Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 40418

Geological and Environmental Engineering

Hydrogeological Appraisal of Karacahisar Coal Field (Western Turkey): Impacts of Mining on Groundwater Resources Utilized for Water Supply
Lignite coal fields in western Turkey generally occurs in tensional Neogene basins bordered by major faults. Karacahisar coal field in Mugla province of western Turkey is a large Neogene basin filled with alternation of silisic and calcerous layers. The basement of the basin is composed of mainly karstified carbonate rocks of Mesozoic and schists of Paleozoic age. The basement rocks are exposed at highlands surrounding the basin. The basin fill deposits forms shallow, low yield and local aquifers whereas karstic carbonate rock masses forms the major aquifer in the region. The karstic aquifer discharges through a spring zone issuing at intersection of two major faults. Municipal water demand in Bodrum city, a touristic attraction area is almost totally supplied by boreholes tapping the karstic aquifer. A well field has been constructed on the eastern edge of the coal basin, which forms a ridge separating two Neogene basins. A major concern was raised about the plausible impact of mining activities on groundwater system in general and on water supply well field in particular. The hydrogeological studies carried out in the area revealed that the coal seam is located below the groundwater level. Mining operations will be affected by groundwater inflow to the pits, which will require dewatering measures. Dewatering activities in mine sites have two-sided effects: a) lowers the groundwater level at and around the pit for a safe and effective mining operation, b) continuous dewatering causes expansion of cone of depression to reach a spring, stream and/or well being utilized by local people, capturing their water. Plausible effect of mining operations on the flow of the spring zone was another issue of concern. Therefore, a detailed representative hydrogeological conceptual model of the site was developed on the basis of available data and field work. According to the hydrogeological conceptual model, dewatering of Neogene layers will not hydraulically affect the water supply wells, however, the ultimate perimeter of the open pit will expand to intersect the well field. According to the conceptual model, the coal seam is separated from the bottom by a thick impervious clay layer sitting on the carbonate basement. Therefore, the hydrostratigraphy does not allow a hydraulic interaction between the mine pit and the karstic carbonate rock aquifer. However, the structural setting in the basin suggests that deep faults intersecting the basement and the Neogene sequence will most probably carry the deep groundwater up to a level above the bottom of the pit. This will require taking necessary measure to lower the piezometric level of the carbonate rock aquifer along the faults. Dewatering the carbonate rock aquifer will reduce the flow to the spring zone. All findings were put together to recommend a strategy for safe and effective mining operation.
Sequence Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Analysis of Sawan Gas Field, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan
The objectives of the study are to reconstruct sequence stratigraphic framework and petrophysical analysis of the reservoir marked by using sequence stratigraphy of Sawan Gas Field. The study area lies in Central Indus Basin, District Khairpur, Sindh province, Pakistan. The study area lies tectonically in an extensional regime. Lower Goru Formation and Sembar Formation act as a reservoir and source respectively. To achieve objectives, data set of seismic lines, consisting of seismic lines PSM96-114, PSM96-115, PSM96-133, PSM98-201, PSM98-202 and well logs of Sawan-01, Sawan-02 and Gajwaro-01 has been used. First of all interpretation of seismic lines has been carried out. Interpretation of seismic lines shows extensional regime in the area and cut entire Cretaceous section. Total of seven reflectors has been marked on each seismic line. Lower Goru Formation is thinning towards west. Seismic lines also show eastward tilt of stratigraphy due to uplift at the western side. Sequence stratigraphic reconstruction has been done by integrating seismic and wireline log data. Total of seven sequence boundaries has been interpreted between the top of Chiltan Limestone to Top of Lower Goru Formation. It has been observed on seismic lines that Sembar Formation initially generated shelf margin profile and then ramp margin on which Lower Goru deposition took place. Shelf edge deltas and slope fans have been observed on seismic lines, and signatures of slope fans are also observed on wireline logs as well. Total of six sequences has been interpreted. Stratigraphic and sequence stratigraphic correlation has been carried out by using Sawan 01, Sawan 02 and Gajwaro 01 and a Low Stand Systems tract (LST) within Lower Goru C sands has been marked as a zone of interest. The petrophysical interpretation includes shale volume, effective porosity, permeability, saturation of water and hydrocarbon. On the basis of good effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation petrophysical analysis confirms that the LST in Sawan-01 and Sawan-02 has good hydrocarbon potential.
Methods of Interpolating Temperature and Rainfall Distribution in Northern Vietnam
Reliable information on the spatial distribution of annual rainfall and temperature is essential in research projects relating to urban and regional planning. This research presents results of a classification of temperature and rainfall in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam based on measurements from seven meteorological stations (Ha Nam, Hung Yen, Lang, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Phu Lien, Thai Binh) in the river basin over a thirty-years period from 1982-2011. The average accumulated rainfall trends in the delta are analysed and form the basis of research essential to weather and climate forecasting. This study employs interpolation based on the Kriging Method for daily rainfall (min and max) and daily temperature (min and max) in order to improve the understanding of sources of variation and uncertainly in these important meteorological parameters. To the Kriging method, the results will show the different models and the different parameters based on the various precipitation series. The results provide a useful reference to assist decision makers in developing smart agriculture strategies for the Red River Delta in Vietnam.
The Mineral and Petroleum Sectors of Papua New Guinea: An Overview
The current downturn in the metal and oil prices has significantly affected the mineral and petroleum sectors of Papua New Guinea. The sectors have not grown substantially in the last three years compared to previous years. Resources of several projects have not been proved up as well as feasibility studies not undertaken on advanced projects. In the 2012-2015 periods, however, development licences for four projects have been granted - the Solwara-1 project in the Manus Basin, the Woodlark project, the Crater Mountains project and the Stanley gas-condensate project. There has been some progress on three advanced projects – Frieda River copper-gold porphyry, Mount Kare gold, and the Wafi-Golpu projects. The oilfields are small by world standard but have been high rates of production. The developments of liquefied natural gas projects are progressing well and the first LNG project with ExxonMobil and partners shipped its first cargo in May 2014, the second with Total and partners involving Elk-Antelope gas-condensate fields is in its development stage, and the third with Horizon Oil and partners involving gas fields in the western Papuan basin is in the planning stage. Significantly, in the years 2012-2015, the country has exported liquefied natural gas, nickel, cobalt and chromium, and has granted exploration licences for iron-sands and coal measures for the first time.
Study of Morphological Changes of the River Ganga in Patna District, Bihar Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques
There are continuous changes upon earth’s surface by a variety of natural and anthropogenic agents cut, carry away and depositing of minerals from land. Running water has higher capacity of erosion than other geomorphologic agents. This research work has been carried out on Ganga River, whose channel is continuously changing under the influence of geomorphic agents and human activities in the surrounding regions. The main focus is to study morphological characteristics and sand dynamics of Ganga River with particular emphasis on bank lines and width changes using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The advance remote sensing data and topographical data were interpreted for obtaining 52 years of changes. For this, remote sensing data of different years (LANDSAT TM 1975, 1988, 1993, ETM 2005 and ETM 2012) and toposheet of SOI for the year 1960 were used as base maps for this study. Sinuosity ratio, braiding index and migratory activity index were also established. It was found to be 1.16 in 1975 and in 1988, 1993, 2005 and 2005 it was 1.09, 1.11, 1.1, 1.09 respectively. The analysis also shows that the minimum value found in 1960 was in reach 1 and maximum value is 4.8806 in 2012 found in reach 4 which suggests creation of number of islands in reach 4 for the year 2012. Migratory activity index (MAI), which is a standardized function of both length and time, was computed for the 8 representative reaches. MAI shows that maximum migration was in 1975-1988 in reach 6 and 7 and minimum migration was in 1993-2005. From the channel change analysis, it was found that the shifting of bank line was cyclic and the river Ganges showed a trend of southward maximum values. The advanced remote sensing data and topographical data helped in obtaining 52 years changes in the river due to various natural and manmade activities like flood, water velocity and excavation, removal of vegetation cover and fertile soil excavation for the various purposes of surrounding regions.
Potential Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Harvey River Catchment
Climate change is likely to impact the Australian continent by changing the trends of rainfall, increasing temperature and affecting the accessibility of water quantity and quality. This study investigates the possible impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of the Harvey River catchment in Western Australia by using the conceptual modelling approach (HBV mode). Daily observations of rainfall and temperature and the long-term monthly mean potential evapotranspiration, from six weather stations, were available for the period (1961-2015). The observed streamflow at Clifton Park gauging station for 33 years (1983-2015) in line with the observed climate variables was used to run, calibrate and validate the HBV-model before using it for runoff prediction. The calibrated model was then forced with the downscaled and bias corrected future temperature and precipitation data from a multi-model ensemble of fifteen GCMs of the CMIP3 model under three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) to simulate the future runoff at the catchment outlet for the mid (2046-2065) and late (2080-2099) of the 21st century. A control run, with the reference period (1981-2000), was used to represent the current climate status. The modelling outcomes show an evident reduction in the mean annual streamflow during the mid of this century particularly for the A1B scenario relative to the control run. Toward the end of the century, all scenarios showed relatively high reduction trends in the mean annual streamflow especially the A1B scenario compared to the control run. The decline in the mean annual streamflow ranged between 4-15% during the mid of the current century and 9-42% by the end of the century.
Most Recent Lifespan Estimate for the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant Computed by Using Borland and Miller Method and Mass Balance in Brazil, Paraguay
Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant is settled on the Paraná River, which is a natural boundary between Brazil and Paraguay; thus, the facility is shared by both countries. Itaipu Power Plant is the biggest hydroelectric generator in the world, and provides clean and renewable electrical energy supply for 17% and 76% of Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The plant started its generation in 1984. It counts on 20 Francis turbines and has installed capacity of 14,000 MWh. Its historic generation record occurred in 2016 (103,098,366 MWh), and since the beginning of its operation until the last day of 2016 the plant has achieved the sum of 2,415,789,823 MWh. The distinct sedimentologic aspects of the drainage area of Itaipu Power Plant, from its stretch upstream (Porto Primavera and Rosana dams) to downstream (Itaipu dam itself), were taken into account in order to best estimate the increase/decrease in the sediment yield by using data from 2001 to 2016. Such data are collected through a network of 14 automatic sedimentometric stations managed by the company itself and operating in an hourly basis, covering an area of around 136,000 km² (92% of the incremental drainage area of the undertaking). Since 1972, a series of lifespan studies for the Itaipu Power Plant have been made, being first assessed by Sir Hans Albert Einstein, at the time of the feasibility studies for the enterprise. From that date onwards, eight further studies were made through the last 44 years aiming to confer more precision upon the estimates based on more updated data sets. From the analysis of each monitoring station, it was clearly noticed strong increase tendencies in the sediment yield through the last 14 years, mainly in the Iguatemi, Ivaí, São Francisco Falso and Carapá Rivers, the latter situated in Paraguay, whereas the others are utterly in Brazilian territory. Five lifespan scenarios considering different sediment yield tendencies were simulated with the aid of the softwares SEDIMENT and DPOSIT, both developed by the author of the present work. Such softwares thoroughly follow the Borland & Miller methodology (empirical method of area-reduction). The soundest scenario out of the five ones under analysis indicated a lifespan foresight of 168 years, being the reservoir only 1.8% silted by the end of 2016, after 32 years of operation. Besides, the mass balance in the reservoir (water inflows minus outflows) between 1986 and 2016 shows that 2% of the whole Itaipu lake is silted nowadays. Owing to the convergence of both results, which were acquired by using different methodologies and independent input data, it is worth concluding that the mathematical modeling is satisfactory and calibrated, thus assigning credibility to this most recent lifespan estimate.
Ultrasonic Techniques to Characterize and Monitor Water-in-Oil Emulsion
Oil-water emulsions are commonly encountered at various stages of crude oil production and processing. Most of the emulsion in crude oil processing is generated by the dispersion of water droplets in oil phase and stabilized by the impurities associated with crude oil. The characteristics of the emulsion phase can vary with crude composition and types of impurities present in oil. Emulsions are often difficult to track and treat and can cause a number of costly problems which need to be avoided. The objectives of this study are development of ultrasonic techniques to track and characterize emulsion phase generated during desalting operation of crude oil. The emulsion phase is not expected in cleaned oil and salty water streams leaving the desalter. The position of emulsion layer is monitored with the help of ultrasonic probes suitably placed in the vessel. The sensitivity of the technique and its potential has been demonstrated based on extensive testing with crude oil samples. The technique is also being developed to monitor emulsion phase characteristics such as stability, composition and droplet size distribution. The ultrasonic parameters recorded are changes in acoustic velocity, signal attenuation and its frequency spectrum. Emulsion has been prepared with light and heavy crude oil samples and the effects of various factors including mixing speed, shear rate, temperature, surfactant and solid particles concentrations have been investigated in detail. The rheological properties of emulsions are measured using Brookfield Rotational Digital Rheometer. The applied frequency for ultrasonic waves has been varied from 1.5 to 5 MHz and a sensitivity analysis has been carried out. Emulsion droplet structure is observed with optical microscopy and stability is examined by tracking the changes in ultrasonic parameters with time. A model based on ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy is being developed and tested to track changes in droplet size distribution with time.
The Use of Thermal Infrared Wavelengths to Determine the Volcanic Soils
In this study, an application was carried out to determine the Volcanic Soils by using remote sensing. Study area was located on the Golcuk formation in Isparta-Turkey. The thermal bands of Landsat 8 image were used for processing. The implementation of the climate model that based on the water index was used in ERDAS Imagine software together with pixel based image classification. Soil Moisture Index (SMI) was modeled by using the surface temperature (Ts) which was obtained from thermal bands and vegetation index (NDVI) derived from Landsat 8. We grouped surface moisture values and classified by using scoring system. Thematic layers were compared together with field studies. Consequently, different moisture levels for volcanic soils were an indicator for determination and separation. We conclude those thermal wavelengths are preferable bands for separation of volcanic soils using moisture and temperature models.
Petrogenetic Model of Formation of Orthoclase Gabbro of the Dzirula Crystalline Massif, the Caucasus
Orthoclase gabbro intrusive exposes in the Eastern part of the Dzirula crystalline massif of the Central Transcaucasian microcontinent. It is intruded in the Baikal quartz-diorite gneisses as a stock-like body. The intrusive is characterized by heterogeneity of rock composition: variability of mineral content and irregular distribution of rock-forming minerals. The rocks are represented by pyroxenites, gabbro-pyroxenites and gabbros of different composition – K-feldspar, pyroxene-hornblende and biotite bearing varieties. Scientific views on the genesis and age of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive are considerably different. Based on the long-term pertogeochemical and geochronological investigations of the intrusive with such an extraordinary composition the authors came to the following conclusions. According to geological and geophysical data, it is stated that in the Saurian orogeny horizontal tectonic layering of the Earth’s crust of the Central Transcaucasian microcontinent took place. That is precisely this fact that explains the formation of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive. During the tectonic doubling of the Earth’s crust of the mentioned microcontinent thick tectonic nappes of mafic and sialic layers overlap the sialic basement (‘inversion’ layer). The initial magma of the intrusive was of high-temperature basite-ultrabasite composition, crystallization products of which are pyroxenites and gabbro-pyroxenites. Petrochemical data of the magma attest to its formation in the Upper mantle and partially in the ‘crustal astenolayer’. Then, a newly formed overheated dry magma with phenocrysts of clinopyrocxene and basic plagioclase intruded into the ‘inversion’ layer. From the new medium it was enriched by the volatile components causing the selective melting and as a result the formation of leucocratic quartz-feldspar material. At the same time in the basic magma intensive transformation of pyroxene to hornblende was going on. The basic magma partially mixed with the newly formed acid magma. These different magmas intruded first into the allochthonous basite layer without its significant transformation and then into the upper sialic layer and crystallized here at a depth of 7-10 km. By petrochemical data the newly formed leucocratic granite magma belongs to the S type granites, but the above mentioned mixed magma – to H (hybrid) type. During the final stage of magmatic processes the gabbroic rocks impregnated with high-temperature feldspar-bearing material forming anorthoclase or orthoclase. Thus, so called ‘orthoclase gabbro’ includes the rocks of various genetic groups: 1. protolith of gabbroic intrusive; 2. hybrid rock – K-feldspar gabbro and 3. leucocratic quartz-feldspar bearing rock. Petrochemical and geochemical data obtained from the hybrid gabbro and from the inrusive protolith differ from each other. For the identification of petrogenetic model of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive formation LA-ICP-MS- U-Pb zircon dating has been conducted in all three genetic types of gabbro. The zircon age of the protolith – mean 221.4±1.9 Ma and of hybrid K-feldspar gabbro – mean 221.9±2.2 Ma, records crystallization time of the intrusive, but the zircon age of quartz-feldspar bearing rocks – mean 323±2.9 Ma, as well as the inherited age (323±9, 329±8.3, 332±10 and 335±11 Ma) of hybrid K-feldspar gabbro corresponds to the formation age of Late Variscan granitoids widespread in the Dzirula crystalline massif.
A Geochemical Perspective on A-Type Granites of Khanak and Devsar Areas, Haryana, India: Implications for Petrogenesis
Granites from Khanak and Devsar areas, a part of Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) were investigated for their geochemical characteristics to understand the petrogenetic aspect of the research area. Neoproterozoic rocks of MIS are well exposed in Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur, Pali, Barmer, Jalor, Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Bhiwani district of Haryana and also occur at Kirana hills of Pakistan. The MIS predominantly consists of acidic volcanic with acidic plutonic (granite of various types), mafic volcanic, mafic intrusive and minor amount of pyroclasts. Based on the field and petrographical studies, 28 samples were selected and analyzed for geochemical analysis of major, trace and rare earth elements at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry). Granites from the studied areas are categorized as grey, green and pink. Khanak granites consist of quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase, and biotite as essential minerals and hematite, zircon, annite, monazite & rutile as accessory minerals. In Devsar granites, plagioclase is replaced by perthite and occurs as dominantly. Geochemically, granites from Khanak and Devsar areas exhibit typical A-type granites characteristics with their enrichment in SiO2, Na2O+K2O, Fe/Mg, Rb, Zr, Y, Th, U, REE (except Eu) and significant depletion in MgO, CaO, Sr, P, Ti, Ni, Cr, V and Eu suggested about A-type affinities in Northwestern Peninsular India. The amount of heat production (HP) in green and grey granites of Devsar area varies upto 9.68 & 11.70 μWm-3 and total heat generation unit (HGU) i.e. 23.04 & 27.86 respectively. Pink granites of Khanak area display a higher enrichment of HP (16.53 μWm-3) and HGU (39.37) than the granites from Devsar area. Overall, they have much higher values of HP and HGU than the average value of continental crust (3.8 HGU), which imply a possible linear relationship among the surface heat flow and crustal heat generation in the rocks of MIS. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show enriched LREE, moderate to strong negative Eu anomalies and more or less flat heavy REE. In primitive mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, the granites show pronounced depletions in the high-field-strength elements (HFSE) Nb, Zr, Sr, P, and Ti. Geochemical characteristics (major, trace and REE) along with the use of various discrimination schemes revealed their probable correspondence to magma derived from the crustal origin by a different degree of partial melting.
[Keynote Talk]: Unlocking Transformational Resilience in the Aftermath of a Flood Disaster. A Case Study from Cumbria
Past research has demonstrated that disasters are continuing to escalate in frequency and magnitude worldwide, representing a key concern for the global community. Understanding and responding to the increasing risk posed by disaster events has become a key concern for disaster managers. An emerging trend within literature, acknowledges the need to move beyond a state of coping and reinstatement of the status quo, towards incremental adaptive change and transformational actions for long-term sustainable development. As such, a growing interest in research concerns the understanding of the change required to address ever increasing and unpredictable disaster events. Capturing transformational capacity and resilience, however is not without its difficulties and explains the dearth in attempts to capture this capacity. Adopting a case study approach, this research seeks to enhance an awareness of transformational resilience by identifying key components and indicators that determine the resilience of flood-affected communities within Cumbria. Grounding and testing a theoretical resilience framework within the case studies, permits the identification of how perceptions of risk influence community resilience actions. Further, it assesses how levels of social capital and connectedness impacts upon the extent of interplay between resources and capacities that drive transformational resilience. Thus, this research seeks to expand the existing body of knowledge by enhancing the awareness of resilience in post-disaster affected communities, by investigating indicators of community capacity building and resilience actions that facilitate transformational resilience during the recovery and reconstruction phase of a flood disaster.
Hydrological Modelling for Geological Behaviours in Environmental Planning in Context of Urban Areas
Runoff in urban areas and decreasing water levels and recharge have been a complex issue pointing defective urban design and increasing demography. Very less has been discussed or analysed for water sensitive urban Master Plans or local area plans. Land use planning deals with the land transformation from natural areas into developed ones which lead to changes in a natural environment. Elaborated knowledge of the relationship between the existing patterns of land use-land cover and recharge with respect to the prevailing soil below. The parameters of incompatibility between urban functions and the functions of the natural environment are becoming various. Changes in land patterns due to built up, pavements, roads, and similar land cover affect surface water flow seriously. It also changes permeability and absorption characteristics of the soil. Urban planners need to know natural processes along with modern means and best technologies as there is a huge gap between basic knowledge of natural processes and its requirement for balanced development having minimum impact on water recharge. The present paper analyzes the variations in land use land cover and their impacts on surface flows and subsurface recharge in the study area. The methodology adopted was analysing the changes in land use and land cover using GIS and Civil 3d auto cad. The variations were used in Storm Water Management Model to find out the runoff for various soil groups and resulting recharge observing water levels in POW data for last 40 years of the study area. Results were analysed again to find best correlations for sustainable recharge in urban areas.
Petrology of the Post-Collisional Dolerites, Basalts from the Javakheti Highland, South Georgia
The Neogene-Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Javakheti Highland are products of post-collisional continental magmatism and are related to divergent and convergent margins of Eurasian-Afroarabian lithospheric plates. The studied area constitutes an integral part of the volcanic province of Central South Georgia. Three cycles of volcanic activity are identified here: 1. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, 2. Late Pliocene-Early /Middle/ Pleistocene and 3. Late Pleistocene. An intense basic dolerite magmatic activity occurred within the time span of the Late Pliocene and lasted until at least Late /Middle/ Pleistocene. The age of the volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary formation was dated by geomorphological, paleomagnetic, paleontological and geochronological methods /1.7-1.9 Ma/. The volcanic area of the Javakheti Highland contains multiple dolerite Plateaus: Akhalkalaki, Gomarethi, Dmanisi and Tsalka. Petrographic observations of these doleritic rocks reveal fairly constant mineralogical composition: olivine / Fo₈₇.₆₋₈₂.₇ /, plagioclase / Ab₂₂.₈ An₇₅.₉ Or₁.₃; Ab₄₅.₀₋₃₂.₃ An₅₂.₉₋₆₂.₃ Or₂.₁₋₅.₄/. The pyroxene is an augite and may exhibit a visible zoning: / Wo₃₉.₇₋₄₅.₆ E n₃₉.₇₋₄₅.₆ Fs₁₆.₈₋₁₀.₈/. Opaque minerals /magnetite, titanomagnetite/ is abundant as inclusions within olivine and pyroxene crystals. The texture of dolerites exhibits intergranular, holocrystalline to ophitic to sub ophitic granular. Dolerites are most common vesicular rocks. Vesicles range in shape from spherical to elongated and in size from 0.5 mm to than 1.5-2 cm and makeup about 20-50 % of the volume. The dolerites have been subjected to considerable alteration. The secondary minerals in the geothermal field are: zeolite, calcite, chlorite, aragonite, clay-like mineral /dominated by smectites/ and iddingsite –like mineral; rare quartz and pumpellyite are present. These vesicles are filled by secondary minerals. In the chemistry of dolerites are the calc-alkalic transition to sub-alkaline with a predominance of Na₂O over K₂O. Chemical analyses indicate that dolerites of all plateaus of the Javakheti Highland have similar geochemical compositions, signifying that they were formed from the same magmatic source by crystallization of olivine basalis magma which less differentiated / ⁸⁷Sr \ ⁸⁶Sr 0.703920-0704195/. There is one argument, which is less convincing, according to which the dolerites/basalts of the Javakheti Highland are considered to be an activity of a mantle plume. Unfortunately, there does not exist reliable evidence to prove this. The petrochemical peculiarities and eruption nature of the dolerites of the Javakheti Plateau point against their plume origin. Nevertheless, it is not excluded that they influence the formation of dolerite producing primary basaltic magma.
Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion Study of the Kebbouch South Pb-Zn Deposit, Northwest Tunisia
The Kebbouch South Pb-Zn deposit is located 20 km to the east of El Kef (NW) in the southeastern part of the Triassic diapir belt in the Tunisian Atlas. The deposit is composed of sulfide and non-sulfide zinc-lead ore bodies. The aim of this study is to provide petrographic results, mineralogy, as well as fluid inclusion data of the carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn Kebbouch South deposit. Mineralization forms two major ore types: (1) lenticular dolostones and clay breccias in the contact zone between Triassic and Upper Cretaceous strata;, it consists of small-scale lenticular, strata-or fault-controlled mineralization mainly composed of marcasite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and (2) stratiform mineralization in the Bahloul Formation (Upper Cenomanian-Lower Turonian) consisting of framboidal and cubic pyrite, disseminated sphalerite and galena. Non-metalliferous and/or gangue minerals are represented by dolomite, calcite, celestite and quartz. Fluid inclusion petrography study has been carried out on calcite and celestite. Fluid inclusions hosted in celestite are less than 20 µm large and show two types of aqueous inclusions: monophase liquid aqueous inclusions (L), abundant and very small, generally less than 15 µm and liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L+V). The gas phase forms a mobile vapor bubble. Microthermometric analyses of (L+V) fluid inclusions for celestite indicate that the homogenization temperature ranges from 121 to 156°C, and final ice melting temperatures are in the range of – 19 to -9°C corresponding to salinities of 12 to 21 wt% NaCl eq. (L+V) fluid inclusions from calcite are frequently localized along the growth zones; their homogenization temperature ranges from 96 to 164°C with final ice melting temperatures between -16 and -7°C corresponding to salinities of 9 to 19 wt% NaCl eq. According to mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies, mineralization in the Pb – Zn Kebbouch South deposit formed between 96 to 164°C with salinities ranging from 9 to 21 wt% NaCl eq. A contribution of basinal brines in the ore formation of the kebbouch South Pb–Zn deposit is likely. The deposit is part of the family of MVT deposits associated with the salt diapir environment.
Characteristics of Himalayan Glaciers with Lakes, Kosi Sub-Basin, Ganga Basin: Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques
Assessment of characteristics of Himalayan glaciers with or without glacier lakes was carried out for 1937glaciers of Kosi sub-basin, Ganga basin by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Analysis of IRS-P6 AWiFS Data of 2004-07 periods, SRTM DEM and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data (15year mean) using image processing and GIS tools has provided significant information on various glacier parameters. The glacier area, length, width, ice exposed area, debris cover area, glacier slope, orientation, elevation and temperature data was analysed. The 119 supra glacier lakes and 62 moraine dam/peri-glacier lakes (area > 0.02 km2) in the study were studied to discern the suitable glacier conditions for glacier lake formation. On analysis it is observed that the glacial lakes are preferably formed in association with large dimension glaciers (area, length and width), glaciers with higher percent ice exposed area, lower percent debris cover area and in general mean elevation value greater than 5300 m amsl. On analysis of lake type shows that the moraine dam lakes are formed associated with glaciers located at relatively higher altitude as compared to altitude of glaciers with supra glacier lakes. Analysis of frequency of occurrence of lakes vis a vis glacier orientation shows that more number of glacier lakes are formed associated with glaciers having orientation south, south east, south west, east and west directions. The supra glacial lakes are formed in association with glaciers having higher mean temperature as compared to moraine dam lakes as verified using LST data of 15 years (2000-2014).
Jurrasic Deposit Ichnofossil Study of Cores from Bintuni Basin, Eastern Indonesia
Ichnofossils were examined based on two wells cores of Jurassic sediment from Bintuni Basin, West Papua, Indonesia. The cores are the Jurassic interval and known as the potential reservoir interval in this area. Representative of 18 ichnogenera was recorded including forms assigned to Arenicolites, Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, cryptic bioturbation, Glossifungites, Lockeia, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhizocorallium, Rosselia, root structure, Skolithos, Teichicnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The two cores represent a depositional system that is dominated by tidal flat, shallow marine shelf continuum possibly crossed by estuaries or tidal shoals channels. From the first core identified two deepening cycles. The shallow one is a shallow marine with tidal influence while the deeper one attached to the shelf. Shallow interval usually indicates by appearances of Ophiomorpha and Glossifungites while the deeper shallow marine interval signs by the abundance of Phycosiphon. The second core reveals eight deepening cycles.
An Assessment of Health Hazards in Urban Communities: A Study of Spatial-Temporal Variations of Dengue Epidemic in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Dengue is an epidemic which is spread by Aedes Egyptai and Aedes Albopictus mosquitoes. The cases of dengue show a dramatic growth rate of the epidemic in urban and semi urban areas spatially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence of dengue has become a prominent reason for hospitalization and deaths in Asian countries, including Sri Lanka. During the last decade the dengue epidemic began to spread from urban to semi-urban and then to rural settings of the country. The highest number of dengue infected patients was recorded in Sri Lanka in the year 2016 and the highest number of patients was identified in Colombo district. Together with the commercial, industrial, and other supporting services, the district suffers from rapid urbanization and high population density. Thus, drainage and waste disposal patterns of the people in this area exert an additional pressure to the environment. The district is situated in the wet zone and thus low lying lands constitute the largest portion of the district. This situation additionally facilitates mosquito breeding sites. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of dengue epidemic in Kolonnawa MOH area (Medical Officer of Health) in the district of Colombo. The study was carried out using 615 recorded dengue cases in Kollonnawa MOH area during the south east monsoon season from May to September 2016. The Moran’s I and Kernel density estimation were used as analytical methods. The analysis of data was accomplished through the integrated use of ArcGIS 10.1 software packages along with Microsoft Excel analytical tool. Field observation was also carried out for verification purposes during the study period. Results of the Moran’s I index indicates that the spatial distribution of dengue cases showed a cluster distribution pattern across the area. Kernel density estimation emphasis that dengue cases are high where the population has gathered, especially in areas comprising housing schemes. Results of the Kernel Density estimation further discloses that hot spots of dengue epidemic are located in the western half of the Kolonnawa MOH area, which is close to the Colombo municipal boundary and there is a significant relationship with high population density and unplanned urban land use practices. Results of the field observation confirm that the drainage systems in these areas function poorly and careless waste disposal methods of the people further encourage mosquito breeding sites. This situation has evolved harmfully from a public health issue to a social problem, which ultimately impacts on the economy and social lives of the country.
Comparison and Improvement of the Existing Cone Penetration Test Results: Shear Wave Velocity Correlations for Hungarian Soils
The increased focus on the structural design for seismic and dynamic effects comes partly from an effort to better describe structural behavior under this condition and partly from the introduction of Eurocode-8 in Hungary. Dynamic soil properties contribute to the response of structures by modifying the stiffness and damping of the soil-structural system and by modifying the seismic action as it reaches the ground surface. The fundamental dynamic property measured in the field is shear modulus (G0) or shear wave velocity (vs). This property is important in foundation vibration problems, earthquake site response, liquefaction potential, and site classification according to EC8-1. Over the last decades, in addition to laboratory tests, a wide variety of in-situ measurement techniques were developed to evaluate the shear wave velocity of soils, but unfortunately, these tests are often too expensive for general design practice. There are opportunities in only some special cases, such as large-scale projects, to apply these techniques in Hungary. On the other hand, over the last several years a significant number of correlations have been proposed to determine shear wave velocity or shear modulus from Cone Penetration Test (CPT) results. The CPT test is widely used for geotechnical investigation in general, because it can measure a wide range of soil types. This gives the possibility to analyze and improve existing CPT-vs correlations and apply them to Hungarian soils. These equations for correlations are based on statistical analyses of site investigations, and generally focused on a particular location. Based on a literature review, as well as research experience in Hungary, the influence of various parameters on the accuracy of results will be shown. This study can serve as a basis for selecting and modifying correlation equations for Hungarian soils. Test data is taken from 5 locations in Hungary with similar geologic conditions. Most of the shear wave velocity values were measured by seismic CPT. Based on these data, a comparison analysis will help to select which correlation is the most accurate for Hungarian soils. Several factors are analyzed including soil type, behavior index, measurement depth, geologic age etc. for their effect on the accuracy of predictions. The final results show an improved prediction method for Hungarian soils.
An Ensemble System of Classifiers for Computer-Aided Volcano Monitoring
Continuous evaluation of the status of potentially hazardous volcanos plays a key role for civil protection purposes. The importance of monitoring volcanic activity, especially for energetic paroxysms that usually come with tephra emissions, is crucial not only for exposures to the local population but also for airline traffic. Presently, real-time surveillance of most volcanoes worldwide is essentially delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks. Unfavorably, the high nonlinearity of the complex and coupled volcanic dynamics leads to a large variety of different volcanic behaviors. Moreover, continuously measured parameters (e.g. seismic, deformation, infrasonic and geochemical signals) are often not able to fully explain the ongoing phenomenon, thus making the fast volcano state assessment a very puzzling task for the personnel on duty at the control rooms. With the aim of aiding the personnel on duty in volcano surveillance, here we introduce a system based on an ensemble of data-driven classifiers to infer automatically the ongoing volcano status from all the available different kind of measurements. The system consists of a heterogeneous set of independent classifiers, each one built with its own data and algorithm. Each classifier gives an output about the volcanic status. The ensemble technique allows weighting the single classifier output to combine all the classifications into a single status that maximizes the performance. We tested the model on the Mt. Etna (Italy) case study by considering a long record of multivariate data from 2011 to 2015 and cross validated it. Results indicate that the proposed model is effective and of great power for decision-making purposes.
Geographic Information System and Ecotourism Sites Identification of Jamui District, Bihar, India
In the red corridor famed for the Left Wing Extremism, lies small district of Jamui in Bihar, India. The district lies at 24º20´ N latitude and 86º13´ E longitude, covering an area of 3,122.8 km2 The undulating topography, with widespread forests provides pristine environment for invigorating experience of tourists. Natural landscape in form of forests, wildlife, rivers, and cultural landscape dotted with historical and religious places is highly purposive for tourism. The study is primarily related to the identification of potential ecotourism sites, using Geographic Information System. Data preparation, analysis and finally identification of ecotourism sites is done. Secondary data used is Survey of India Topographical Sheets with R.F.1:50,000 covering the area of Jamui district. District Census Handbook, Census of India, 2011; ERDAS Imagine and Arc View is used for digitization and the creation of DEM’s (Digital Elevation Model) of the district, depicting the relief and topography and generate thematic maps. The thematic maps have been refined using the geo-processing tools. Buffer technique has been used for the accessibility analysis. Finally, all the maps, including the Buffer maps were overlaid to find out the areas which have potential for the development of ecotourism sites in the Jamui district. Spatial data - relief, slopes, settlements, transport network and forests of Jamui District were marked and identified, followed by Buffer Analysis that was used to find out the accessibility of features like roads, railway stations to the sites available for the development of ecotourism destinations. Buffer analysis is also carried out to get the spatial proximity of major river banks, lakes, and dam sites to be selected for promoting sustainable ecotourism. Overlay Analysis is conducted using the geo-processing tools. Digital Terrain Model (DEM) generated and relevant themes like roads, forest areas and settlements were draped on the DEM to make an assessment of the topography and other land uses of district to delineate potential zones of ecotourism development. Development of ecotourism in Jamui faces several challenges. The district lies in the portion of Bihar that is part of ‘red corridor’ of India. The hills and dense forests are the prominent hideouts and training ground for the extremists. It is well known that any kind of political instability, war, acts of violence directly influence the travel propensity and hinders all kind of non-essential travels to these areas. The development of ecotourism in the district can bring change and overall growth in this area with communities getting more involved in economically sustainable activities. It is a known fact that poverty and social exclusion are the main force that pushes people, resorting towards violence. All over the world tourism has been used as a tool to eradicate poverty and generate good will among people. Tourism, in sustainable form should be promoted in the district to integrate local communities in the development process and to distribute fruits of development with equity.
Ground Response Analyses in Budapest Based on Site Investigations and Laboratory Measurements
Surface sediments and local ground conditions have major influence on seismic response of structures. In this study the focus is on applying investigation methods to obtain soil stiffness and damping properties for use in seismic design. Field and laboratory tests include SCPT, MASW, resonant column, torsional shear, and bender element tests. The site analyzed is in a moderate seismic zone: Budapest, Hungary. The study's aim was to perform tests on identical profiles and soils by different methods, in order to determine what the level of certainty would be for site response analysis and seismic design. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Seismic Cone Penetration Tests were performed at the same locations. Undisturbed samples from adjacent boreholes were used for Resonant Column, Torsional Shear and Bender Element Testing. Often in practice, there is little-to-no data available on dynamic soil properties so properties are estimated for design purposes. Comparisons are made between results from the field, laboratory and estimation methods with respect to their impact on site response and seismic design of buildings. Ground response results are also compared to Eurocode 8 design spectra. Results indicate a significant differences between methodologies. However when data is normalized or adjusted for site conditions, agreement improves. The paper illustrates how to implement data generated from very different tests to achieve the same goal of determining the level of seismic action at a site.
Effects of Local Ground Conditions on Site Response Analysis Results in Hungary
Local ground conditions have a substantial influence on the seismic response of structures. Their inclusion in seismic hazard assessment and structural design can be realized at different levels of sophistication. However, response results based on more advanced calculation methods e.g. nonlinear or equivalent linear site analysis tend to show significant discrepancies when compared to simpler approaches. This project's main objective was to compare results from several 1-D response programs to Eurocode 8 design spectra. Data from in-situ site investigations were used for assessing local ground conditions at several locations in Hungary. After discussion of the in-situ measurements and calculation methods used, a comprehensive evaluation of all major contributing factors for site response is given. While the Eurocode spectra should account for local ground conditions based on soil classification, there is a wide variation in peak ground acceleration determined from 1-D analyses versus Eurocode. Results show that current Eurocode 8 design spectra may not be conservative enough to account for local ground conditions typical for Hungary.
Geographic Information System Based Multi-Criteria Subsea Pipeline Route Optimisation
The use of GIS as an analysis tool for engineering decision making is now best practice in the offshore industry. GIS enables multidisciplinary data integration, analysis and visualisation which allows the presentation of large and intricate datasets in a simple map-interface accessible to all project stakeholders. Presenting integrated geoscience and geotechnical data in GIS enables decision makers to be well-informed. This paper is a successful case study of how GIS spatial analysis techniques were applied to help select the most favourable pipeline route. Routing a pipeline through any natural environment has numerous obstacles, whether they be topographical, geological, engineering or financial. Where the pipeline is subjected to external hydrostatic water pressure and is carrying pressurised hydrocarbons, the requirement to safely route the pipeline through hazardous terrain becomes absolutely paramount. This study illustrates how the application of modern, GIS-based pipeline routing techniques enabled the identification of a single most-favourable pipeline route crossing of a challenging seabed terrain. Conventional approaches to pipeline route determination focus on manual avoidance of primary constraints whilst endeavouring to minimise route length. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective and is liable to bias towards the discipline and expertise that is involved in the routing process. For very short routes traversing benign seabed topography in shallow water this approach may be sufficient, but for deepwater geohazardous sites, the need for an automated, multi-criteria, and quantitative approach is essential. This study combined multiple routing constraints using modern least-cost-routing algorithms deployed in GIS, hitherto unachievable with conventional approaches. The least-cost-routing procedure begins with the assignment of geocost across the study area. Geocost is defined as a numerical penalty score representing hazard posed by each routing constraint (e.g. slope angle, rugosity, vulnerability to debris flows) to the pipeline. All geocosted routing constraints are combined to generate a composite geocost map that is used to compute the least geocost route between two defined terminals. The analyses were applied to select the most favourable pipeline route for a potential gas development in deep water. The study area is geologically complex with a series of incised, potentially active, canyons carved into a steep escarpment, with evidence of extensive debris flows. A similar debris flow in the future could cause significant damage to a poorly-placed pipeline. Protruding inter-canyon spurs offer lower-gradient options for ascending an escarpment but the vulnerability of periodic failure of these spurs is not well understood. Close collaboration between geoscientists, pipeline engineers, geotechnical engineers and of course the gas export pipeline operator guided the analyses and assignment of geocosts. Shorter route length, less severe slope angles, and geohazard avoidance were the primary drivers in identifying the most favourable route.
Soil Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation and Consolidation Settlement at Around the Prospective Area of Sei Gong Dam Batam
Batam city within next five years are expected to experience water crisis. Sei Gong dam which is located in the Sijantung village, Galang District, Batam City, Riau Islands Province is one of 13 dams that will be built to solve the problems of raw water crisis in the Batam city. The purpose of this study are to determine the condition of engineering geology around Sei Gong Dam area, knowing the value of the soil bearing capacity and recommended pile foundation, and knowing the characteristics of the soil consolidation as one of the factors that affect the incidence of soil subsidence. Based on calculations for shallow foundation in general - soil shear condition and local - soil condition indicates that the highest value in ultimate soil bearing capacity (qu) for each depth was in the square foundations at two meters depth. The zonations of shallow foundation of the research area are divided into five zones, they are bearing capacity zone 25 ton/m2. Based on the parameters of soil engineering analysis, Sei Gong Dam areas at the middle part has a higher value for land subsidence.
Seepage Modelling of Jatigede Dam Towards Cisampih Village Based on Analysis Soil Characteristic Using Method Soil Reaction to Water, West Java Indonesia
Development of Jatigede Dam that was the mega project in Indonesia, since 1963. Area of around Jatigede Dam is complex, it has structural geology active fault, and as possible can occur landslide. This research focus on soil test. The purpose of this research to know soil quality Jatigede Dam which caused by water seepage of Jatigede Dam, then can be made seepage modelling around Jatigede Dam including Cisampih Village. Method of this research is SRW (Soil Reaction to Water). There are three samples are taken nearby Jatigede Dam. Four paramaters to determine water seepage such as : V ( velocity of soil to release water), Dl (Ability of soil to release water), Ds (Ability of soil to absorb water), Dt (Ability of soil to hold water). meanwhile, another proscess of interaction beetween water and soil are produced angle, which is made of water flow and vertikal line. Called name SIAT. SIAT has two type is na1 and na2. Each samples has a value from the first sample is 280,333(degree), the second 270 (degree) and the third 270 (degree). The difference na1 is, water interaction towards Dt value angle, while na2 is water interaction towards Dl and Ds value angle. Result of calculating SRW method, first till third sample has a value 7, 11,5 and 9. Based on data, interpreted in around teritory of Jatigede Dam, will get easier impact from water seepage because, condition soil reaction too bad so, it can not hold water.
Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion
The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.
Approaches to Tsunami Mitigation and Prevention
Tsunami, as a natural disaster, is composed of waves that are usually caused by severe movements at the sea floor. Although tsunami and its consequences cannot be prevented in any way, by examining past tsunamis and extracting key points on how to deal with this incident and learning from it, a positive step can be taken to reduce the vulnerability of human settlements and reduce the risk of this phenomenon in architecture and urbanism. The method is reviewing and has examined the documents written and valid internet sites related to managing and reducing the vulnerability of human settlements in face of tsunami. This paper has explored the tsunamis in Indonesia (2004), Sri Lanka (2004) and Japan (2011), and of the study objectives has been understanding how they dealt with tsunami and extracting key points, and the lessons from them in terms of reduction of vulnerability of human settlements in dealing with the tsunami. Finally, strategies to prevent and reduce the vulnerability of communities at risk of tsunamis have been offered in terms of architecture and urban planning. According to what is obtained from the study of the recent tsunamis, the authorities' quality of dealing with them, how to manage the crisis and the manner of their construction, it can be concluded that to reduce the vulnerability of human settlements against tsunami, there are generally four ways that are: 1-Construction of tall buildings with opening on the first floor so that water can flow easily under and the direction of the building should be in a way that water passes easily from the side. 2- The construction of multi-purpose centers, which could be used as vertical evacuation during accidents. 3- Constructing buildings in core forms with diagonal orientation of the coastline, 4- Building physical barriers (natural and synthetic) such as water dams, mounds of earth, sea walls and creating forests
Influence of Pile Radius on Inertial Response of Pile Group in Fundamental Frequency of Homogeneous Soil Medium
An efficient method is developed for response of a group of vertical, cylindrical fixed-head, finite length piles embedded in a homogeneous elastic stratum, subjected to harmonic force atop the pile group cap. The pile to pile interaction is represented through simplified beam-on-dynamic-Winkler-foundation (BDWF) with realistic frequency-dependent springs and dashpots. Pile group effect is considered through interaction factors. New closed-form expressions for interaction factors and curvature ratios atop the pile are extended by considering different boundary conditions at the tip of the piles (fixed, hinged). In order to investigate the fundamental characteristics of inertial bending strains in pile groups, inertial bending strains at the head of each pile are expressed in terms of slenderness ratio. The results of parametric study give valuable insight in understanding the behavior of fixed head pile groups in the fundamental natural frequency of soil stratum.
Strong Ground Motion Characteristics Revealed by Accelerograms in Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake
The ground motion characteristics, which are given by the analysis of acceleration records, underlie the formulation and revision of the seismic design code of structural engineering. China Digital Strong Motion Network had recorded a lot of accelerograms of main shock from 478 permanent seismic stations, during the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12th May, 2008. These accelerograms provided a large number of essential data for the analysis of ground motion characteristics of the event. The spatial distribution characteristics, rupture directivity effect, hanging-wall and footwall effect had been studied based on these acceleration records. The results showed that the contours of horizontal peak ground acceleration and peak velocity were approximately parallel to the seismogenic fault which demonstrated that the distribution of the ground motion intensity was obviously controlled by the spatial extension direction of the seismogenic fault. Compared with the peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded on the sites away from which the front of the fault rupture propagates, the PGA recorded on the sites toward which the front of the fault rupture propagates had larger amplitude and shorter duration, which indicated a significant rupture directivity effect. With the similar fault distance, the PGA of the hanging-wall is apparently greater than that of the foot-wall, while the peak velocity fails to observe this rule. Taking account of the seismic intensity distribution of Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, the shape of strong ground motion contours was significantly affected by the directional effect in the regions with Chinese seismic intensity level VI ~ VIII. However, in the regions whose Chinese seismic intensity level are equal or greater than VIII, the mutual positional relationship between the strong ground motion contours and the surface outcrop trace of the fault was evidently influenced by the hanging-wall and foot-wall effect.