Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging Technique to Study Climate Induced Landslide and Slope Stability through the Analysis of Factor of Safety: A Case Study in Ooty Area, Tamil Nadu, India
Landslide is one of the major natural disasters in South Asian countries. Applying 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging estimation of geometry, thickness, and depth of failure zone of the landslide can be made. Landslide is a pertinent problem in Nilgris plateau next to Himalaya. Nilgris range consists of hard Archean metamorphic rocks. Intense weathering prevailed during the Pre-Cambrian time had deformed the rocks up to 45m depth. The landslides are dominant in the southern and eastern part of plateau of is comparatively smaller than the northern drainage basins, as it has low density of drainage; coarse texture permitted the more of infiltration of rainwater, whereas in the northern part of the plateau entombed with high density of drainage pattern and fine texture with less infiltration than run off, and low to the susceptible to landslide. To get comprehensive information about the landslide zone 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic imaging study with CRM 500 Resistivity meter are used in Coonoor– Mettupalyam sector of Nilgiris plateau. To calculate Factor of Safety the infinite slope model of Brunsden and Prior is used. Factor of Safety can be expressed (FS) as the ratio of resisting forces to disturbing forces. If FS < 1 disturbing forces are larger than resisting forces and failure may occur.
The geotechnical parameters of soil samples are calculated on the basis upon the apparent resistivity values for litho units of measured from 2D ERT image of the landslide zone. Relationship between friction angles for various soil properties is established by simple regression analysis from apparent resistivity data. Increase of water content in slide zone reduces the effectiveness of the shearing resistance and increase the sliding movement. Time-lapse resistivity changes to slope failure is determined through geophysical Factor of Safety which depends on resistivity and site topography. This ERT technique infers soil property at variable depths in wider areas. This approach to retrieve the soil property and overcomes the limit of the point of information provided by rain gauges and porous probes. Monitoring of slope stability without altering soil structure through the ERT technique is non-invasive with low cost. In landslide prone area an automated Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging system should be installed permanently with electrode networks to monitor the hydraulic precursors to monitor landslide movement.
Soil Arching Effect in Columnar Embankments: A Numerical Study
Column-supported embankments provide a practical and efficient solution for construction on soft soil due to the low cost and short construction times. In the recent years, geosynthetic have been used in combination with column systems to support embankments. The load transfer mechanism in these systems is a combination of soil arching effect, which occurs between columns and membrane effect of the geosynthetic. This paper aims at the study of soil arching effect on columnar embankments using finite element software, ABAQUS. An axisymmetric finite element model is generated and using this model, parametric studies are carried out. Thus the effects of various factors such as height of embankment fill, elastic modulus of pile and tensile stiffness of geosynthetic, on soil arching have been studied. The development of negative skin friction along the pile-soil interface have also been studied and the results obtained from this study are compared with the current design methods.
Numerical Analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain Induced Consolidation Using ABAQUS
This paper deals with the numerical analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain (PHD) induced consolidation of clayey deposits, using ABAQUS. PHDs are much like Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) installed in horizontal layers, used mainly for enhancing the consolidation of clayey fill embankments, and dredged mud deposits. The efficiency of the system depends mainly on the spacing and layout of the drain. Hence, two spacing related parameters are defined, namely WH (width to horizontal spacing ratio) and VH (vertical to horizontal spacing ratio), and the finite element models are developed based on plane strain unit cell conditions under various combinations of these parameters. The analysis results, in terms of degree of consolidation (U), are compared with the established theories. Based on the analysis, a set of equations are proposed to analyse the PHD induced consolidation. The proposed method is found to be reasonably accurate. Further, the effect of PHDs at different spacing ratios, in accelerating consolidation of a clayey embankment fill is analysed in terms of pore pressure dissipation rate, and settlement. The PHD is found to accelerate the rate of pore pressure dissipation by more than 50%, thus reducing the time for final settlement significantly.
Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation
This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activation of fly ash (FA) to use in deep soil mixing (DSM) technology. The content of FA was 20% by dry mass of soil, and the alkaline activator was sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Samples were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days to evaluate the effect of curing time on strength development. To study the effect of adding slag (S) to the mixture on the strength development, 5% S was replaced with FA. In addition, the effect of the initial unit weight of samples on strength development was studied by preparing specimens with two different static compaction stresses. This was to replicate the field conditions where during implementing the DSM technique, the pressure on the soil while being mixed, increases with depth. Unconfined compression strength (UCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tests were conducted on the specimens. The results show that adding S to the FA based geopolymer activated by Na2SiO3 decreases the strength. Furthermore, samples prepared at a higher unit weight demonstrate greater strengths. Moreover, samples prepared at lower unit weight reached their final strength at about 14 days of curing, whereas the strength development continues to 56 days for specimens prepared at a higher unit weight.
Performance of Pilot Test of Geotextile Tube Filled with Lightly Cemented Clay
In recent years, geotextile tube has been widely used in the hydraulic engineering and dewatering industry. To construct a stable containment bund with geotextile tubes, the sand slurry is always the preference infilling material. However, the shortage of sand supply posts a problem in Singapore to adopt this construction method in the actual construction of long containment bund. Hence, utilizing the soft dredged clay or the excavated soft clay as the infilling material of geotextile tubes has a great economic benefit. There are any technical issues with using this soft clayey material as infilling material, especially on the excessive settlement and stability concerns. To minimize the shape deformation and settlement of geotextile tube associated with the use of this soft clay infilling material, a modified innovative infilling material is proposed – lightly cemented soft clay. The preliminary laboratory studies have shown that the dewatering mechanism via geotextile material of the tube skin, and the introduction of cementitious chemical action of the lightly cemented soft clay will accelerate the consolidation and improve the shear strength of infill material. This study aims to extend the study by conducting a pilot test of the geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay. This study consists of testing on a series of miniature geo-tubes and two full-size geotextile tube. In the miniature geo-tube tests, a number of small scaled-down size of geotextile tubes were filled with cemented clay (at water content of 150%) with cement content of 0% to 8% (by weight). The shear strength development of the lightly cemented clay under dewatering mechanism was evaluated using a modified in-situ Cone Penetration Test (CPT) at 0 days, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days after the infilling. The undisturbed soil samples of lightly cemented infilled clay were also extracted at 3-days and 7-days for triaxial tests and evaluation of final water content. The results suggested that the geotextile tubes filled with un-cemented soft clay experienced very significant shape change over the days (as control test). However, geotextile mini-tubes filled with lightly cemented clay experienced only marginal shape changed, even that the strength development of this lightly cemented clay inside the tube may not show significant strength gain at the early stage. The shape stability is believed to be due to the confinement effect of the geotextile tube with clay at non-slurry state. Subsequently, a full-scale instrumented geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay was performed. The extensive results of strain gauges and pressure transducers installed on this full-size geotextile tube demonstrated a substantial mobilization of tensile forces on the geotextile skin corresponding to the filling activity and the subsequent dewatering stage. Shape change and the in-fill material strength development was also monitored. In summary, the construction of containment bund with geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay is found to be technically feasible and stable with the use of the sufficiently strong (i.e. adequate tensile strength) geotextile tube, the adequate control on the dosage of cement content, and suitable water content of infilling soft clay material.
Experimental Studies on Stress Strain Behavior of Expanded Polystyrene Beads-Sand Mixture
Lightweight fills are a viable alternative where weak soils such as soft clay, peat, and loose silt are encountered. Materials such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geo-foam, plastics, tire wastes, rubber wastes have been used along with soil in order to obtain a lightweight fill. Out of these, Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geo-foam has gained wide popularity in civil engineering over the past years due to its wide variety of applications. It is extremely lightweight, durable and is available in various densities to meet the strength requirements. It can be used as backfill behind retaining walls to reduce lateral load, as a fill over soft clay or weak soils to prevent the excessive settlements and to reduce seismic forces. Geo-foam is available in block form as well as beads form. In this project Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads of various diameters and varying densities were mixed along with sand to study their lightweight as well as strength properties. Four types of EPS beads were used 1mm, 2mm, 3-7 mm and a mix of 1-7 mm. In this project, EPS beads were varied at .25%, .5%, .75% and 1% by weight of sand. A water content of 10% by weight of sand was added to prevent segregation of the mixture. Unconsolidated Unconfined (UU) tri-axial test was conducted at 100kPa, 200 kPa and 300 kPa and angle of internal friction, and cohesion was obtained. Unit weight of the mix was obtained for a relative density of 65%. The results showed that by increasing the EPS content by weight, maximum deviator stress, unit weight, angle of internal friction and initial elastic modulus decreased. An optimum EPS bead content was arrived at by considering the strength as well as the unit weight. The stress-strain behaviour of the mix was found to be dependent on type of bead, bead content and density of the beads. Finally, regression equations were developed to predict the initial elastic modulus of the mix.
An Elasto-Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for Unsaturated Soils: Numerical Implementation and Validation
Mechanics of unsaturated soils has been an active field of research in the last decades. Efficient constitutive models that take into account the partial saturation of soil are necessary to solve a number of engineering problems e.g. instability of slopes and cuts due to heavy rainfalls.
A large number of constitutive models can now be found in the literature that considers fundamental issues associated with the unsaturated soil behaviour, like the volume change and shear strength behaviour with suction or saturation changes. Partially saturated soils may either expand or collapse upon wetting depending on the stress level, and it is also possible that a soil might experience a reversal in the volumetric behaviour during wetting. Shear strength of soils also changes dramatically with changes in the degree of saturation, and a related engineering problem is slope failures caused by rainfall. There are several states of the art reviews over the last years for studying the topic, usually providing a thorough discussion of the stress state, the advantages, and disadvantages of specific constitutive models as well as the latest developments in the area of unsaturated soil modelling.
However, only a few studies focused on the coupling between partial saturation states and time effects on the behaviour of geomaterials. Rate dependency is experimentally observed in the mechanical response of granular materials, and a viscoplastic constitutive model is capable of reproducing creep and relaxation processes.
Therefore, in this work an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for unsaturated soils is proposed and validated on the basis of experimental data. The model constitutes an extension of an existing elastoplastic strain-hardening constitutive model capable of capturing the behaviour of variably saturated soils, based on energy conjugated stress variables in the framework of superposed continua. The purpose was to develop a model able to deal with possible mechanical instabilities within a consistent energy framework. The model shares the same conceptual structure of the elastoplastic laws proposed to deal with bonded geomaterials subject to weathering or diagenesis and is capable of modelling several kinds of instabilities induced by the loss of hydraulic bonding contributions. The novelty of the proposed formulation is enhanced with the incorporation of density dependent stiffness and hardening coefficients in order to allow the modeling of the pycnotropy behaviour of granular materials with a single set of material constants.
The model has been implemented in the commercial FE platform PLAXIS, widely used in Europe for advanced geotechnical design. The algorithmic strategies adopted for the stress-point algorithm had to be revised to take into account the different approach adopted by PLAXIS developers in the solution of the discrete non-linear equilibrium equations. An extensive comparison between models with a series of experimental data reported by different authors is presented to validate the model and illustrate the capability of the newly developed model.
After the validation, the effectiveness of the viscoplastic model is displayed by numerical simulations of a partially saturated slope failure of the laboratory scale and the effect of viscosity and degree of saturation on slope’s stability is discussed.
Introduction to Two Artificial Boundary Conditions for Transient Seepage Problems and Their Application in Geotechnical Engineering
Many problems in geotechnical engineering, such as foundation deformation, groundwater seepage, seismic wave propagation and geothermal transfer problems, may involve analysis in the ground which can be seen as extending to infinity. To that end, consideration has to be given regarding how to deal with the unbounded domain to be analyzed by using numerical methods, such as finite element method (FEM), finite difference method (FDM) or finite volume method (FVM). A simple artificial boundary approach derived from the analytical solutions for transient radial seepage problems, is introduced. It should be noted, however, that the analytical solutions used to derive the artificial boundary are particular solutions under certain boundary conditions, such as constant hydraulic head at the origin or constant pumping rate of the well. When dealing with unbounded domains with unsteady boundary conditions, a more sophisticated artificial boundary approach to deal with the infinity of the domain is presented. By applying Laplace transforms and introducing some specially defined auxiliary variables, the global artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) are simplified to local ones so that the computational efficiency is enhanced significantly. The introduced two local ABCs are implemented in a finite element computer program so that various seepage problems can be calculated. The two approaches are first verified by the computation of a one-dimensional radial flow problem, and then tentatively applied to more general two-dimensional cylindrical problems and plane problems. Numerical calculations show that the local ABCs can not only give good results for one-dimensional axisymmetric transient flow, but also applicable for more general problems, such as axisymmetric two-dimensional cylindrical problems, and even more general planar two-dimensional flow problems for well doublet and well groups. An important advantage of the latter local boundary is its applicability for seepage under rapidly changing unsteady boundary conditions, and even the computational results on the truncated boundary are usually quite satisfactory. In this aspect, it is superior over the former local boundary. Simulation of relatively long operational time demonstrates to certain extents the numerical stability of the local boundary. The solutions of the two local ABCs are compared with each other and with those obtained by using large element mesh, which proves the satisfactory performance and obvious superiority over the large mesh model.
Utilization of Sludge in the Manufacturing of Fired Clay Bricks
The extensive amount of sludge generated throughout the world, as a part of water treatment works, have caused various social and economic issues, such as a demand on landfill spaces, increase in environmental pollution and raising the waste management cost. With growing social awareness about toxic incinerator emissions and the increasing concern over the disposal of sludge on the agricultural land, the recovery of sewage sludge as a building and construction raw material can be considered as an innovative approach to tackle the sludge disposal problem. The proposed work aims at studying the recycling ability of the sludge, generated from the water treatment process, by incorporating it into the fired clay brick units. The work involves initial study of the geotechnical characteristics of the brick-clay and the sludge. Chemical compatibility of both the materials will be analyzed by X-ray fluorescence technique. The variation in the strength aspects with varying proportions of sludge i.e. 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% in the sludge-clay mix will also be determined by the proctor density test. Based on the optimum moisture content, the sludge-clay bricks will be manufactured in a brick manufacturing plant and the modified brick units will be tested to determine the variation in compressive strength, bulk density, firing shrinkage, shrinkage loss and initial water absorption rate with respect to the conventional clay bricks. The results will be compared with the specifications given in Indian Standards to arrive at the potential use of the new bricks. The durability aspect will be studied by conducting the leachate analysis test using atomic adsorption spectrometry. The lightweight characteristics of the sludge modified bricks will be ascertained with the scanning electron microscope technique which will be indicative of the variation in pore structure with the increase in sludge content within the bricks. The work will determine the suitable proportion of the sludge – clay mix in the brick which can then be effectively implemented. The feasibility aspect of the work will be determined for commercial production of the units. The work involves providing a strategy for conversion of waste to resource. Moreover, it provides an alternative solution to the problem of growing scarcity of brick-clay for the manufacturing of fired clay bricks.
Two Dimensional Numerical Analysis for the Seismic Response of the Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Integral Abutments
The joints between simply supported bridge decks and abutments need to be regularly repaired, which would greatly increase the cost during the service life of the bridge. Simply supported girder bridges suffered the most severe damage during earthquakes. Another type of bridge, the integral bridge, of which the superstructure and abutment are rigidly connected, was also used in some European countries. Because no bearings or joints exit in the integral bridge, this type of bridge could significantly reduce maintenance requirements and costs. However, conventional integral bridge usually result in high earth pressure on the abutment and surface settlement in the backfill. To solve these problems, a new type of integral bridge, geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) integral bridge, was come up in recent years. This newly invented bridge has not been used in engineering practices. There was a lack of research on the seismic behavior of the conventional and new type of integral abutments. In addition, no common design code could be found for the calculation of seismic pressure of soil behind the abutment. This paper developed a dynamic constitutive model, which can consider the soil behaviors under cyclic loading. Numerical analyses of the seismic response of a full height integral bridge and GRS integral bridge were carried out using the two-dimensional numerical code, FLAC. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the soil-structure interaction. The results are presented below. The seismic responses of GRS integral bridge together with conventional simply supported bridge, GRS conventional bridge and conventional integral bridge were investigated. The results show that the GRS integral bridge holds the highest seismic stability, followed by conventional integral bridge, GRS simply supported bridge and conventional simply supported bridge. Compared with the integral bridge with 1 m thick abutments, the GRS integral bridge with 0.4 m thick abutments is subjected to a smaller bending moment, and the natural frequency and horizontal displacement remains almost the same. Geosynthetic-reinforcement will be more effective when the abutment becomes thinner or the abutment is higher.
Geotechnical Design of Bridge Foundations and Approaches in Hilly Granite Formation
This paper presents a case study of the geotechnical design of a bridge foundation and approaches in hilly granite formation in northern New South Wales of Australia. Firstly, the geological formation and existing cut slope conditions which have high risks of rock fall will be described. The bridge has three spans to be constructed using balanced cantilever method with a middle span of 150 m. After concept design option engineering it was decided to change from pile foundation to pad footing with ground anchor system to optimize the bridge foundation design. The geotechnical design parameters were derived after two staged site investigations. The foundation design was carried out to satisfy both serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state during construction and in operation. It was found that the pad footing design was governed by serviceability limit state design loading cases. The design of bridge foundation also considered the presence of weak rock layer intrusion and a layer of “no core” to ensure foundation stability. The pre-cast block system was considered for the retaining wall system for the bridge approaches to resolving the constructability issue over hilly terrain. The design considered the retaining wall block is sliding stability while the overturning and internal stabilities are satisfied. At the time of writing this paper, the bridge construction is almost completed, and the design has been proved to be a success.
Settlement Analysis of Back-To-Back Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls
Back-to-back Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls are cost-effective soil-retaining structures that can tolerate large settlements compared to conventional gravity retaining walls. They are also an economical way to meet everyday earth retention needs for highway and bridge grade separations, railroads, commercial and residential developments. But, existing design guidelines (FHWA/BS/ IS codes) do not provide a mechanistic approach for the design of back-to-back reinforced retaining walls. The settlement analysis of such structures is limited in the literature. A better understanding of the deformations of this wall system requires an analytical tool that incorporates the properties of backfill material, foundation soil, and geosynthetic reinforcement, and account for the soil–structure interactions in a realistic manner. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of reinforced back-to-back MSE walls on wall settlements and facing deformations. Back-to-back reinforced retaining walls were modeled and compared using commercially available finite difference package FLAC 2D. Parametric studies were carried out for various angles of shearing resistance of backfill material and foundation soil, and the axial stiffness of the reinforcement. A 6m-high wall was modeled, and the facing panels were taken as full-length panels with nominal thickness. Reinforcement was modeled as cable elements (two-dimensional structural elements). Interfaces were considered between soil and wall, and soil and reinforcement.
Influence of Thermal History on the Undrained Shear Strength of the Bentonite-Sand Mixture
Densely compacted bentonite or bentonite–sand mixture has been identified as a suitable buffer in the deep geological repository (DGR) for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) due to its favourable physicochemical and hydro-mechanical properties. The addition of sand to the bentonite enhances the thermal conductivity and compaction properties and reduces the drying shrinkage of the buffer material. The buffer material may undergo cyclic wetting and drying upon ingress of groundwater from the surrounding rock mass and from evaporation due to high temperature (50–210 °C) derived from the waste canister. The cycles of changes in temperature may result in thermal history, and the hydro-mechanical properties of the buffer material may be affected. This paper examines the influence of thermal history on the undrained shear strength of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture. Bentonite from Rajasthan state and sand from the Assam state of India are used in this study. The undrained shear strength values are obtained by conducting unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests on cylindrical specimens (dry densities 1.30 and 1.5 Mg/m3) of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture consisting of 30 % bentonite+ 70 % sand. The specimens are preheated at temperatures varying from 50-150 °C for one, two and four hours in hot air oven. The results indicate that the undrained shear strength is increased by the thermal history of the buffer material. The specimens of bentonite-sand mixture exhibited more increase in strength compared to the pure bentonite specimens. This indicates that the sand content of the mixture plays a vital role in taking the thermal stresses of the bentonite buffer in DGR conditions.
Anisotropic Shear Strength of Sand Containing Plastic Fine Materials
Anisotropy is one of the major aspects that affect soil behavior, and extensive efforts have investigated its effect on the mechanical properties of soil. However, very little attention has been given to the combined effect of anisotropy and fine contents. Therefore, in this paper, the anisotropic strength of sand containing different fine content (F) of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, was investigated using hollow cylinder tests under different principal stress directions of α = 0° and α = 90°. For a given principal stress direction (α), it was found that increasing fine content resulted in decreasing deviator stress (q). Moreover, results revealed that all fine contents showed anisotropic strength where there is a clear difference between the strength under 0° and the strength under 90°. This anisotropy was greatest under F = 5% while it decreased with increasing fine contents, particularly at F = 10%. Mixtures with low fine content show low contractive behavior and tended to show more dilation. Moreover, all sand-clay mixtures exhibited less dilation and more compression at α = 90° compared with that at α = 0°.
Estimation of Relative Subsidence of Collapsible Soils Using Electromagnetic Measurements
Collapsible soils are weak soils that appear to be stable in their natural state, normally dry condition, but rapidly deform under saturation (wetting), thus generating large and unexpected settlements which often yield disastrous consequences for structures unwittingly built on such deposits. In this study, a prediction model for the relative subsidence of stressed collapsible soils based on dielectric permittivity measurement is presented. Unlike most existing methods for soil subsidence prediction, this model does not require moisture content as an input parameter, thus providing the opportunity to obtain accurate estimation of the relative subsidence of collapsible soils using dielectric measurement only. The prediction model is developed based on an existing relative subsidence prediction model (which is dependent on soil moisture condition) and an advanced theoretical frequency and temperature-dependent electromagnetic mixing equation (which effectively removes the moisture content dependence of the original relative subsidence prediction model). For large scale sub-surface soil exploration purposes, the spatial sub-surface soil dielectric data over wide areas and high depths of weak (collapsible) soil deposits can be obtained using non-destructive high frequency electromagnetic (HF-EM) measurement techniques such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). For laboratory or small scale in-situ measurements, techniques such as an open-ended coaxial line with widely applicable time domain reflectometry (TDR) or vector network analysers (VNAs) are usually employed to obtain the soil dielectric data. By using soil dielectric data obtained from small or large scale non-destructive HF-EM investigations, the new model can effectively predict the relative subsidence of weak soils without the need to extract samples for moisture content measurement. Some of the resulting benefits are the preservation of the undisturbed nature of the soil as well as a reduction in the investigation costs and analysis time in the identification of weak (problematic) soils. The accuracy of prediction of the presented model is assessed by conducting relative subsidence tests on a collapsible soil at various initial soil conditions and a good match between the model prediction and experimental results is obtained.
Experimental Investigation on the Shear Strength Parameters of Sand-Slag Mixtures
Utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has a positive influence on the environment by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and issues associated with waste disposal. Granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is a by-product of the iron and steel industry, with millions of tons of slag being annually produced worldwide. Slag has been widely used in structural engineering and for stabilizing clay soils; however, studies on the effect of slag on sandy soils are scarce. This article investigates the effect of slag content on shear strength parameters through direct shear tests and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests on mixtures of Perth sand and slag. For this purpose, sand-slag mixtures, with slag contents of 2%, 4%, and 6% by weight of samples, were tested with direct shear tests under three normal stress values, namely 100 kPa, 150 kPa, and 200 kPa. Unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed under a single confining pressure of 100 kPa and relative density of 80%. The internal friction angles and shear stresses of the mixtures were determined via the direct shear tests, demonstrating that shear stresses increased with increasing normal stress and the internal friction angles and cohesion increased with increasing slag. There were no significant differences in shear stresses parameters when slag content rose from 4% to 6%. The unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests demonstrated that shear strength increased with increasing slag content.
Design and Performance of a Large Diameter Shaft in Old Alluvium
This project comprises laying approximately 1.8km of 400mm, 1200mm and 2400mm diameter sewer pipes using pipe jacking machines along Mugliston Park, Buangkok Drive, and Buangkok Link. The works include an estimated 14 circular shafts with depth ranging from 10.0 meters to 29.0 meters. Cast in-situ circular shaft will be used for the temporary shaft excavation. The geology is predominantly Backfill and old alluvium with weak material encountered in between. Where there is a very soft clay, F1 material or weak soil is expected, ground improvement will be carried out outside of the shaft followed by cast in-situ concrete ring wall within the improved soil zone. This paper presents the design methodology, analysis and results of temporary shafts for micro TBM launching and constructing permanent manholes. There is also a comparison of instrumentation readings with the analysis predicted values.
Experimental Study on Improving the Engineering Properties of Sand Dunes Using Random Fibers-Geogrid Reinforcement
This study presents the effect of reinforcement inclusions (fibers-geogrids) on fine sand bearing capacity under strip footings. Experimental model tests were carried out using a rectangular plates [(10cm x 38 cm), (7.5 cm x 38 cm), and (12.5 cm x 38 cm)] with a geogrids and randomly reinforced fibers. The width and depth of the geogrid were varied to determine their effects on the engineering properties of treated poorly graded fine sand. Laboratory model test results for the ultimate stresses and the settlement of a rigid strip foundation supported by single and multi-layered fiber-geogrid-reinforced sand are presented. The number of layers of geogrid was varied between 1 to 4. The effect of the first geogrid reinforcement depth, the spacing between the reinforcement and its length on the bearing capacity is investigated by experimental program. Results show that the use of flexible random fibers with a content of 0.125% by weight of the treated sand dunes, with 3 geogrid reinforcement layers, u/B= 0.25 and L/B=7.5, has a significant increase in the bearing capacity of the proposed system.
Effect of Backfilling Material under Structures on Ground Motion Characteristics Due to Earthquake
Due to less available areas and excessive cost of required land for projects, as well as, the need of using all area in construction, the backfilling process is required to overcome the unleveling depths and/or after removing the debris. Therefore, soil characteristics of backfilling materials of different thickness under structure foundations investigated in this study. The effect of backfilling thicknesses strata on the ground motion characteristics especially at places subjected to strong earthquakes is also investigated. In this research, the characteristics of the backfilling material with different depths were used to predict the modified earthquake ground motion characteristics at foundation level. A comparison between the effect of natural strata and backfill strata on recorded earthquake is studied, i.e., peak ground acceleration, time history, and spectra acceleration values. To conduct this study, the shake computer program. Strong earthquake records, with PGA of (0.35g), were used in the analysis. It was found that the soil backfilling material under structures has a significant effect on both earthquake ground motion properties and consequently on the behavior of superstructure. It is recommended to consider both type and thickness of the backfilling layers influence in design procedures in building codes, for building establishing on backfilling material strata
Prediction of In situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation (RQD) Value
Geotechnical studies for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in situ packer permeability). Different sites spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of (RQD) values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.
Performance of Rapid Impact Compaction as a Middle-Deep Ground Improvement Technique
Rapid Impact Compaction (RIC) is a modern dynamic compaction device mainly used to compact sandy soils, where silt and clay contents are low. The device uses the piling hammer technology to increase the bearing capacity of soils through controlled impacts. The RIC device uses "controlled impact compaction" of the ground using a 9-ton hammer dropped from the height between 0.3 m to 1.2 m onto a 1.5 m diameter steel patent foot. The delivered energy is about 26,487 to 105,948 Joules per drop. To evaluate the performance of this technique, three project sites in the United Arab Emirates were improved using RIC. In those sites, a loose to very loose fine to medium sand was encountered at a depth ranging from 1.0m to 4.0m below the ground level. To evaluate the performance of the RIC, Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) were carried out before and after improvement. Also, load tests were carried out post-RIC work to assess the settlements and bearing capacity. The soil was improved to a depth of about 5.0m below the ground level depending on the CPT friction ratio (the ratio between sleeve friction and tip resistance). CPT tip resistance was significantly increased post ground improvement work. Load tests showed enhancement in the soil bearing capacity and reduction in the potential settlements. This study demonstrates the successful application of the RIC for middle-deep improvement and compaction of the ground. Foundation design criteria were achieved in all site post-RIC work.
Seismic Soil-Pile Interaction Considering Nonlinear Soil Column Behavior in Saturated and Dry Soil Conditions
This paper investigates seismic soil-pile interaction using the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation (BNWF) approach. Three soil types are considered to cover all the possible responses, as well as nonlinear site response analysis using finite element method in OpenSees platform. Excitations at each elevation that are output of the site response analysis are used as the input excitation to the soil pile system implementing multi-support excitation method. Spectral intensities of acceleration show that the extent of the response in sand is more severe than that of clay, in addition, increasing the PGA of ground strong motion will affect the sandy soil more, in comparison with clayey medium, which is an indicator of the sensitivity of soil-pile systems in sandy soil.
Geoplanology Modeling and Applications Engineering of Earth in Spatial Planning Related with Geological Hazard in Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia
The condition of a spatial land in the industrial park needs special attention to be studied more deeply. Geoplanology modeling can help arrange area according to his ability. This research method is to perform the analysis of remote sensing, Geographic Information System, and more comprehensive analysis to determine geological characteristics and the ability to land on the area of research and its relation to the geological disaster. Cilegon is part of Banten province located in western Java, and the direction of the north is the Strait of Borneo. While the southern part is bordering the Indian Ocean. Morphology study area is located in the highlands to low. In the highlands of identified potential landslide prone, whereas in low-lying areas of potential flooding. Moreover, in the study area has the potential prone to earthquakes, this is due to the proximity of enough research to Mount Krakatau and Subdcution Zone. From the results of this study show that the study area has a susceptibility to landslides located around the District Waringinkurung. While the region as a potential flood areas in the District of Cilegon and surrounding areas. Based on the seismic data, this area includes zones with a range of magnitude 1.5 to 5.5 magnitude at a depth of 1 to 60 Km. As for the ability of its territory, based on the analyzes and studies carried out the need for renewal of the map Spatial Plan that has been made, considering the development of a fairly rapid Cilegon area.
Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal
This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.
Identification and Petrographic Classification of Casablanca Soil for Use in Geotechnical Studies
The identification and petrographic classification of the different lithological formations constituting the soil of Casablanca, has become acutely important to harmonize the nomenclature of the different faces, and produce cartographic documents useful for construction projects and studies before any investment program. To achieve this, more than 600 surveys made by the Public Laboratory for Testing and Studies (LPEE) in the agglomeration of Casablanca, were done. Moreover, some local observations were made in different places of the metropolis. Each survey is a sheet where are reported: the lithological succession, the macroscopic and microscopic description of petrographic faces with photographic illustration, as well as geomechanical testing measures including pressuremeter tests. The informations collected were compiled into a database together with their treatment into multiple data with a geographic information system.
Evaluating Acid Buffering Capacity of Sewage Sludge Barrier for Inhibiting Remobilization of Heavy Metals in Tailing Impoundment
Compacted sewage sludge has been proved to be feasible as a barrier material for tailing impoundment because of its low permeability and retardation of heavy metals. The long-term penetration of acid mine drainage, however, would acidify the barrier system and result in remobilization of previously immobilized heavy metal pollutants. In this study, the effect of decreasing pH on the mobility of three typical heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) is investigated by acid titration test on sewage sludge under various conditions. The remobilization of heavy metals is discussed based on the acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge-leachate system. Test results indicate that heavy metals are dramatically released out when pH is decreased below 6.2, and their amounts take the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge decreases with the solid-liquid ratio but increases with the anaerobic incubation time, and it is mainly governed by dissolution of contained carbonate and organics. These results reveal that the sewage sludge possesses enough acid buffering capacity to consume protons within the acid mine drainage. Thus, this study suggests that an explosive remobilization of heavy metals is not expected in a long-term perspective.
Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation
Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.
Probabilistic Failure Envelopes of Offshore Foundations on Spatially Variable Soil
The bearing capacity of offshore foundations, subject to combinations of vertical, horizontal and moment (VHM) loading, is increasingly being defined in terms of interaction diagrams, or failure envelopes. These envelopes have commonly been determined assuming a spatially homogeneous soil without any variation of its properties. In this paper, the spatial variability of soil strength is considered through a random finite element method, which combines finite element analysis, random field theory and Monte Carlo simulation. For this, several finite element analyses are performed in ABAQUS software on meshes in which undrained strength values are assigned on the basis of various estimates of the soil scatter and its vertical and horizontal spatial variability. The paper findings allow showing the influence of soil spatial variation on the ultimate capacity, failure mechanism as well as both size and shape of the combined loading failure envelopes.
Estimation of Geotechnical Parameters by Comparing Monitoring Data with Numerical Results: Case Study of Arash- Esfandiar-Niayesh Under-Passing Tunnel, Africa Tunnel, Tehran, Iran
The under passing tunnels are strongly influenced by the soils around. There are some complexities in specification of real soil behavior, owning the fact that lots of uncertainties exist in soil properties and additionally inappropriate soil constitutive model. Such mentioned factors may cause incompatible settlements in numerical analysis with the obtained values in actual construction. This paper aims to report a case study on a specific tunnel constructed by NATM. The tunnel have depth of 11.4m, height of 12.2m and, width of 14.4m with 2.5 lanes. The numerical modelling was based on a 2D finite element program. The soil material behavior was modeled by hardening soil model. According to the field observations, the numerical estimated settlement at the ground surface was approximately four times more than the measured one, after the entire installation of the initial lining, indicating that some unknown factors affect that values. Consequently, the geotechnical parameters are accurately revised by a numerical back-analysis using laboratory and field test data and based on the obtained monitoring data. The obtained result confirms that typically, the soil parameters are conservatively low-estimated. And additionally, the constitutive models cannot be applied properly for all soil conditions.
Design and Construction Validation of Pile Performance through High Strain Pile Tests for Both Augured and Drilled Displacement Piles
Sydney’s booming real estate market has pushed property developers to invest in historically “no-go” areas, which were previously too expensive to develop. These areas are usually near rivers where the sites are underlain by deep alluvial and estuarine sediments. In these ground, conditions conventional bored pile techniques are often not competitive. Contiguous Flight Auger (CFA) and Drilled Displacement Piles (DD) techniques are on the other hand suitable for these ground conditions. This paper deals with the design and construction challenges encountered with these piling techniques for a series of high-rise towers in Sydney’s West. The advantages of DD over CFA piles such as reduced overall spoil with substantial cost savings and achievable rock sockets in medium strength bedrock are discussed. Design performances assessed with both boundary and finite element programs such as REPUTE, DEFPIG, PIGLET and PLAXIS are validated during construction. Pile performances are validated in two stages, during constructions with the interpretation of real-time data from the piling rigs’ on-board computer data, and after construction with analyses of results from high strain pile dynamic testing (PDA). Results are then presented and discussed. High Strain testing data is presented as CAPWAP (Case Pile Wave Analysis Program) analyses.