Ecotourism Destinations in Central Visayas, Philippines: A Green Business Profile
Alongside inadequate implementation of ecotourism standards and other pressing issues on sustainable development is the lack of business plans and formal business structures of various ecotourism sites in Central Visayas and other parts of the Philippines. Addressing these issues plays a key role in boosting ecotourism which is a sustainability tool to the country's economic development. A three-phase research is designed to investigate the green business practices of selected eco-tourism sites in the region in order to propose a business model. This paper reports the initial phase of the study which describes the site's profile as well as operators of the selected destinations: Balinsasayao Twin Lakes in Negros Oriental, Olango Wildlife Bird Sanctuary in Cebu, Rajah Sikatuna protected landscape in Bohol and Bojo River in Aloguinsan, Cebu. Interview, self-administered questionnaire, with key informants and data mining were employed in the data collection. Findings highlighted similarities and differences in terms of eco-tourism products, type and number of visitors, manpower composition, cultural and natural resources, complementary services as well as products, awards and accreditations, peak and off-peak seasons among others.
A Literature Review on the Success Indicators for Sabah's Ecotourism Sites
Sabah, one of the thirteen Malaysian states, is located in the northern part of Malaysian Borneo. It is a melting pot of many different cultures and traditions, being home to about 2.9 million people with more than 30 ethic groups. It is also known as one of the twelve mega-diversity sites in the world with its rich living heritage; ethnic makes it ideal for the ecotourism industry. Sabah enjoys a steady flow of eco tourists from domestic and international markets with a gradual increase in the number of visitor arrival each year. Sabah’s ecotourism is categorized by its natural attraction, wildlife and wilderness habitats. This paper sets out to interpret and develop the indicators for success ecotourism sites in Sabah and measures its development stage. The long-term viability of tourism can be assured only when the limitations and favorable opportunities of the overall environment for tourism development are understood and ways to measure changes induced by tourism are identified and applied. This is a literature review of ecotourism site success indicators, and the outcome of this review is the identification of existing clusters and categorization of indicators and charting the way forward to develop a better understanding in ecotourism site success.
A Preliminary Study on the Tagal Eco-Tourism and Empowerment for Local Community
The study addresses tagal as an ecotourism product that is uniquely for Sabah. It is a community based tourism venture that is influenced by the Dusun ethic’s traditional law. The traditional principle of tagal is focused primarily on individual exploitation of riverine resources and it was transformed into a community participation in the riverine conservation to foster the growth or survival of ecotourism. It manages a river into a sustainable manner. A smart partnership system between the community and the authority particularly the Department of Fisheries Sabah, tagal has successfully become an instrument to protect, revive and manage the river fish resources. In 2015, Sabah Fisheries Department added 536 tagal sites. Most tagal sites were turned into a community based tourism venture. They generate income through jobs creation for the purpose of uplifting the local’s economic level. Tagal ecotourism sites also increase environmental awareness of the local people to love their culture, tradition and environment. This venture also promotes the sustainability of the eco-tourism. The objective of this study is to explore the issues and contexts of empowerment of the local people in managing a successful tagal ecotourism. This study further explains how community capacity building is the major influence of empowerment of the local community. The methodology approach used is qualitative where interview is chosen as the data collection method. This is a literature review of exploring empowerment of the local community through various community capacity building initiatives that would motivate the local people to be actively involved in the tagal.
The Success of Local Community Participation in Ecotourism Site: A Case Study of Sukau
Ecotourism has been the signature tourism activity for Sabah since the 90s, and it has become a model of sustainable tourism development for Malaysia due to its ability to enhance conservation activities and local community development. This paper outlines the experience in developing indicators for the success of the local community participation of an ecotourism site, Sukau, in Sabah. The research was qualitative in nature and employed case study as its methodology. The outcome of this research suggested that Sukau has a mixed success with local community participation for the ecotourism activity. The community is in need of coaching and capacity building to intensify the ecotourism activity However, the ecotourism has successfully promoted conservation at its surrounding area.
Study on Biodeterioration of Proteinous Objects in Museums and Toxic Efficacy of Myristica Fragrans and Syzygium Aromaticum Oils against the Larvae of Anthrenus verbasci
Museums are custodians of natural and cultural heritage. Objects like tribal dresses, headgears, weapons, musical instruments, manuscripts and other ethnocultural materials housed in museums are prized possessions of intellectual and cultural property of people. Tropical countries like India have a favorable climatic condition for biodeterioration. Organic materials such as leather and parchment objects which form a substantial part of natural history collections of museums across the world are promptly infested by insects like dermestid beetles, tenebrionides, silver fishes, cockroaches and other micro-organisms. The environmental problems caused due to the overuse of pesticides and other non-degradable chemicals have been the matter of serious concern for both the scientists and public in recent years. Synthetic pesticides are very expensive and also highly toxic for humans and its environment. Due to its high health risk factor government has taken severe initiatives on policy of banning it. In order to overcome the problems of biodeterioration, natural biocides should be applied. In this paper, comparative study has been done to investigate the toxic efficacy of Myristica fragrans and Syzygium aromaticum oil in variation with contact and stomach toxicity against larvae of Anthrenus verbasci.
Human Resources Management Practices in Hospitality Companies
The recovery of fine activated carbon with adsorbed gold in the cyanidation tailings of a small-scale gold plant was investigated due to the high amount of gold present. In the study, collectors that were used are kerosene and diesel. Emulsification of the oils was done to improve its collecting property, thus also the recovery. It was found out that the best hydrophile lypophile balance (HLB) of emulsified diesel and kerosene oil is 13 and 12 respectively. The amount of surfactants (SPAN 20 and TWEEN 20) for the best stability of the emulsified oils was found to be 10% in both kerosene and diesel. Optical microscopy showed that the oil dispersion in the water forms spherical droplets like features. The higher the stability, the smaller the droplets and their number were increasing. The smaller droplets indicate better dispersion of oil in the water. Consequently, it will have a greater chance of oil and activated carbon particle interaction during flotation. Due to the interaction of dispersed oil phase with carbon, the hydrophobicity of the carbon will be improved and will be attached to the bubble. Thus, flotation recovery will be increased. Results showed that the recovery of the fine activated carbon using emulsified diesel or kerosene is three times more effective than using pure diesel or kerosene.
A Study of the Relationship among the Hotel Staff's Work Stress, Perceived Organizational Support and Work Efficacy: A Case Study of Macau
Work pressure is an emerging research of organizational behavior. Many factors associated with this study also attracted the interest of scholars. Macao is surrounding by open micro-capitalist economy which has a high internationalization level and Mature operation system. And there is no doubt that tourism and hotel service industry is the pillar of the Macao economy with the developing of the mainland individual tourist visa. More and more cities are willing to inclusive culture diversity which lead to the amount of inbound tourists present high-speed up trend cause the hotel industry has a strong customer base and development space. At the same time, the hotel staff is an important role in the service. However, affected by some adverse factors, the hotel staff face a variety of pressures. This study combs the concept and theory of pressures relevant influencing factors and puts forward the purpose of this research. The focus of this study will be organizational supported by work efficiency and work pressure, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through questionnaires and interviews, 10 hotels in Macao were selected and 500 questionnaires were distributed to the employees. Statistical analysis software SPSS was used for descriptive statistics. By exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, effect. And the relevant practitioners on behalf of the interview content analysis. The innovation of this research lies in the empirical study of the relationship between the working pressure, organizational support and working efficiency of Macau hotel practitioners, and constructs and validates the structural model of the relationship among them. This model will be helpful for people to use more research methods to study hotel practitioners pressure in the future. At the same time, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a significant negative correlation between salary level and job stress; 2. There is a significant negative correlation between job stress and performance; 3. Different organizational support can interfere the relationship between job stress and performance; 4. Put forward the strategy of relevance adjustment, which provides a reference value for the hotel industry in human resource management. It would be helpful to improve their service standard by training their practitioners more scientifically and rationally.
The Effect of Physical Evidence of Themed Casino Hotels on Customer Value and Satisfaction
Physical evidence has emerged as an important concept for understanding customers' behavior in the service industry. While it is still not clear about the effect of physical evidence of themed casino hotels on customer value and satisfaction. After deciding on the research context, the processes of this research started with a review of literature in three subject areas: physical evidence, customer value, and customer satisfactions. In addition to the review of relevant literature, 20 pilot interviews conducted with travelers, hotel professionals, and academics who engage in hospitality and tourism research. The purposes of the interviews are threefold: to understand customer value and satisfactions, to learn about trends and concerns of the hotel industry, and to trends and concerns of the hotel industry, and to discover hotel-related issues of academic interest. Insights from the literature review and pilot interviews are important input that inform the development of the specific research questions. Data collection for this research will be done for two studies: a photo elicitation study and an in-depth interview study. In the former, nine travelers will be research participants who complete the research study. They took photos during hotel stays to show things, places, and events in hotels that affect their value and satisfaction. The researcher will collect the photos and follow up by discussing the photos with research participants in individual interviews. The study will use visual data about the triggers of value and satisfaction as well as verbal data in order to interpret customer value and satisfaction during staying in casino hotels. The photo elicitation study will obtain field-based data on specific cases of customer value and satisfaction. In the in-depth interview study, eleven travelers will be interviewed in a one-by-one style and semi-structured format. Discussions in the interviews mainly focus on three aspects regarding hotel stays for trips: satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and anticipated satisfaction experiences. Research outcomes include findings and implications for physical evidence. Findings will explain in six parts: customer value and satisfaction, triggers, guest concerns, satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and anticipated satisfaction hotel stay experiences. Regarding implications, this research contributes conceptual understandings in the form of a model that clarifies the connection between types of hotel physical evidence, physical evidence emphases, and customer value and satisfaction; as well as discussion on the concept of relational messages in physical evidence for the hospitality context. Physical evidence opportunities to improve customer value and satisfaction also suggested. To integrate some of the implications, hotel stay scenarios developed to illustrate optimal customer value and satisfaction.
Tourism and Hospitality Education Efficiency Management: The Case of the Tourism Department of Sultan Qaboos University
The tourism and hospitality education is a branch of the overall tourism and hospitality industry that is dedicated to providing the industry with well-educated, well-trained, skilled, enthusiastic and committed workforce. The Tourism Department at the College of Arts and Social Sciences (Sultan Qaboos University), Oman, has been providing the Omani society with undergraduate tourism and hospitality educational services since Fall 2001. Despite the fact that Tourism Department graduates are not facing any employment concerns, fluctuation in the number of enrollees and graduates, however, has been a significant characteristic since the inception of the program. To address this concern, several tactical and strategic decisions have been made, notably that the program has received accreditation from two prestigious international accreditation institutions, which mark two major milestones in the educational journey of the Tourism Department. The current study, thus, aims to provide a tourism and hospitality education efficiency management model. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were identified: to analyze students in - graduates out matrix, and to assess graduates’ employment trends. A survey was conducted to assess the current employment status of the department graduates. Secondary data were collected from Deanship of Admission and Registration statistical reports on the Tourism Department. Data were tabulated and analyzed in such a way that set forth the major findings from the survey and the secondary data. This study sheds light on the educational system created and followed by the Tourism Department, in an effort to provide a tourism and hospitality education efficiency management model, that would help educators and administrators better manage their programs.
The Impact of Socio-Cultural and Religious Factors on Omanis Employment in the Hotel Sector
The Sultanate of Oman is located on the South-eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea and has borders with the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Arabic is the official language. Islam is the official religion. Islam has a great impact on most Omanis, Shari’a law is the law of Oman. The tribal structure plays an essential role in the lives of Omanis. Most people in the Gulf States bear a tribal name rather than a family name. Religion, tribe, and family are highly influential in shaping individuals’ values and behaviors, and have a very noticeable influence on a person’s career choices. Tourism development has been given special attention by the Sultanate of Oman’s government aspiring that the industry would assist in creating direct job opportunities as well as boost the economy through provision of hard currency to improve the balance of payments. This study aims to assess the impact of socio-cultural and religious factors on Omanis employment in the hotel sector. The socio-cultural and religious factors have serious impacts on Omani employment in the hotel sector. Some employees are concerned about the source of income because of the idea that since the hotel business is based on activities such as serving alcohol and pork, gambling, and accommodating unmarried couples, their source of income would be questionable religion wise. For females, the designated job uniform and the interaction with males are major concerns. Ability to fulfil family obligations for married Omanis, and marriage opportunity for singles were other raised concerns. Whilst the future prosperity of the hotel industry depends on the quality of its people, in Oman, the hospitality industry has failed, for a number of reasons, to project an image that could generate interest amongst Omanis. Furthermore, the characteristics and the very nature of the hotel sector are in direct conflict with Islamic doctrines which are embedded in Omani life and society.
Tourist Emotion, Creative Experience and Behavioral Intention in Creative Tourism
This study identified the hypothesized relationships among tourist emotion, creative experience, and behavioral intention of handmade ancient candy in Tainan, Taiwan. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was administered in Anping, Tainan. The result also revealed significant positive relationships between emotion, creative experience and behavioral intention in handmade activities. This paper provides additional suggestions for enhancing behavioral intention and guidance regarding creative tourism.
Exploring the Effect of Environmental Cues of Food Festival on Visitor Satisfaction
As the competition of all kinds of festival events becomes more and more fierce, more and more event organizers try to design a blended festivalscape by integrating multifaceted environmental cues in order to raise the service quality of festival events and then raise visitors’ satisfaction. As the main type of festival events, food festivals are popular in all over the world. The organizers’ of food festivals also try to mix food with multifaceted environmental cues (e.g., music, stage, light, dance) to design a blended festivalscape. However, until now little studies explore the environmental cues of food festivals and their relationship with visitors’ satisfaction. Therefore, the aim of this study is to ascertain the environmental cues of food festival and their relationship with visitors’ satisfaction by using the blended festivalscape theory. Using convenient sampling method, this study investigated 1,000 food festival visitors in Macau. Factor analysis showed there are mainly six environmental cues (i.e., food, atmosphere, program, staff, facility, and information). All six environmental cues are positively related with visitors’ satisfaction, while the most influential factors are food, atmosphere, and program. This study showed that festival event organizers’ should focus on the topic of their festival event, build festival atmosphere, and create interesting programs in order to design a blended festivalscape and then raise visitors’ satisfaction.
Exploring the Relationship among Job Stress, Travel Constraints, and Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Casino Hotels: The Case of Macau
Job stress appears nearly everywhere especially in the hospitality industry because employees in this industry usually have to work long time and try to meet conflicting demands of their customers, managers, and company. To reduce job stress, employees of casino hotels try to perform leisure activities or tourism. However, casino employees often meet many obstacles or constraints when they plan to travel. Until now, there is little understanding as to why casino hotel employees often face many travel constraints or leisure barriers. What is more, few studies explore the relationship between travel constraints and job stress of casino employees. Therefore, this study is to explore the construct of casino hotel employees' travel constraints and the relationship among job stress, travel constraints, and job satisfaction.
Using convenient sampling method, this study planned to investigate 500 front line employees and managers of ten casino hotels in Macau. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 414 valid questionnaires were received. The return rate of valid questionnaires is 82.8%. Several statistical techniques such as factor analysis, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and regression analysis were applied to analyze the collected data.
The findings of this study are as follows. Firstly, by using factor analysis, this study found the travel constraints of casino employees include intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints, and structural constraints. Secondly, by using regression analysis, the study found travel constraints are positively related with job stress while negatively related with job satisfaction. This means reducing travel constraints may create a chance for casino employees to travel so that they could reduce job stress, therefore raise their job satisfaction. Thirdly, this research divided the research samples into three groups by the degree of job stress. The three groups are low satisfaction group, medium satisfaction group, and high satisfaction group. The means values of these groups were compared by t-test. Results showed that there are significant differences of the means values of interpersonal constraints between low satisfaction group and high satisfaction group. This suggests positive interpersonal relationship especially good family member relationship reduce not only job stress but also travel constraints of casino employees. Interestingly, results of t-test showed there is not a significant difference of the means values of structural constraints between low satisfaction group and high satisfaction group. This suggests structural constraints are outside variables which may be related with tourism destination marketing. Destination marketing organizations (DMO) need use all kinds of tools and techniques to promote their tourism destinations so as to reduce structural constraints of casino employees. This research is significant for both theoretical and practical fields. From the theoretical perspective, the study found the internal relationship between travel constraints, job stress, and job satisfaction and the different roles of three dimensions of travel constraints. From the practical perspective, the study provides useful methods to reduce travel constraints and job stress, therefore, raise job satisfaction of casino employees.
Entrepreneurs’ Perceptions of the Economic, Social and Physical Impacts of Tourism
The objective of this study is to determine how entrepreneurs perceive the economic, social and physical impacts of tourism. The study was conducted in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, which is rich in thermal tourism resources and investments. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 472 entrepreneurs. A simple random sampling method was used to identify the sample. Independent sampling t-tests and ANOVA tests were used to analyse the data obtained. Additionally, some statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found based on the participants’ demographic characteristics regarding their opinions about the social, economic and physical impacts of tourism activities.
A Scenario-Based Experiment Comparing Managerial and Front-Line Employee Apologies in Terms of Customers' Perceived Justice, Satisfaction, and Commitment
Due to the many moving parts and high human component, mistakes and failures sometimes occur during transactions in service environments. Because a certain portion of such failures is unavoidable, many service providers constantly look for guidance regarding optimal ways by which they should manage failures and recoveries. Through the use of a scenario-based experiment, the findings of this study run counter to the empowerment approach (i.e. that frontline employees should be empowered to resolve failure situations on their own doing). Specifically, this study finds that customers’ perceptions of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice are significantly higher [p-values < .05] when a manager delivers an apology as opposed to the frontline provider. Moreover, customers’ satisfaction with the recovery and commitment to the firm are also significantly stronger [p-values < .05] when a manager apologizes. Interestingly, this study also empirically tests the effects of combined apologies of both the manager and employee and finds that the combined approach yields better results for customers’ interactional justice perceptions and for their satisfaction with recovery, but not for their distributive or procedural justice perceptions or consequent commitment to the firm. This study can serve a springboard for further research. For example, perceptions and attitudes regarding employee empowerment vary based upon country culture. Furthermore, there are likely a number of factors that can moderate the cause and effect relationship between a failure recovery and customers’ post-recovery perceptions [e.g. the severity of the failure].
The Potential of Tourism Logistic Services Business in the Border Areas of Chong Anma, Chong Sa-Ngam, and Chong Jom Checkpoints in Thailand to Increase Competitive Efficiency among the ASEAN Community
This study focused on tourism logistic services in the border areas of Thailand by an analysis and comparison of the opinions of tourists, villagers, and entrepreneurs of these services. Sample representatives of this study were a total of 600 villagers and 15 entrepreneurs in the three border areas consisting of Chong Anma, Chong Sa-Ngam, and Chong Jom checkpoints. For methodology, survey questionnaires, situation analysis, TOWS matrix, and focus group discussions were used for data collection, and descriptive analysis and statistics, such as arithmetic means and standard deviations, were employed for data analysis. The findings revealed that business potential was at the medium level and entrepreneurs were satisfied with their turnovers. However, perspectives of transportation and tourism services provided for tourists need to be suddenly improved. Recommendations for the potential development included promotion of border tourism destinations and foreigners’ investment in accommodation, restaurants, and transport, establishment of business networks between Thailand and Cambodia, and introduction of new tourism destinations by co-operation between entrepreneurs in both countries. These initiatives may lead to increased visitors, collaboration of security offices, and an improved image of tourism security.
The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Emotional Intelligence and Well-Being among Tour Guides
The concept of self-efficacy refers to people’s beliefs in their ability to perform certain behaviors and cope with environmental demands. As such, self-efficacy plays a key role in linking ability to performance. Therefore, this study examines the relationships of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence (EI), and well-being among tour guides, who act as intermediaries between tourists and an unfamiliar environment and significantly influence tourists’ impressions of a destination. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to identify the relationships between these factors. The results found that self-efficacy is positively associated with EI and well-being, and a positive link was seen between EI and well-being. This study has practical implications, as the results can facilitate the development of interventions for enhancing tour guides’ EI and self-efficacy competencies, which will benefit them in terms of both enhanced achievements and improved psychological happiness and well-being.
Investigation into Shopping Tourist Satisfaction: An Application of Shopping Values
Shopping tourism is an emerging concept in tourism research, thus contradicting the notion that shopping is not a novel idea. Tourists have long been performing shopping activities, such as purchasing authentic handicrafts and souvenirs, to benefit from a pleasant tourism experience. Some scholars regarded shopping as one of the oldest tourist activities and stressed that a trip is incomplete without shopping. Others then asserted that shopping is inseparable from other activities in tourist destinations and may in fact be considered a main purpose for travel. In other words, shopping is regarded as an incidental tourist activity, thereby indicating its potential as a primary travel motivation. The current study investigates the personal values of shopping tourists and their satisfaction levels. Via convenience sampling, 230 samples were collected. The software packages SPSS Statistics 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 were used for statistical analysis. Findings showed that both hedonic and utilitarian values positively influence tourist satisfaction and positive word of mouth. Therefore, this research deepens understanding regarding tourist behavior in the context of shopping tourism research.
Typology of Gaming Tourists Based on the Perception of Destination Image
This study investigated the perception of gaming tourists toward Macau and developed a typology of gaming tourists. The 1,497 responses from tourists in Macau were collected through convenience sampling method. The dimensions of multi-culture, convenience, economy, gaming, and unsafety, were subsequently extracted as the factors of perception of gaming tourists in Macau. Cluster analysis was performed using the delineated factors (perception of tourists on Macau). Four heterogonous groups were generated, namely, gaming lovers (n = 467, 31.2%), exotic lovers (n = 509, 34.0%), reasonable budget seekers (n = 269, 18.0%), and convenience seekers (n = 252, 16.8%). Further analysis was performed to investigate any difference in gaming behavior and tourist activities. The findings are expected to contribute to the efforts of destination marketing organizations (DMOs) in establishing effective business strategies, provide a profile of gaming tourists in certain market segments, and assist DMOs and casino managers in establishing more effective marketing strategies for target markets.
Understanding the Influence of Cross-National Distances on Tourist Expenditure
Inbound tourist expenditure might not only have influenced by individual tourist characteristics but may also be affected by nationality characteristics. The cross national distance effects on tourist consumption behavior should be incorporated in the analytical framework. Additionally, the often used factor analysis, cluster analysis and regression analysis overlook the hierarchical tourist consumption data structure and may lead to misleading results. The objectives of the present study were twofold. First, we propose a multilevel model that takes individual and cross-national differences into account under a hierarchical framework. Second, we further sought to determine the types of cross-national differences affecting tourist expenditure. Thus, this study incorporates the individual tourist effects and cross national distance effects simultaneously, uses the data of 2010 Annual Survey Report on Visitors’ Expenditure and Trends in Taiwan to investigate the determinants of inbound tourist expenditure. Multilevel analysis was used to investigate the influence of individual tourist effects and cross national distance effects on inbound tourist expenditure. The empirical results show that cross national distance plays a crucial role in tourist consumption behavior. Our findings also indicate age and income have positive influence on tourism expenditure., whereas education and gender do not have significant impact. Regarding macro-level factors, geographic and cultural differences exhibited significant positive relationships on tourism expenditure, while economic differences did not. Based on the above empirical results, it is suggested that tour operators should take tourists’ individual attributes, particularly their income and age, into consideration when arranging tours. In addition, nationality holds sway over tourists’ consumption behavior, of which geographic and cultural differences are the two major factors at play. The empirical results of this study serve as practical suggestions for tourism marketing strategies and policy implications for government policies.
Sustainability of Small Tourism Enterprises: A Comparison of Homestays and Independent Businesses from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal
Small tourism enterprises (STEs) are primary providers of services and attractions in many destinations of less developed countries; they are considered the lifeblood of tourism sector. Furthermore, in rural community destinations of such countries including Nepal, STEs are regarded as alternative tools for advancing economic and sociocultural transformations. Many families in rural Nepali destinations are venturing into small tourism entrepreneurship so that their poverty can be reduced and they can live a sustained life. Most these communities are utilizing their lifestyles and natural and cultural heritages as tourism attractions. This study aimed to understand the sustainability of the STEs in rural destinations by synthesizing observations from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area in western Nepal. Ghalegaon has community-based homestays and Ghandruk has independently owned and operated small tourism businesses such as cafes, tea houses, lodges, guest houses, and hotels, etc. The community-based homestays of Ghalegaon are compared with the independently owned and operated STEs of Ghandruk. The data were collected through multiple sources: 1) survey of tourists (n=112) and households (n=191); 2) interviews (n=14) with the locals, 3) group discussions (n=10) with different local groups including that of regional tourism players, experts and policy makers, 4) observations, and 5) document analysis. The STEs of both communities were first analyzed by understanding their level of sustainability as businesses, and then were explored how they were impacting on respective communities’ sustainability. The survey indicators and guidelines for interviews and group discussions were adapted to the Nepalese context based on four pillars of sustainability: economic, social, cultural and environmental; an additional dimension of management was also included, particularly for the STEs. The findings have shown a weaker economic and management dimensions of Ghalegaon’s Homestay than that of Ghandruk’s STEs. Some interesting social complexities of rural tourism and entrepreneurship were also revealed. This study’s findings do not much resonate to what Nepal government’s current rural tourism strategies that have been envisioned and prioritized for, particularly that the rural homestay tourism opportunities enhance inclusiveness of women and other deprived communities by spreading the benefits to the grassroots level. The study has highlighted several important applied implications to the local tourism management committees, tourism operators and associations, and regional and national tourism authorities. Further studies are advisable in other similar contexts in Nepal and in other countries to see whether there are variances in the findings.
The Effect of Information Technologies on Business Performance: An Application on Small Hotels
In this research, which information technologies are used in small hotel businesses, and the information technologies-performance perception of the managers are pointed out. During the research, the questionnaire was prepared and the small scale hotel managers were interviewed face to face and they filled out the questionnaire and the answers acquired were evaluated. As the result of the research, it was obtained that the managers do not care much about the information technologies usage in practice even though they accepted that the information technologies are important in terms of performance.
Airbnb, Hotel Industry and Optimum Strategies: Evidence from European Cities, Barcelona, London and Paris
Airbnb and other similar platforms are offering a near substitute to the traditional accommodation service supplied by the hotel sector. In this context, hotels can try to compete by offering higher quality and additional services, which imply the need for new investments or try to compete by reducing prices. The theoretical model presented in this paper analyzes the best response using a sequential game theory model. The main conclusion is that due to the financial constraints that small and medium hotels have these hotels have reduced prices whereas hotels that belong to international groups or have an easy access to financial resources have increased their investment to increase the quality of the service provided. To check the validity of the theoretical model financial data from Barcelona, London and Paris hotels have been used analyzing profitability, quality of the service provided, the investment propensity and the evolution of the gross profit. The model and the empirical data provide the base for some industrial policy in the hospitality industry. To address the extra cost that small hotels in Europe have to face compared by bigger firms would help to improve the level of quality provided and to some extent have positive externalities in terms of job creation and an increasing added value for the industry.
Climate Change and Tourism: A Scientometric Analysis Using Citespace
The interaction between climate change and tourism is one of the most promising research areas of recent decades. In this paper, a scientometric analysis of 976 academic publications between 1990 and 2015 related to climate change and tourism is presented in order to characterize the intellectual landscape by identifying and visualizing the evolution of the collaboration network, the co-citation network, and emerging trends of citation burst and keyword co-occurrence. The results show that the number of publications in this field has increased rapidly and it has become an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary topic. The research areas are dominated by Australia, USA, Canada, New Zealand, and European countries, which have the most productive authors and institutions. The hot topics of climate change and tourism research in recent years are further identified, including the consequences of climate change for tourism, necessary adaptations, the vulnerability of the tourism industry, tourist behaviour and demand in response to climate change, and emission reductions in the tourism sector. The work includes an in-depth analysis of a major forum of climate change and tourism to help readers to better understand global trends in this field in the past 25 years.
Community Based Heritage Tourism: An Analysis
The aim of this paper is to identify the factors of success in community based heritage tourism initiatives. Heritage and community are central to many tourism initiatives with heritage tourism having the potential to act as a catalyst for community development. This paper presents the findings of research that examined the relationship between heritage tourism and community development. The findings recognised that heritage tourism had economic, social and cultural benefits for a community as well as a role in strengthening concepts such as sense of identity, place and authenticity. In addition, this paper proposes an assessment framework for sustainable community based heritage tourism to identify factors and contextual influences involved in their success or failure. In evaluating the sustainability of such initiatives, a number of issues are investigated including the continued role of stakeholders, the role of funding, the influence of collaboration and the changing role of rural development and its impact on community engagement. The research is descriptive, evaluative and explanatory research, exploring and analyzing issues such as the development of community structures in community based heritage tourism. Thus it will contribute to the development of potential tourism and community development policies and strategies at a local, national and international level. An interpretative and inductive approach is utilized and a mixed method approach followed as it encapsulates the best of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The case studies focus on social enterprises in relation to tourism and community-based tourism cooperatives as there is limited study and knowledge of these. Consequently, this research will contribute to the discourse on community-based heritage tourism as an aspect of community development.
An Integrated Planning Framework for Sustainable Tourism: Case Study Tunisia
Tourism sector in Tunisia faces several problems that range from economic challenges to environmental degradation and social instability. These problems have been intensified because of the increased competition in the tourism market, the political instability, financial crises, and recently terrorism problems have aggravated the situation. As a consequence, a new framework that promotes sustainable tourism in the country and increases its competitiveness is urgently needed. Planning for sustainable tourism sector requires the integration of complex interactions between economic, social and environmental aspects. Sustainable tourism principles can be implemented through the help of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process, which ensures the full integration of economic, social and environmental considerations while planning for tourism sector in Tunisia. Results of the paper have broad implications for policy makers and tourism professionals.
The Need for a More Robust Legal Framework to Curb the Rise in Violence against Game Officials
The dramatic rise in violence against game officials has affected all levels of sports including recreational, amateur, and professional sports. One way to combat this rise in violence is through the creation of laws specifically aimed at preventing and punishing this kind of violence. This paper will use related legal cases as a starting point to explore possible ways of better protecting the safety of game officials. It will do this by looking at relevant cases, related legal issues, and two specific ways of reducing violence against game officials. In closing, it will be argued that there needs to be a more robust legal approach with emphasis on criminal and civil penalties for assault and battery, and a more comprehensive social approach with emphasis on raising social awareness on the need to protect game officials from violence.
Looking beyond Corporate Social Responsibility to Sustainable Development: Conceptualisation and Theoretical Exploration
Traditional Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) idea has gone beyond just ensuring safety environments, caring about global warming and ensuring good living standards and conditions for the society at large. The paradigm shift is towards a focus on strategic objectives and the long-term value creation for both businesses and the society at large for a realistic future. As an important approach to solving social and environment issues, CSR has been accepted globally. Yet the approach is expected to go beyond where it is currently. So much is expected from businesses and governments at every level globally and locally. This then leads to the original idea of the concept, that is, how it originated and how it has been perceived over the years. Little wonder there has been a lot of definitions surrounding the concept without a major globally acceptable definition of it. The definition of CSR given by the European Commission will be considered for the purpose of this paper. Sustainable Development (SD), on the other hand, has been viewed in recent years as an ethical concept explained in the UN-Report termed “Our Common Future,” which can also be referred to as the Brundtland report. The report summarises the need for SD to take place in the present without comprising the future. However, the recent 21st-century framework on sustainability known as the “Triple Bottom Line (TBL)” framework, has added its voice to the concepts of CSR and sustainable development. The TBL model is of the opinion that businesses should not only report on their financial performance but also on their social and environmental performances, highlighting that CSR has gone beyond just the “material-impact” approach towards a “Future-Oriented” approach (sustainability). In this paper, the concept of CSR is revisited by exploring the various theories therein. The discourse on the concepts of sustainable development and sustainable development frameworks will also be indicated, thereby inducing these into how CSR can benefit both businesses and their stakeholders as well as the entirety of the society, not just for the present but for the future. It does this by exploring the importance of both concepts (CSR and SD) and concludes by making recommendations for a more empirical research in the near future.
The Impact of Community Settlement on Leisure Time Use and Body Composition in Determining Physical Lifestyles among Women
Leisure time is an important component to offset the sedentary lifestyle of the people. Women tend to benefit from leisure activities not only to reduce stress but also to provide opportunities for well-being and self-satisfaction. This study was conducted to investigate body composition and leisure time use among women in Selangor from the influences of community settlement. A total of 419 women aged 18-65 years were selected to participate in this study. Descriptive statistics, t test and ANOVA were used to analyze the level of physical activity, and the relationship between leisure-time use and body composition were made to analyze the physical lifestyles. The results showed that women with normal body composition seem to involve in more passive activities than women with less weight gain and obesity. Thus, the study recommended that the government and other health and recreational agencies should develop more places and activities suitable for leisure preference for women in their community settlement so they become more interested to engage in more active recreational and physical activities.
Relation between Tourism and Health: Case study AIDS in Lebanon
Each year, 600 million tourists travelled abroad to practice several types of tourism. Nowadays, whatever is the type of tourism practiced it considered as a real public health problem which can contribute the spread of several diseases such as AIDS, H1N1, NDM1 With regard to HIV/AIDS, Lebanon is always considered as a low HIV prevalence country. However, the potential risks associated with the mobility of the population, migration and tourism. The total number of cases reported by the ministry of health since 1989 until the end of 2011 is of 1455 cases, with an average of 85 new cases per year over the last three years. The main reason of the increased number is Travel and migration which represent 50% of the risks reported by cumulative cases. Given the interest of this kind of epidemic it would be interesting to study the Evolution of HIV/ AIDS and its relation with travel and tourism The main aim of this research is to study in general the relation between tourism and health, more specific to understand the relation between Tourism and AIDS, the problem of the transmission of HIV in Lebanon, the ways of contamination and the countries in which these people are contaminated.