The Development of a Science Instructional Model Based on the STEM Education Approach to Enhance Scientific Mind and Problem-Solving Skills in Primary School Students: A Pilot Study
STEM is an integrated teaching approach promoted by the Ministry of Education in Thailand. STEM Education is an integrated approach to teaching Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Some Thai teachers have questioned the STEM approach on the grounds of how to integrate STEM in the classroom. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to develop a science instructional model based on the STEM approach to enhance scientific mind and problem-solving skills for primary school-level students. The specific objectives were: 1) to develop and verify the quality of the teaching model, 2) to find the Effectiveness Index of the teaching model. This study was based on the principles participatory action research. Developing the instructional model began with 1) the collection and synthesis of information from relevant documents, related research and other sources in order to create the prototype instructiona¬l model. 2) The instructional model was assessed for validity and relevance by a panel of nine experts. 3) The pilot study was conducted with 33 primary school students. The findings were as follows: 1. The developed instructional model comprised the principles, objectives, content, operational procedures and learning evaluation of STEM. There are 5 principles: 1) Learning based on content integration. 2) Learning is based on the natural curiosity young children, leading to personal inquiry. 3) The interrelation within the group of learners and between the learners and the environment (context based learning). 4) The self-construction of knowledge, creativity, innovation. 5) Relating their findings to real life and the solving of real-life problems. The objective of this instruction model is to enhance scientific mind and problem solving skills. Children will be evaluated according to their achievements. Lesson content is based on science as a core subject which is integrated with technology and mathematics at grade 6 level according to The Basic Education Core Curriculum 2008 guidelines. The instructional procedures consisted of 6 steps: 1) Curiosity 2) Collection of data 3) Collaborative planning 4) Creativity and Innovation 5) Comments and Considerations and 6) Communication and Service. Learning evaluation is an authentic assessment based on continuous evaluation of all the material taught. 2. The experts agreed that the Science Instructional Model based on the STEM Education Approach had a high level of validity and relevance (4.33 S.D. 0.47). 3. Effectiveness Index of the proposed science instructional model is equal to 0.4903. This study is a pilot study, and the results would help in the development of a STEM teaching model. The findings suggest that this model is valuable in developing the problem-solving skills, scientific mind and improving the levels of achievement of learners.
Assessing Female Students' Understanding of the Solar System Concepts by Implementing I-Cube Technology
This study examined the female students’ understanding for the solar system concepts through the utilization of the I-Cube technology as a virtual reality technology. The study conducted in Qatar University for samples of students of eighth and ninth preparatory grade students in the State of Qatar. The research framework comprises designated quantitative research designs and methods of data collection and analysis including pre- and post-conceptual exams. This research based on experimental method design that focuses on students’ performance and conceptual questions. A group of 120 students from the eighth and ninth groups were divided into two pools of 60 students each, where the two 60-student groups represent the designated control and treatment groups. It must be mentioned that the students were selected randomly from the eighth and ninth grades. The solar system lesson of interest was taught by teacher candidates (senior students at the college of Education at QU), who taught both the experimental group (integrating I-cube) in virtual lab in Qatar University and control group (without integrating this technology) in one of independent school in the State of Qatar. It is noteworthy to mention that the students usually face some difficulties to learn by imagining real situation such as solar system and inner planet lesson. Collected data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and one-way ANCOVA using SPSS Statistics. The obtained results revealed that integrating I-Cube technology has significantly enhanced female students’ conceptual understanding of the solar system. Interestingly, our findings demonstrated the applicability of utilizing integrating I-Cube technology toward enhancing the students’ understanding regarding subjects of interests within the landscapes of basic sciences.
Determining Digital Natives' Levels of Using Web2.0 Tools in Learning Foreign Languages: A Case Study
The main aim of this research is to determine digital natives’ levels of using Web 2.0 tools in learning foreign languages in accordance with connectivism theory and cognitive theory of multimedia. It’s assumed that findings of the research will enable both face to face and distance education based institutions to learn more about digital natives and their learning styles. In the information age, depending on ubiquitousness of information, digital learners’ learning methods have changed rapidly. In the last ten years, some concepts such as Web 2.0 tools, digital resources, digital natives/immigrants/hybrids, digital literacy, information literacy, multimedia learning and online learning environments have emerged and changed some concepts related to teaching and learning environment. Thanks to information and communication technology (ICT), it has become easier to reach information, communicate and interact with people. In this context, learning a foreign language has become vital for communication, and a common language (lingua franca) has become indispensable in this globalized world. Web 2.0 tools have facilitated our lives in many ways as well as teaching and learning environments. Accordingly, due to the advancement in technology and increase in learners’ interactions and social networks; our lives, communication ways, learning and teaching methods have changed, and such changes have brought on new paradigms and pedagogical theories and formed a basis for connectivism and cognitive theory of multimedia. Rapid innovations in technology and mass media have generated a new culture. Those who were born in the digital age are called ‘digital natives’ while the ones who were born before, but adapting this digital age are called ‘digital immigrants.' Digital natives live addictively to Web 2.0 tools and digital media tools. This generation with a perfect command of Web 2.0 tools is able to reach limitless information and open educational resources. Widespread use of Web 2.0 tools in foreign language teaching enables both learners and teachers to interact and access information in a short time in and out of class. In this study, developments in information technologies, new approaches related to learning, innovations in language learning; particularly, digital natives’ use of Web 2.0 tools in foreign language process has formed research questions. Connectivism theory and cognitive theory of multimedia have been used parallel with this aim, and a matrix has been created based on these theories. Semi-structured oral interviews, which are one of the qualitative research methods, will be used in this study. The data collected in these interviews will be the basis for the questionnaire. The participants are undergraduate students at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages.
Moving up the Hierarchy: The Stepwise Migration Patterns of Iranian Academics in Turkey, the US and the Netherlands
This paper analyses stepwise migration patterns among academics and graduate students from Iran, who migrate to Turkey with the intention of moving onward to a Western country. It makes use of the concept of stepwise migration in order to study the impact of increasingly restrictive migration policies on the careers of academics and students from the Global South. Stepwise migration presents a useful theoretical framework that analyses how mobility restricted individuals use stepwise migration as a way to build up additional capital needed for migration to more ‘preferred’ destinations. This research is the first to apply the framework to academic and student migration and presents results from ongoing research on 38 Iranian graduates in the field of science and engineering. From this group, 26 individuals are currently studying or doing research at Turkish universities, and 12 individuals migrated onward to the Netherlands or the United States. The study uses an innovative methodology whereby individuals are followed throughout their career and migration trajectories for one and a half years. Individuals are interviewed at least twice during this period by the means of qualitative, semi-structured interviews. In case an individual migrates during the time of the research, an interview is also carried out in the new country of residence. The results of the study indicate that the migration decision-making process of Iranian graduates is based on a distinct “hierarchy of destinations”, whereby the United States are the most preferred destination for study and Canada and Europe rank second. However, various policies, such as visa restrictions, render it difficult for Iranian graduates to migrate directly to their preferred destination. For this reason an increasing number of Iranians decide to migrate to Turkey. According to this research, Iranian academic migration to Turkey can be characterized by two distinct patterns or groups. The first group has completed a Bachelor at a select number of top universities in Iran, then enroll in a Master’s program at an international top institution in Turkey, after which they are accepted for a PhD program in the US or the Netherlands. In this process, universities in Turkey are often seen as a stepping stone to build up additional time and capital and to bridge migration restrictions. Some students even break off their graduate program prematurely when they find a position in a Western country. The research shows that out of the 12 individuals who migrated onward to a Western country, 9 had graduated from a top university in Iran. The other 3 individuals did not graduate from a top university in Iran and this made their migration trajectory much longer and laborious. The extent to which the individuals were accepted to a PhD program in the US or the Netherlands was strongly dependent on their socio-economic background and their social, economic and cultural capital. This paper is innovative as it effectively allows us to analyze the impact of migration policies on global hierarchies of destinations for academics and students.
Teaching Behaviours of Effective Secondary Mathematics Teachers: A Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Despite significant progress in access, equity and public examination success, poor student performance in mathematics in secondary schools has become a major concern in Bangladesh. A substantial body of research has emphasised the important contribution of teaching practices to student achievement. However, this has not been investigated in Bangladesh. Therefore, the study sought to find out the effectiveness of mathematics teaching practices as a means of improving secondary school mathematics in Dhaka Municipality City (DMC) area, Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was twofold, first, to identify the 20 highest performing secondary schools in mathematics in DMC, and second, to investigate the teaching practices of mathematics teachers in these schools. A two-phase mixed method approach was adopted. In the first phase, secondary source data were obtained from the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE), Dhaka and value-added measures used to identify the 20 highest performing secondary schools in mathematics. In the second phase, a concurrent mixed method design, where qualitative methods were embedded within a dominant quantitative approach was utilised. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select fifteen teachers from the 20 highest performing secondary schools. The main sources of data were classroom teaching observations, and teacher interviews. The data from teacher observations were analysed with descriptive and nonparametric statistics. The interview data were analysed qualitatively. The main findings showed teachers adopt a direct teaching approach which incorporates orientation, structuring, modelling, practice, questioning and teacher-student interaction that creates an individualistic learning environment. The variation in developmental levels of teaching skill indicate that teachers do not necessarily use the qualitative (i.e., focus, stage, quality and differentiation) aspects of teaching behaviours effectively. This is the first study to investigate teaching behaviours of effective secondary mathematics teachers within Dhaka, Bangladesh. It contributes in an international dimension to the field of educational effectiveness and raise questions about existing constructivist approaches. Further, it contributes to important insights about teaching behaviours that can be used to inform the development of evidence-based policy and practice on quality teaching in Bangladesh.
Transnational Initiatives, Local Perspectives: The Potential of Australia-Asia BRIDGE School Partnerships Project to Support Teacher Professional Development in India
Recent research on the condition of school education in India has reaffirmed the importance of quality teacher professional development, especially in light of the rapid changes in teaching methods, learning theories, curriculum, and major shifts in information and technology that education systems are experiencing around the world. However, the quality of programs of teacher professional development in India is often uneven, in some cases non-existing. The educational authorities in India have long recognized this and have developed a range of programs to assist in-service teacher education. But, these programs have been mostly inadequate at improving the quality of teachers in India. Policy literature and reports indicate that the unevenness of these programs and more generally the lack of quality teacher professional development in India are due to factors such as a large number of teachers, budgetary constraints, top-down decision making, teacher overload, lack of infrastructure, and little or no follow-up. The disparity between the government stated goals for quality teacher professional development in India and its inability to meet the learning needs of teachers suggests that new interventions are needed. The realization that globalization has brought about an increase in the social, cultural, political and economic interconnectedness between countries has also given rise to transnational opportunities for education systems, such as India’s, aiming to build their capacity to support teacher professional development. Moreover, new developments in communication technologies seem to present a plausible means of achieving high-quality professional development for teachers through the creation of social learning spaces, such as transnational learning networks. This case study investigates the potential of one such transnational learning network to support the quality of teacher professional development in India, namely the Australia-Asia BRIDGE School Partnerships Project. It explores the participation of some fifteen teachers and their principals from BRIDGE participating schools in Delhi region of India; focusing on their professional development expectations from the BRIDGE program and account for their experiences in the program, in order to determine the program’s potential for the professional development of teachers in this study.
Conceptualizing Creative Leadership and Collaborative School Culture
Lately in educational organization, voluminous studies accentuate the momentous of leadership in mobilizing creativity. Creativity skill is seen as one of the important skills required for the 21st century leadership, which is also known as the tool for creative leader’s mind in engaging and stimulating ideas to execute outcomes. Hence, leaders should create an opportunity by involving every employee and stakeholders in schools to contribute their ideas towards developing creative solutions to enhance school productivity. The focal point of this article is to offer a conceptual framework on creative leadership practices among school leaders towards collaborative school culture. Intensive reviews of literature will be used in the fields of creative leadership and school culture with the aim to nurture leaders into better leaders and encourage collaborative school culture. The framework contributes a new shed on the implication of creative leadership practices and collaborative school culture. It also will contribute a new theory development and offered suggestions for follow up research.
A Pedagogical Approach of Children’s Learning by Toys, Perspective: Bangladesh
The parents of Bangladesh have scarcity of knowledge about children play. Most of them do not know which toys are perfect for their children. Appropriate toys for playing is one of the most significant parts of children development from early age, besides for proper amelioration of children’s mental growth and brain capacities, toys play an emergent role. So selection of proper toy for children is very important. A toy forms the sagacity of a child and instructs child’s attitude. In this era of globalization to keep pace with everything children toys are also going forward but in a deleterious way. Maximum toys are now battery-driven and for this psychological developments of children are not increasing in effective way; therefore, pedagogical toys are proper selection. This type of toy inspires the wisdom and helps a child to reveal himself/herself. Pedagogical toys are attractive to children and help to stimulate their imagination. Pedagogical toys help them to build senso-motoric skills and hand-eye coordination. In this study, some children divided into two groups, one group played with pedagogical toys and another group played with conventional toys. This study is going to exhibit the difference between pedagogical and conventional toys for kids. The main aim of this study is to reveal the potency of pedagogical toy for children. To implement this study two Daycare Centers (DCC) Projapoti 1 & 3 of Mymensingh city had chosen. Every DCC having 1.5-6 years old children but for this study 2-5 years old children had been selected. The children of Projapoti-1 played with pedagogical toys and the children of Projapoti-2 played with conventional toys. After 6 weeks of study, the children of Projapoti-1 proved that they have improved their skills more than those children of Projapoti-3 who were playing with conventional toys. The children of Projapoti-1 have developed their touch sensation, muscular movement, imitation power, hand-eye coordination whereas the children of Projapoti-3 have only developed their muscular movement fairly (while running after battery driven toys) which is not better than those children of Projapoti-1. They cannot imitate like the children of Projapoti-1. They just had fun from playing virtual games, battery driven toys, watching cartoons etc. Actually, it is not possible to develop a child’s brain without pedagogical toy.
Classroom Interaction Patterns as Correlates of Senior Secondary School Achievement in Chemistry in Awka Education Zone
The technique of teaching chemistry to students is one of the determining factors towards their achievement. Thus, the study investigated the relationship between classroom interaction patterns and students’ achievement in Chemistry. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of interaction in an observed chemistry classroom, determine the amount of teacher talk, student talk and period of silence and to find out the relationship between them and the mean achievement scores of students. Five research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study was a correlational survey. The sample consisted of 450 (212males and 238 females) senior secondary one students and 12 (5males and 7 females) chemistry teachers drawn from 12 selected secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra state. In each of the 12 selected schools, an intact class was used. Science Interaction Category (SIC) and Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) were developed, validated and used for data collection. Each teacher was observed three times and the interaction patterns coded using a coding sheet containing the Science Interaction Category. At the end of the observational period, the Chemistry Achievement Test (for collection of data on students’ achievement in chemistry) was administered on the students. Frequencies, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson product moment correlation were used for data analysis. The result showed that the percentages of teacher talk, student talk and silence were 59.6%, 37.6% and 2.8% respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient(r) for teacher talk, student talk and silence were -0.61, 0.76 and-0.18 respectively. The result showed negative and significant relationship between teacher talk and mean achievement scores of students; positive and significant relationship between student talk and mean achievement scores of students but there is no relationship between period of silence and mean achievement scores of students at 0.05 significant levels. The following recommendations were made based on the findings: teachers should establish high level of student talk through initiation and response as it promotes involvement and enhances achievement.
Use of the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) for Delivering Different Teaching English Vocabulary Strategies in Saudi Primary Schools
Teaching vocabulary is a fundamental step in helping students to develop a good grasp of language. Exploring new strategies is an essential part of improving the teaching of vocabulary. The study aims to explore the teaching vocabulary strategies when the IWB is being used in Saudi primary classrooms (aged 11 and 12 years old) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The ongoing study is based on qualitative data collected from a large-scale case study of CS, which utilises observations at six male state and private primary schools and interviews with six teachers during the academic year 2016-2017. The observations and the interviews will be transcribed, coded and entered into Nvivo software to be organised and analysed.
Social Stratification in Dubai and Its Effects on Higher Education
Emirati students studying at the University of the Emirates, one of three major public institutions of higher learning in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), have a wide demographic of faculty members teaching them an equally wide variety of courses. These faculty members bring with them their own cultural assumptions, methods, expectations, educational practices and use of language. The history of multiculturalism in the UAE coupled with the contemporary multiculturalism that exists in higher education Dubai create intriguing phenomena within the classroom. This study seeks to delve into students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of the social stratification that exist in this context. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with both and analyzed from an interpretive perspective. Findings suggest the social stratification with is deeply-seeded in the multicultural history of the region and country are reflected in the everyday interworkings of education in modern day Dubai. The relevance of this research lies in that these findings can provide valuable insights into not only the attitudes and perceptions of these Emirati students might also be applicable to any of those student populations may exist.
A Bridge to Success: Building Academic Identity in Foundation Programs
Recent years have witnessed rapid growth of Transnational Education (TNE), especially in Asia and the Middle East. Exporting North American curricula into different socio-cultural contexts brings with it numerous advantages as well as challenges that have yet to be fully explored. This article focuses on Foundation programs, bridge programs between local high schools and tertiary level education on North-American branch campuses in the Persian Gulf. Based on a case study of Foundation students in Qatar, it explores ways of preparing TNE students for academic success by helping them to develop not only their skills and subject knowledge but also their academic identity.
Taught Physics with Simulators and Texts in High School
The teaching of physics in Brazilian public schools emphasizes strongly the theoretical aspects of this science, showing its philosophical and mathematical basis, but neglecting its experimental character. Perhaps the lack of science laboratories explains this practice. In this sense, the search for new methodologies able to favor a more complete picture of Physics to our students should be found. As alternatives to real experiments, we have the trials through simulators, many of them are free software available on the internet. In order to develop a study on the use of simulators in teaching, knowing the impossibility of simulations on all topics in a given subject, we combine these programs with phenomenological character text / experimental in order to mitigate this limitation. This research proposes the use of simulators and the debate using phenomenological/ experimental texts in electrostatic theme in groups of 3rd year EJA (Adult and Youth Education) in order to verify the advantages of this methodology. Some benefits of hybridization of the traditional method with the used tools were the main motivation of the students in learning, the development of experimental notions, proactive socialization to learning, easier to understand some concepts and the creation of collaborative activities that can reduce timidity on the part of students.
The Didactic Transposition in the Textbooks of Physics of the Brazilian High School: A Comparative Study of Didactic Materials
In this article, we analyze how different approaches to the topic Magnetism of Matter in textbooks of physics of Brazilian schools. For this, we compared an approach to the concepts of the magnetic characteristics of materials (Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism and Antiferromagnetism) in different sources of information and in different levels of education, from Higher to Higher Education. In this sense, we use as reference the theory of the Didactic Transposition of Yves Chevallard French educational theorist, who conceived in his theory three types of knowledge - Know Wise, Know to Teach and Know Learned. As a research methodology, from the reading of the works, we compare the treatment of a book of higher education physics, a scientific article published in a Brazilian journal of the educational area, and four high school textbooks, with the aim of establishing in Knowing Wise, or even Knowing to Teach, is what is the greater or lesser degree of approximation with the same meaning). In that study, we assessed the level of closeness of the studies is not a high school and no higher education as a relevance that some authors of a textbook give the theme.
Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Educational Supervision and Leadership Style in Saudi Arabia
An Educational Supervisor assists teachers to develop their competence and skills in teaching, solving educational problems, and to improve the teaching methods to suit the educational process. They evaluate their teachers and write reports based on their assessments. In 1957, the Saudi Ministry of Education instituted Educational Supervision to facilitate effective management of schools, however, there have been concerns that the Educational Supervision has not been effective in executing its mandate. Studies depicted that Educational supervision has not been effective because it has been marred by poor and autocratic leadership practices such as stringent inspection, commanding and judging. Therefore, there is need to consider some of the ways in which school outcomes can be enhanced through the improvement of Educational supervision practices. Emotional intelligence is a relatively new concept that can be integrated into the Saudi education system that is yet to be examined in-depth and embraced particularly in the realm of educational leadership. Its recognition and adoption may improve leadership practices among Educational supervisors. This study employed a qualitative interpretive approach that will focus on decoding, describing and interpreting the connection between emotional intelligence and leadership. The study also took into account the social constructions that include consciousness, language and shared meanings. The data collection took place in the Office of Educational Supervisors in Riyadh and involved 4 Educational supervisors and 20 teachers from both genders- male and female. The data collection process encompasses three methods namely; qualitative emotional intelligence self-assessment questionnaires, reflective semi-structured interviews, and open workshops. The questionnaires would explore whether the Educational supervisors understand the meaning of emotional intelligence and its significance in enhancing the quality of education system in Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, reflective semi-structured interviews were carried out with the Educational supervisors to explore the connection between their leadership styles and the way they conceptualise their emotionality. The open workshops will include discussions on emotional aspects of Educational supervisors’ practices and how Educational supervisors make use of the emotional intelligence discourse in their leadership and supervisory relationships.
Evaluating and Examining Pictures of Children of Five Years Old
Early childhood is a very important period in terms of identifying and developing early skills and abilities. It is likely that the child's development will be in the same direction in the future. This study was conducted with 26 children for the purpose of examining pictures of children of five years old. In the survey, children were asked to draw a picture with pastel dyes. The drawings were collected and evaluated by the researcher. At the end of the research, it was found that the children used the yellow color (N = 17, 16,34%) and the least gray color (N = 1, 0,96%). When the features of children's pictures are examined, the children's paintings have been found to have hierarchy, transparency, completion, the use of vivid colors, and the presence of vertical and horizontal painting lines.
The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Grade Nine Students in Mathematics: In Case of Mettu Secondary and Preparatory School
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cooperative learning method on students' academic achievement and on the achievement level over a usual method in teaching different topics of mathematics. The study also examines the perceptions of students towards cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is the instructional strategy in which pairs or small groups of students with different levels of ability work together to accomplish a shared goal. The aim of this cooperation is for students to maximize their own and each other's learning, with members striving for joint benefit. The teachers' role changes from wise on the wise to guide on the side. Cooperative learning due to its influential aspects is the most prevalent teaching-learning technique in the modern world. Therefore the study was conducted in order to examine the effect of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of grade 9 students in mathematics in the case of Mettu secondary school. Two sample sections are randomly selected by which one section served randomly as an experimental and the other as a comparison group of a grade. Data gathering instruments are achievement tests and questionnaires. A treatment of STAD method of cooperative learning was provided to the experimental group while the usual method is used in the comparison group. The experiment lasted for six weeks. To determine the effect of cooperative learning on the student's achievement, the significance of the difference between the scores of groups at 0.05 levels was tested by applying t-test. The effect size was calculated to see the strength of the treatment. The students' perceptions about the method were tested by percentiles of the questionnaires. During data analysis, each group was divided into high and low achievers on the basis of their previous mathematics result. Data analysis revealed that both the experimental and comparison groups were almost equal in mathematics at the beginning of the experiment. The experimental group outscored significantly than the comparison group on post-test. Additionally, the comparison of mean posttest scores of high achievers indicates a significant difference between the two groups. The same is true for low achiever students of both groups on post-test. Hence, the result of the study indicates the effectiveness of the method for mathematics topics as compared to the usual method of teaching.
Top Management Support as Enabling Factor for Academic Innovation through Knowledge Sharing
Educational institutions are today facing increasing pressures due to economic, political and social upheaval. This is only exacerbated by the nature of education as an intangible good which relies upon the intellectual assets of the organisation, its staff. Top management support has been acknowledged as having a positive general influence on knowledge management and creativity. However, there is a lack of models linking top management support, knowledge sharing, and innovation within higher education institutions, in general within developing countries, and particularly in Iraq. This research sought to investigate the impact of top management support on innovation through the mediating role of knowledge sharing in Iraqi private HEIs. A quantitative approach was taken and 262 valid responses were collected to test the causal relationships between top management support, knowledge sharing, and innovation. Employing structural equation modelling with AMOS v.25, the research demonstrated that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between top management support and innovation. The research has produced some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders, and provided evidence to support the use of knowledge sharing to increase innovation within the higher education environment in developing countries, particularly Iraq.
Mathematical Competence as It Is Defined through Learners' Errors in Arithmetic and Algebra
Mathematical competence is the great aim of every mathematical teaching and learning endeavour. This can be defined as an idealised conceptualisation of the quality of cognition and the ability of implementation in practice of the mathematical subject matter, which is included in the curriculum, and is displayed only through performance of doing mathematics. The present study gives a clear definition of mathematical competence in the domains of Arithmetic and Algebra that stems from the explanation of the learners’ errors in these domains. The learners, whose errors are explained, were Greek and English participants of a large, international, longitudinal, comparative research program entitled the Kassel Project. The participants’ errors emerged as results of their work in dealing with mathematical questions and problems of the tests, which were presented to them. The construction of the tests was such as only the outcomes of the participants’ work was to be encompassed and not their course of thinking, which resulted in these outcomes. The intention was that the tests had to provide undeviating comparable results and simultaneously avoid any probable bias. Any bias could stem from obtaining results by involving so many markers from different countries and cultures, with so many different belief systems concerning the assessment of learners’ course of thinking. In this way the validity of the research was protected. This fact forced the implementation of specific research methods and theoretical prospects to take place in order the participants’ erroneous way of thinking to be disclosed. These were Methodological Pragmatism, Symbolic Interactionism, Philosophy of Mind and the ideas of Computationalism, which were used for deciding and establishing the grounds of the adequacy and legitimacy of the obtained kinds of knowledge through the explanations given by the error analysis. The employment of this methodology and of these theoretical prospects resulted in the definition of the learners’ mathematical competence, which is the thesis of the present study. Thus, learners’ mathematical competence is depending upon three key elements that should be developed in their minds: appropriate representations, appropriate meaning, and appropriate developed schemata. This definition then determined the development of appropriate teaching practices and interventions conducive to the achievement and finally the entailment of mathematical competence.
Book Recommendation Using Query Expansion and Information Retrieval Methods
In this paper, we present our contribution for book recommendation. In our experiment, we combine the results of Sequential Dependence Model (SDM) and exploitation of book information such as reviews, tags and ratings. This social information is assigned by users. For this, we used CLEF-2016 Social Book Search Track Suggestion task. Finally, our proposed method extensively evaluated on CLEF -2015 Social Book Search datasets, and has better performance (nDCG@10) compared to other state-of-the-art systems. Recently we got the good performance in CLEF-2016.
A Phenomenal Study of Parental Attitudes towards the Professional Education of Their Daughters in Karachi
Education is the process of bringing individuals aware of their own reality in a manner that leads them to the effective adjustment with the environment. Females’ participation is vital to reducing hunger and poverty and promoting the family welfare. Education is the right of men and women both. Female education is more needed rural areas as compared to urban areas. Without educating the women of the country we cannot think of developing our nation. It is a fact that women are the first teachers of their children. Hence, if mothers are well educated, they can play an important role in shaping and molding of their sons and daughters. The main purpose of study was to identify the barriers of female education and the attitude among the parents. The present study researchers selected a quantitative study to explore the highlighting problem in the particular areas. Through the stratified random sampling selected a sample size from each stratum and generalized whole population. Chi-square test was used to test the validity of the data. The conclusion shows attitudes of parents somehow influence their daughters’ education, particularly those who are living in countryside. Another a big challenge of female education is co-education system in our society is higher which directly subjected to parents unfavorable attitude towards their daughters’ education. In this modern era various organizations are working for female education in rural areas where females are considered as house working ladies, now it’s time to work more to change parent’s attitude towards their daughter’s education.
Academic Perceptions of E-Learning Systems in the Universities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has seen significant developments in the use of education technologies over recent years, especially in universities. Rather than a focus on student use, a study was undertaken to uncover the perspectives of academics and university staff on the question of how e-Learning systems were serving their learning requirements. An anonymous online survey was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. From 114 responses, many incomplete, 55 surveys were included for final analysis. Key findings included the fact that Saudi universities appear to have a good e-Learning infrastructure in place. In addition, shifting eLearning services in Saudi universities to the cloud presents a new opportunity that may allow educators the benefits of cloud technologies and address some challenges currently faced. From this study, a number of new aspects were found to contribute to the conversation, concerning when, or if, a move to the cloud-based e-Learning systems will better serve Saudi universities.
Internet of Things Professional Construction Building through the School-Enterprise Cooperation
As the rapid rise of the networking industry, the shortage of Internet of Things (IoT) talented people greatly stimulates the majority of colleges to speed up the pace of professional networking reform. Caused by the construction of the original specialty, many problems appear such as the vague specialty, the mixed theoretical, the poor practical ability and the different goal. To solve the issues above, we build a ‘theory-practice-theory-improvement’ four-step model of school-enterprise integration of personnel training. Besides, we integrate the advanced teaching philosophy: flip class and Mu class, making IoT teaching more professional and the ability of students more comprehensive.
Class Size Effects on Reading Achievement in Europe: Evidence from Progress in International Reading Literacy Study
During the past three decades, class size effects have been a focal debate in education. The idea of having smaller class is enormously popular among parents, teachers and policy makers. The rationale of its popularity is that small classroom could provide a better learning environment in which there would be more teacher-pupil interaction and more individualized instruction. This early stage benefits would also have a long-term positive effect. It is a common belief that reducing class size may result in increases in student achievement. However, the empirical evidence about class-size effects from experimental or quasi-experimental studies has been mixed overall. This study sheds more light on whether class size reduction impacts reading achievement in eight European countries: Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. We examine class size effects on reading achievement using national probability samples of fourth graders. All eight European countries had participated in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) in 2001, 2006 and 2011. Methodologically, the quasi-experimental method of instrumental variables (IV) has been utilized to facilitate causal inference of class size effects. Overall, the results indicate that class size effects on reading achievement are not significant across countries and years. However, class size effects are evident in Romania where reducing class size increases reading achievement. In contrast, in Germany, increasing class size seems to increase reading achievement. In future work, it would be valuable to evaluate differential class size effects for minority or economically disadvantaged student groups or low- and high-achievers. Replication studies with different samples and in various settings would also be informative. Future research should continue examining class size effects in different age groups and countries using rich international databases.
Stimulating Awareness, Interest, and Motivation among Students in an Undergraduate Rural Public Health Course
Background: Rural communities, compared with their urban counterparts, have higher rates of disease and unfavorable health conditions, heightening disparities in health outcomes. This encourages the need for effective curricula to engage students and enable them to address such disparate health outcomes as future health professionals. Successfully engaging students to explore issues related to rural health disparities in their education, research, and training can thereby advance public health practice.
Objective: This paper describes faculty efforts to integrate and evaluate health disparities awareness content in an undergraduate rural public health course at a rural Midwestern American university.
Methods: Health disparities awareness content was incorporated into an undergraduate rural public health course at a rural university in 2016. Teaching activities included reflective writing assignments on assigned documentaries and use of multimedia to facilitate large and small group class discussions on health disparities. Twenty students completed Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved baseline and follow-up surveys to report health disparities knowledge and attitudes as well as online course evaluations at semester’s end to rate various instructor and curriculum elements. Summary statistics including frequencies and means were generated to compare baseline and follow-up scores and analyze demographic characteristics. An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare health disparities knowledge and beliefs among students at baseline and follow-up.
Results: Participants (n=20) included: females (75%), public health academic majors (80%) and rural area residents (55%). Statistically significant (p< 0.05) higher mean scores occurred for survey items from baseline to follow-up (1=low, 5=high), including: understanding what the term ‘health disparities’ means (4.1 vs. 475; p=.004), ability to discuss strategies health promotion programs can use to reduce health disparities (3.75 vs. 4.55; p
Preschool Teachers' Teaching Performance in Relation to Their Technology and 21st Century Skills
The main purpose of this study is to determine the preschool teachers’ technology and 21st-century skills and its relation to teachers’ performance.
The participants were 94 preschool teachers and 59 school administrators from the CDAPS member schools. The data were collected by using 21st Century Skill, developed by ISSA (2009), Technology Skills of Teachers Survey (2013) and Teacher Performance Evaluation Criteria and Descriptors (200) was modified by the current researcher to suit the needs of her study and was administered personally by her. The surveys were designed to measure the participants’ 21st-century skills, technology skills and teaching performance.
The result of the study indicates that the majority of the preschool teachers are the college graduate. Most of them are in the teaching profession for 0 to 10 years. It also indicated that the majority of the school administrators are masters’ degree holder. The preschool teachers are outstanding in their teaching performance as rated by the school administrators. The preschool teachers are skillful in using technology, and they are very skillful in executing the 21st-century skills in teaching. It was further determined that no significant difference between preschool teachers 21st-century skill in regards to educational attainment same as with the number of years in teaching, likewise with their technology skills. Furthermore, the study has shown that there is a very weak relationship between technology and 21st-century skills of preschool teachers, a weak relationship between technology skills and teaching performance and a very weak relationship between 21st-century skills and teaching performance were also established.
The study recommends that the preschool teachers should be encouraged to enroll in master degree programs. School administrators should support the implementation of newly adopted technologies and support faculty members at various levels of use and experience.
It is also recommended that regular review of the professional development plan be undertaken to upgrade 21st-century teaching and learning skills of preschool teachers.
Attitudes towards People with Disability and Career Interest in Disability Studies: A Study of Clinical Medical Students of a Tertiary Institution in Southeastern Nigeria
One in seven people worldwide suffer from a disability. 80% of people with disabilities live in developing countries. Negative attitudes and misconceptions among health-care providers constitute barri¬ers to optimal health care for people with disabilities. This underscores the relevance of a study of the attitude of Nigerian medical students towards disability and their willingness to work in the disability sector. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 254 penultimate and final year medical students of a university in southeastern Nigeria. The mean age of the students was 24.8 ± 3.12 years. Majority of the students were male (75.2%), single (96.9%), of the Igbo tribe (86.6%), Christian (97.6%) and grew up in urban areas (68.1%). Results indicated that the medical students had a predominantly positive attitude towards people with disability as 73.8% had a positive attitude and mean attitude score was 67.03 ± 0.14 (positive attitude = 61 – 120, negative attitude = 0 - 60). Chi-square analysis did not show any significant effect of demographic and social factors on the students’ attitude towards People with Disabilities. The students were mostly willing to work in areas that address the challenges of people with disability (70.4%) but a greater proportion had never heard about Disability Studies (67.5%). About a third of the students (33.2%) would like to travel abroad to practice in the disability sector. Conclusions: The students generally had a positive attitude towards people with disability and a greater percentage were willing to work in the disability sector in their future career. About two-thirds had however, never heard about disability studies. There was some potential for brain drain among the students as a third of the population intended to practice abroad on graduation.
Open Innovation Laboratory for Rapid Realization of Sensing, Smart and Sustainable Products, S³ Products, for Higher Education
Higher education methods need to evolve because the new generations of students are learning in different ways. One way is by adopting emergent technologies, new learning methods and promoting the maker movement. As a result, Tecnologico de Monterrey is developing Open Innovation Laboratories as an immediate response to educational challenges of the world. This paper presents an Open Innovation Laboratory for Rapid Realization of Sensing, Smart and Sustainable Products (S3 Products). The Open Innovation Laboratory is composed of a set of specific resources where students and teachers use them to provide solutions to current problems of priority sectors through the development of a new generation of products. This new generation of products considers the concepts Sensing, Smart, and Sustainable. The Open Innovation Laboratory has been implemented in different courses in the context of New Product Development (NPD) and Integrated Manufacturing Systems (IMS) at Tecnologico de Monterrey. The implementation consists of adapt this Open Innovation Laboratory within the course’s syllabus in combination with the implementation of specific methodologies for product development, learning methods (Active Learning and Blended Learning using Massive Open Online Courses MOOCs) and rapid product realization platforms. Using the concepts proposed it is possible to demonstrate that students can propose innovative and sustainable products, and demonstrate how the learning process could be improved using technological resources applied in the higher educational sector. Finally, examples of innovative S3 products developed at Tecnologico de Monterrey are presented.
Human Interaction Skills and Employability in Courses with Internships: Report of a Decade of Success in Information Technology
The option to implement curricular internships with undergraduate students is a pedagogical option with some good results perceived by academic staff, employers, and among graduates in general and IT (Information Technology) in particular. Knowing that this type of exercise has never been so relevant, as one tries to give meaning to the future in a landscape of rapid and deep changes. We have as an example the potential disruptive impact on the jobs of advances in robotics, artificial intelligence and 3-D printing, which is a focus of fierce debate. It is in this context that more and more students and employers engage in the pursuit of career-promoting responses and business development, making their investment decisions of training and hiring.
Three decades of experience and research in computer science degree and in information systems technologies degree at the Portucalense University, Portuguese private university, has provided strong evidence of its advantages. The Human Interaction Skills development as well as the attractiveness of such experiences for students are topics assumed as core in the Ccnception and management of the activities implemented in these study cycles. The objective of this paper is to gather evidence of the Human Interaction Skills explained and valued within the curriculum internship experiences of IT students employability. Data collection was based on the application of questionnaire to intern counselors and to students who have completed internships in these undergraduate courses in the last decade. The trainee supervisor, responsible for monitoring the performance of IT students in the evolution of traineeship activities, evaluates the following Human Interaction Skills: Motivation and interest in the activities developed, interpersonal relationship, cooperation in company activities, assiduity, ease of knowledge apprehension, Compliance with norms, insertion in the work environment, productivity, initiative, ability to take responsibility, creativity in proposing solutions, and self-confidence. The results show that these undergraduate courses promote the development of Human Interaction Skills and that these students, once they finish their degree, are able to initiate remunerated work functions, mainly by invitation of the institutions in which they perform curricular internships. Findings obtained from the present study contribute to widen the analysis of its effectiveness in terms of future research and actions in regard to the transition from Higher Education pathways to the Labour Market.
Breaking Barriers: Utilizing Innovation to Improve Educational Outcomes for Students with Disabilities
As the number of students worldwide requiring speech-language therapy, occupational therapy and mental health services during their school day increases, innovation is becoming progressively more important to meet the demand. Telepractice can be used to reach a greater number of students requiring specialized therapy while maintaining the highest quality of care. It can be provided in a way that is not only effective but ultimately more convenient for student, teacher and therapist without the added burden of travel. Teletherapy eradicates many hurdles to traditional on-site service delivery and helps to solve the pervasive shortage of certified professionals. Because location is no longer a barrier to specialized education plans for students with disabilities when teletherapy is conducted, there are many advantages that can be deployed. Increased frequency of engagement is possible along with students receiving specialized care from a clinician that may not be in their direct area. Educational teams, including parents, can work together more easily and engage in face-to-face, student-centered collaboration through videoconference. Practical strategies will be provided for connecting students with qualified therapists without the typical in-person dynamic. In most cases, better therapy outcomes are going to be achieved when treatment is most convenient for the student and educator. This workshop will promote discussion in the field of education to increase advocacy for remote service delivery. It will serve as a resource for those wanting to expand their knowledge of options for students with special needs afforded through innovation.