-economic status and that even having a warm and close relationship with their mothers is not sufficient enough for these students to completely be free from engaging in delinquent acts. There must be other factors (such as peer pressure, emotional quotient, self-esteem or etc.) that are might be contributing to delinquent behaviors.
A Correlational Study: Dark Triad and Self-Restraint among Criminology Students
Criminology students are the future police officers of the country that plays a major role in protecting the citizens. Their behavior must be thoroughly assessed before given a badge of responsibility. Therefore, it is important to highlight their Dark Triad that is composed of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy which are considered to be controversial variables in the present while self-restraint is considered to be their way of controlling themselves especially in their line of work. The researchers used convenience and random sampling and found the respondents from a private school. Thus, the study’s aim is to determine whether there is a relationship among these variables. Machiavellianism and Psychopathy is linked to Self-Restraint except Narcissism. There are lots of factors that resulted into this.
Developing Islamic Module Project for Preschool Teachers Using Modified Delphi Technique
The purpose of this study is to gather the consensus of experts regarding the use of moral guidance amongst preschool teachers vis-a-vis the Islamic Project module (I-Project Module). This I-Project Module seeks to provide pertinent data on the assimilation of noble values in subject-matter teaching. To obtain consensus for the various components of the module, the Modified Delphi technique was used to develop the module. 12 subject experts from various educational fields of Islamic education, early childhood education, counselling and language fully participated in the development of this module. The Modified Delphi technique was administered in two mean cycles. The standard deviation value derived from questionnaires completed by the participating panel of experts provided the value of expert consensus reached. This was subsequently analyzed using SPSS version 22. Findings revealed that the panel of experts reached a discernible degree of agreement on five topics outlined in the module, viz; content (mean value 3.36), teaching strategy (mean value 3.28), programme duration (mean value 3.0), staff involved and attention-grabbing strategy of target group participating in the value program (mean value 3.5), and strategy to attract attention of target group to utilize i-project (mean value 3.0). With regard to the strategy to attract the attention of the target group, the experts proposed for creative activities to be added in order to enhance teachers’ creativity.
Choral Singers' Preference for Expressive Priming Techniques
Current research on teaching expressivity mainly involves instrumentalists. This study focuses on choral singers’ preference of priming techniques based on four methods for teaching expressivity. 112 choral singers answered the survey about their preferred methods for priming expressivity (vocal modelling, using metaphor, tapping into felt emotions, and drawing on past experiences) in three conditions (active, passive, and instructor). Analysis revealed higher preference for drawing on past experience among more experienced singers. The most preferred technique in the passive and instructor roles was vocal modelling, with metaphors and tapping into felt emotions favoured in an active role. Priming techniques are often used in combination with other methods to enhance singing technique or expressivity and are dependent upon the situation, repertoire, and the preferences of the instructor and performer.
Developing a Moodle Course for Translation Theory and Methodology: The Importance of Theory in Translation Studies and Its Application
There are many and divergent views on how the science of translation should be taught in academic institutions or colleges, meaning as an independent study area or as part of Linguistics, Literature or Foreign Languages Departments. A much more debated issue refers to the question of whether translation theory should be included in syllabuses and study programs or the focus should be solely on practicing the profession, that is translating texts. This dissertation examines prevailing views on the significance of translation theory in translation studies in order to design an open course on moodle. Taking into account that there is a remarkable percentage of translation professionals who are self-taught without having any specific studies, the course aims at helping either translation students or professional translators familiarize with concepts, methods and problem-solving strategies that are considered necessary during the process. It is organized in four modules where the learner is guided through a series of topics (register, equivalence, decision-making, level of naturalness, Skopos theory etc); after completing these topics, they are given assignments (further reading) and texts to work on in order to practice the skills obtained. The course does not focus on a specific language pair and therefore is suitable for every individual who needs a theoretical background to boost their performance or for institutions seeking to save classroom time but not at the expense of learners’ skills.
Student Attribute and the Effectiveness of Classroom Response System in Teaching Economics
In this project a web-based classroom response system (CRS) was used in the teaching an intermediate level economics course. This system allows the instructor to post a question on the screen and students to answer questions using their own electronic mobile devices. The questions and the results summarizing student responses can be shown to students simultaneously and the instructor can make timely feedback to students in class. CRS gives students a chance to respond to the instructor’s question privately, encouraging students who might not typically speak up in class to express their thoughts and opinions. There is a vast literature on the advantages and challenges of using CRS. However, empirical evidence on the student attributes that increase the effectiveness of CRS in improving student learning outcomes is sparse. The purpose of this project is to (1) find out if the use of CRS is beneficial to students taking economics, and (2) discover key student attributes that will likely make CRS more effective. Students’ performance in examinations and an end-of-semester questionnaire were used to assess the effectiveness of CRS in this project. Comparing the examination scores of the CRS treatment group and control group, the treatment group performed considerably better and statistically significant differences were found basing on paired t-tests on the differences. According to the questionnaire results, around 75% of the students in the treatment group generally agreed that CRS allowed them to express their views more freely. We also observed that students who prefer to use instant messaging rather than making conversations are generally more positive towards CRS. The use of CRS also benefits the instructor – students’ rating of the instructor in the teaching evaluation was significantly higher for the CRS treatment group.
Improving Young Learners' Vocabulary Acquisition: A Pilot Program in a Game-Based Environment
Modern simulation mobile games have the potential to enhance students’ interest, motivation and creativity. Research conducted on the effectiveness of digital games for educational purposes has shown that such games are also ideal at providing an appropriate environment for language learning. The paper examines the issue of simulation mobile games in regard to the potential positive impacts on L2 vocabulary learning. Sixteen intermediate level students, aged 10-14, participated in the experimental study for four weeks. The participants were divided into experimental (8 participants) and control group (8 participants). The experimental group was planned to learn some new vocabulary words via digital games while the control group used a reading passage to learn the same vocabulary words. The study investigated the effect of mobile games as well as the traditional learning methods on Greek EFL learners’ vocabulary learning in a pre-test, an immediate post-test, and a two-week delayed retention test. A teacher’s diary and learners’ interviews were also used as tools to estimate the effectiveness of the implementation. The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in acquiring new words through mobile games. Therefore, digital games proved to be an effective tool in learning English vocabulary.
Implementing Effective Mathematical-Discussion Programme for Mathematical Competences in Primary School Classroom in South Korea
As the enthusiasm for education in Korea is too much high, it is well known by others that children in Korea get good scores in Mathematics. However, behind of this good reputation, children in Korea are easy to get lose self-confidence, tend to complaint and rarely participate in the class because of too much competition which leads to lack of competences. In this regard, the main goals of this paper are, by applying the programme based on peer-communication on Mathematics education field, it would like to improve self-managemental competence to make children gain self-confidence, communicative competence to make them deal with complaint and communitive competence to make them participated in the class for the age of 10 children to solve this problem. 14 children the age of 10 in one primary school in Gangnam, Seoul, Korea had participated in the research from March 2018 to October 2018. They were under the programme based on peer-communication during the period. Every Mathematics class maintained the same way. Firstly a problem was given to children. Secondly, children were asked to find many ways to solve the problem as much as they could by themselves. Thirdly all ways to solve the problem by children were posted on the board and three of the children made a group to distinguish the ways from valid to invalid. Lastly, all children made a discuss to find one way which is the most efficient among valid ways. Pre-test was carried out by the questionnaire based on Likert scale before applying the programme. The result of the pre-test was 3.89 for self-managemental competence, 3.91 for communicative competence and 4.19 for communitive competence. Post-test was carried out by the same questionnaire after applying the programme. The result of the post-test was 3.93 for self-managemental competence, 4.23 for communicative competence and 4.20 for communitive competence. That means by applying the programme based on peer-communication on Mathematics education field, the age of 10 children in Korea could improve self-managemental, communicative and communitive competence. Especially it works very well on communicative competence by increasing 0.32 points as it marked. Considering this research, Korean Mathematics education based on competition which leads to lack of competences should be changed to cooperative structure to make students more competent rather than just getting good scores. In conclusion, innovative teaching methods which are focused on improving competences such as the programme based on peer-communication which was applied in this research are strongly required to be studied and widely used.
Teaching Practitioners to Use Technology to Support and Instruct Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive analysis was to determine the success of a post-graduate new teacher education program, designed to teach educators the knowledge and skills necessary to use technology in the classroom, improve the ability to communicate with stakeholders, and implement EBPs and UDL principles into instruction for students with ASD (Autism Spectrum
Disorders ). The success of candidates (n=20) in the program provided evidence as to how candidates were effectively able to use technology to create meaningful learning opportunities and implement EBPs for individuals with ASD. ≥90% of participants achieved the following competencies: podcast creation; technology used to share information about assistive technology; and created a resource website on ASD (including information on EBPs, local and national support groups, ASD characteristics, and the latest research on ASD). 59% of students successfully created animation. Results of the analysis indicated that the teacher education program was successful in teaching candidates desired competencies during its first year of implementation.
Students’ Perceptions of the Use of Social Media in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia
This paper examined the attitudes of using social media tools to support learning at a university in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, it investigated the students’ current usage of these tools and examined the barriers they could face during the use of social media tools in the education process. Participants in this study were 42 university students. A web-based survey was used to collect data for this study. The results indicate that all of the students were familiar with social media and had used at least one type of social media for learning. It was found out that all students had very positive attitudes towards the use of social media and welcomed using these tools as a supplementary to the curriculum. However, the results indicated that the major barriers to using these tools in learning were distraction, opposing Islamic religious teachings, privacy issues, and cyberbullying. The study recommended that this study could be replicated at other Saudi universities to investigate factors and barriers that might affect Saudi students’ attitudes toward using social media to support learning.
The Development of the Website Learning the
Local Wisdom in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
This research had objective to develop of the website learning the local wisdom in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya province and studied satisfaction of system user. This research sample was multistage sample for 100 questionnaires, analyzed data to calculated reliability value with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient method α=0.82. This system had 3 functions which were system using, system feather evaluation and system accuracy evaluation which the statistics used for data analysis was descriptive statistics to explain sample feature so these statistics were frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. This data analysis result found that the system using performance quality had good level satisfaction (4.44 mean), system feather function analysis had good level satisfaction (4.11 mean) and system accuracy had good level satisfaction (3.74 mean).
Blended Learning Instructional Approach to Teach Pharmaceutical Calculations
Active learning pedagogies are valued for their success in increasing 21st-century learners’ engagement, developing transferable skills like critical thinking or quantitative reasoning, and creating deeper and more lasting educational gains. 'Blended learning' is an active learning pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter. This project aimed to develop a blended learning instructional approach to teaching concepts around pharmaceutical calculations to year 1 pharmacy students. The wrong dose, strength or frequency of a medication accounts for almost a third of medication errors in the NHS therefore, progression to year 2 requires a 70% pass in this calculation test, in addition to the standard progression requirements. Many students were struggling to achieve this requirement in the past. It was also challenging to teach these concepts to students of a large class (> 130) with mixed mathematical abilities, especially within a traditional didactic lecture format. Therefore, short screencasts with voice-over of the lecturer were provided in advance of a total of four teaching sessions (two hours/session), incorporating core content of each session and talking through how they approached the calculations to model metacognition. Links to the screencasts were posted on the learning management. Viewership counts were used to determine that the students were indeed accessing and watching the screencasts on schedule. In the classroom, students had to apply the knowledge learned beforehand to a series of increasingly difficult set of questions. Students were then asked to create a question in group settings (two students/group) and to discuss the questions created by their peers in their groups to promote deep conceptual learning. Students were also given time for question-and-answer period to seek clarifications on the concepts covered. Student response to this instructional approach and their test grades were collected. After collecting and organizing the data, statistical analysis was carried out to calculate binomial statistics for the two data sets: the test grade for students who received blended learning instruction and the test grades for students who received instruction in a standard lecture format in class, to compare the effectiveness of each type of instruction. Student response and their performance data on the assessment indicate that the learning of content in the blended learning instructional approach led to higher levels of student engagement, satisfaction, and more substantial learning gains. The blended learning approach enabled each student to learn how to do calculations at their own pace freeing class time for interactive application of this knowledge. Although time-consuming for an instructor to implement, the findings of this research demonstrate that the blended learning instructional approach improves student academic outcomes and represents a valuable method to incorporate active learning methodologies while still maintaining broad content coverage. Satisfaction with this approach was high, and we are currently developing more pharmacy content for delivery in this format.
The Impact of Gamification on Self-Assessment for English Language Learners in Saudi Arabia
Continuous self-assessment becomes crucial in self-paced online learning environments. Students often depend on themselves to assess their progress; which is considered an essential requirement for any successful learning process. Today’s education institutions face major problems around student motivation and engagement. Thus, personalized e-learning systems aim to help and guide the students. Gamification provides an opportunity to help students for self-assessment and social comparison with other students through attempting to harness the motivational power of games and apply it to the learning environment. Furthermore, Open Social Student Modeling (OSSM) as considered as the latest user modeling technologies is believed to improve students’ self-assessment and to allow them to social comparison with other students. This research integrates OSSM approach and gamification concepts in order to provide self-assessment for English language learners at King Abdulaziz University (KAU). This is achieved through an interactive visual representation of their learning progress.
Enhancing African Students’ Learning Experience by Creating Multilingual Resources at a South African University of Technology
South Africa is a multicultural country with eleven official languages, yet most of the formal education at institutions of higher education in the country is in English. It is well known that many students, irrespective of their home language, struggle to grasp difficult scientific concepts and the same is true for students enrolled in the Extended Curriculum Programme at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), studying biomedical sciences. Today we are fortunate in that there is a plethora of resources available to students to research and better understand subject matter online. For example, the students often use YouTube videos to supplement the formal education provided in our course. Unfortunately, most of this material is presented in English. The rationale behind this project lies in that it is well documented that students think and grasp concepts easier in their home language and addresses the fact that the lingua franca of instruction in the field of biomedical science is English. A project aimed at addressing the lack of available resources in most of the South African languages is planned, where students studying Bachelor of Health Science in Medical Laboratory Science will collaborate with those studying Film and Video Technology to create educational videos, explaining scientific concepts in their home languages. These videos will then be published on our own YouTube channel, thereby making them accessible to fellow students, future students and anybody with interest in the subject. Research will be conducted to determine the benefit of the project as well as the published videos to the student community. It is suspected that the students engaged in making the videos will benefit in such a way as to gain further understanding of their course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, an enhanced sense of civic responsibility, as well as greater respect for the different languages and cultures in our classes. Indeed, an increase in student engagement has been shown to play a central role in student success, and it is well noted that deeper learning and more innovative solutions take place in collaborative groups. We aim to make a meaningful contribution towards the production and repository of knowledge in multilingual teaching and learning for the benefit of the diverse student population and staff. This would strengthen language development, multilingualism, and multiculturalism at CPUT and empower and promote African languages as languages of science and education at CPUT, in other institutions of higher learning, and in South Africa as a whole.
Constructing a Two-Tier Test about Source Current to Diagnose Pre-Service Elementary School Teacher’ Misconceptions
The purpose of this article is to present the results of two-stage qualitative research. The first involved the identification of the alternative conceptions of 80 elementary pre-service teachers from Quebec in Canada about the operation of simple electrical circuits. To do this, they completed a two-choice questionnaire (true or false) with justification. Data analysis identifies many conceptual difficulties. For example, for their majority, whatever the electrical device that composes an electrical circuit, the current source (power supply), and the generated electrical power is constant. The second step was to develop a double multiple-choice questionnaire based on the identified designs. It allows teachers to quickly diagnose their students' conceptions and take them into account in their teaching.
Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Representations of Heat and Temperature
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research on the conceptual representations of 128 Quebec (Canada) pre-service teachers enrolled in their third year of university in a program to train elementary teachers about heat and temperature. To identify their conceptual representations about heat and temperature, we constructed a multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of five questions. For each question, they had to explain their choice of an answer. At the methodological level, this step is essential to be able to identify the student conceptual representations. It should be noted that the selected questions were based: (1) on the works have done worldwide on primary and secondary students’ misconceptions about heat and temperature; (2) on the notions prescribed in the curriculum related to the physical world and (3) on student’s everyday contexts. As illustrations, the following are the erroneous conceptual representations identified in our analysis of the data collected: (1) The change of state of the matter does not require a constant temperature, (2) The temperature is a measure in degrees to indicate the level of heat of an object or person, (3) The mercury contained in a thermometer expands when it is heated so that the particles which constitute it expand and (4) The sensation of cold (or warm) is related to the difference in temperature. In conclusion, we will see that it is possible to develop situations of conflict, dealing specifically with the limits of the analogy between heat and temperature. These situations must consider the conceptual representations of the pre-service teachers, as well as the relevant scientific understanding of the concept of heat and temperature.
Enhancing Higher Education Teaching and Learning Processes: Examining How Lecturer Evaluation Make a Difference
This research attempts to investigate how lecturer evaluation makes a difference in enhancing higher education teaching and learning processes. The research questions to guide this research work states first as, “What are the perspectives on the difference made by evaluating academic teachers in order to enhance higher education teaching and learning processes?” and second, “What are the implications of the findings for Policy and Practice?” Data for this research was collected mainly through interviewing and partly documents review. Data analysis was conducted under the framework of grounded theory. The findings showed that for individual lecturer level, lecturer evaluation provides a continuous improvement of teaching strategies, and serves as source of data for research on teaching. At the individual student level, it enhances students learning process; serving as source of information for course selection by students; and by making students feel recognised in the educational process. At the institutional level, it noted that lecturer evaluation is useful in personnel and management decision making; it assures stakeholders of quality teaching and learning by setting up standards for lecturers; and it enables institutions to identify skill requirement and needs as a basis for organising workshops. Lecturer evaluation is useful at national level in terms of guaranteeing the competencies of graduates who then provide the needed manpower requirement of the nation. Besides, it mentioned that resource allocation to higher educational institution is based largely on quality of the programmes being run by the institution. The researcher concluded, that the findings have implications for policy and practice, therefore, higher education managers are expected to ensure that policy is implemented as planned by policy-makers so that the objectives can successfully be achieved.
Assessment of the Illustrated Language Activities of the Portage Guide to Early Education
The study was focused on the development and assessment of the illustrated language activities of the 1996 Edition of the Portage Guide to Early Education. It determined the extent of appropriateness, applicability, time efficiency and aesthetics of the illustrated language activities to be used as instructional material not only by teachers, but parents and caregivers as well. The eclectic research design was applied in this study using qualitative and quantitative methods. To determine the applicability and time efficiency of the study, a try out was done. Since the eclectic research design was used, it made use of a researcher-made survey questionnaire and focus group discussion. Analysis of the data was done through weighted mean and ANOVA. The respondents of the study were representatives of Special Education (SPED) teachers, caregivers and parents of a special-needs child, particularly with difficulties in learning basic language skills. The results of the study show that a large number of respondents are SPED teachers and caregivers and are mostly college graduates. Many of them have earned units towards Master’s studies. Moreover, a majority of the respondents have not attended seminars or in-service training in early intervention for them to be more competent in the area of specialization. It is concluded that the illustrated language activities under review in this study are appropriate, applicable, time efficient and aesthetic for use as a tool in teaching. The recommendations are focused on the advocacy for SPED teachers, caregivers and parents of special-needs children to be more consistent in the implementation of the new instructional materials as an aid in an intervention program.
Re-Thinking and Practicing Critical Pedagogy in Education through Art
In the last decade art-educators strive to integrate critical pedagogy within the art classroom. Critical pedagogy aims to deconstruct the oppressive social reality and the false consciousness in which learners from both privileged and underprivileged groups are caught. Understanding oppression as a product of socio-political conditions seeks to instigate processes of change anchored in the student's views. Yet, growing empirical evidence show that these efforts often has resulted in art projects in which art teachers play an active role in the process of critical teaching, while the students remain passive listeners. In this common scenario, the teachers/artists become authoritarian moral guides of critical thinking and acting, while the students are often found to be indifferent or play along to satisfy the teachers'/artists aspirations. These responses indicate that the message of critical pedagogy – transforming the students' way of thinking and acting – mostly do not fulfill its emancipation goals. The study analyses the critical praxis embedded in new art projects and their influence on the participants. This type of projects replaces the individual producer with a collaborative work; switch the finite work with an ongoing project; and transforms the passive learner to an engaged co-producer. The research delves into the pedagogical framework of two of these art projects by using qualitative methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 of the projects' initiator and managers, in order to access understandings of the art projects goals and pedagogical methods. Field work included 4 participant observation (two in each project) during social encounters in the project's settings, focusing on how critical thinking is enacted (or not) by the participants. The analysis exposes how the new art projects avoid the prepackaged "critical" assumptions and praxis, thus turning the participants from passive carriers of critical thinking to agents that actively use criticism. Findings invite researchers to explore new avenues for understanding critical pedagogy and developing various ways to implement critical pedagogy during art education, in view of the growing need of critical thinking and acting in school/society.
Building Teacher Capacity: Including All Students in Mathematics Experiences
In almost all mathematics classrooms, students demonstrated discrepancies in their knowledge, skills, and understanding. OECD reports predicted that this continued to aggravate as not all teachers were sufficiently trained to handle this concentration. In response, the paper explored the potential of reSolve’s professional learning module 3 (PLM3) as an affordable and accessible professional development (PD) resource. Participants’ hands-on experience and exposure to PLM3 were audio recorded. After it was transcribed and examined and their work samples were analysed, there were four issues emerged: (1) criticality of conducting preliminary data collections and increasing the validity of inferences about what students can and cannot do by addressing the probabilistic nature of their performance; (2) criticality of the conclusion: a > b and/or (a-b) ∈ Z⁺ among students’ algebraic reasoning; (3) enabling and extending prompts provided by reSolve were found useful; and (4) dynamic adaptation of reSolve PLM3 through developing transferable skills and collaboration among teachers. PLM3 provided valuable insights on assessment, teaching, and planning to include all students in mathematics experiences.
Policies and Practice of Refugee Education from Malaysian Perspective: Preliminary Findings
Millions of child refugees leave their countries in the hope of better and safer lives particularly in the aspect of education. However, the education access for the child refugees is strongly depending on the policies made by the federal and local governments. Malaysia, in particular, is a country which does not have a specific educational policy that is inclusive of child refugees. Hence, this study explores the feasibility of possible educational policy that specifically caters the needs of child refugees in Malaysia. These are preliminary findings of a case study which involved thirty-five postgraduate students in a local university who undertook Educational Policy coursework and five teachers in a refugee community centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed in relation to issues highlighted in the refugee education literature. The findings showed that most of the informants felt there is an urgent need of a systematic intervention put in place by the local government to cater to the needs of equal education access to the child refugees. A further large scale study is needed in the near future by integrating different perspectives of relevant stakeholders for an effective, efficient and sustainable policy formulation and implementation related to child refugees in Malaysia. The findings may be of interests to the educators, the ministry of education, state education office, district education office, teachers, parents and surrounding communities for their awareness about the needs of refugee education and the feasibility of educational policy for child refugees in the country.