Numerical Analysis of Swirling Chamber Using Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Turbulence Model
Swirling chamber is a promising cooling method for heavily thermally loaded parts like turbine blades due to the additional circumferential velocity and therefore improved turbulent mixing of the fluid. This paper investigates numerically the effect of turbulence model on the heat convection of the swirling chamber. Grid independence analysis is conducted to obtain the proper grid dimension. The work validated with experimental data available in the literature. Flow analysis using improved delayed detached eddy simulation turbulence model and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes k-ɛ turbulence model is carried. The flow characteristic near the exit is reformed when improved delayed detached eddy simulation model used.
Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure-Thermal Coupling Dynamics Simulation Model of a Gas-Filled Fluid-Resistance Damper and Experimental Verification
Fluid resistance damper is an important damping element to attenuate vehicle vibration. It converts vibration energy into thermal energy dissipation through oil throttling. It is a typical fluid-solid-heat coupling problem. A complete three-dimensional flow-structure-thermal coupling dynamics simulation model of a gas-filled fluid-resistance damper was established. The flow-condition-based interpolation (FCBI) method and direct coupling calculation method, the unit's FCBI-C fluid numerical analysis method and iterative coupling calculation method are used to achieve the damper dynamic response of the piston rod under sinusoidal excitation; the air chamber inflation pressure, spring compression characteristics, constant flow passage cross-sectional area and oil parameters, etc. The system parameters, excitation frequency, and amplitude and other excitation parameters are analyzed and compared in detail for the effects of differential pressure characteristics, velocity characteristics, flow characteristics and dynamic response of valve opening, floating piston response and piston rod output force characteristics. Experiments were carried out on some simulation analysis conditions. The results show that the node-based FCBI (flow-condition-based interpolation) fluid numerical analysis method and direct coupling calculation method can better guarantee the conservation of flow field calculation, and the calculation step is larger, but the memory is also larger; if the chamber inflation pressure is too low, the damper will become cavitation. The inflation pressure will cause the speed characteristic hysteresis to increase, and the sealing requirements are too strict. The spring compression characteristics have a great influence on the damping characteristics of the damper, and reasonable damping characteristic needs to properly design the spring compression characteristics; the larger the cross-sectional area of the constant flow channel, the smaller the maximum output force, but the more stable when the valve plate is opening.
Contribution to the Analytical Study of Barrier Surface Waves: Decomposition of the Solution
When a partially or completely immersed solid moves in a liquid such as water, it undergoes a force called hydrodynamic drag. Reducing this force has always been the objective of hydrodynamic engineers to make water slide better on submerged bodies. This paper deals with the examination of the different terms composing the analytical solution of the flow over an obstacle embedded at the bottom of a hydraulic channel. We have chosen to use a linear method to study a two-dimensional flow over an obstacle, in order to understand the evolution of the drag. We set the following assumptions: incompressible inviscid fluid, irrotational flow, low obstacle height compared to the water height. Those assumptions allow overcoming the difficulties associated with modelling these waves. We will mathematically formulate the equations that allow the determination of the stream function, and then the free surface equation. A similar method is used to determine the exact analytical solution for an obstacle in the shape of a sinusoidal arch.
Impact of Pulsing and Trickle Flow on Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Phenolic Compounds in Waste Water at High Pressure
Phenolic compounds are the most carcinogenic pollutants in waste water in effluents of refineries and pulp industry. Catalytic wet air oxidation is an efficient industrial treatment process to oxidize phenolic compounds into unharmful organic compounds. Mode of flow of the fluid to be treated is a dominant factor in determining effectiveness of the catalytic process. The present study aims to obtain a mathematical model describing the conversion of phenolic compounds as a function of the process variables; mode of flow (trickling and pulsing), temperature, pressure, along with a high concentration of phenols and a platinum supported alumina catalyst. The model was validated with the results of experiments obtained in a fixed bed reactor. High pressure and temperature were employed at 8 bar and 140 °C. It has been found that conversion of phenols is highly influenced by mode of flow and the change is caused by changes occurred in hydrodynamic regime at the time of pulsing flow mode, thereby a temporal variation in wetting efficiency of platinum prevails; which in turn increases and/or decreases contact time with phenols in wastewater. The model obtained was validated with experimental results, and it is found that the model is a good agreement with the experimental results.
Normal Spectral Emissivity of Roughened Aluminum Alloy Al 6061 Surfaces at High Temperature
Normal spectral emissivity of Al 6061 alloys with different surface finishes was experimentally measured at 833°K. Four different samples were prepared by polishing the surfaces of the alloy by 80, 220, 600 grit sizes of SiC abrasive papers and diamond paste. The samples were heated in air for 6 h at 833°K, and the emissivity was measured during the process from pyrometers operating at wavelengths of 3.9, 5.14 and 7.8 μm. The results indicated that the emissivity was increasing with heating time and the rate of increase was rapid during the initial stage of heating in comparison with the later stage. This appears to be because of the parabolic rate law followed by the process of oxidation. Further, it is found that the increase in emissivity with heating time was higher for rough surfaces than that for polished surfaces. Both the results were analyzed at all the three wavelengths, and qualitatively similar results were obtained for all of them. In this way emissivity of the alloy can be increased by roughening the surfaces and heating it at high temperature until the surfaces are oxidized.
Designing a Robust Controller for a 6 Linkage Robot
One of the main points of application of the mechanisms of the series and parallel is the subject of managing them. The control of this mechanism and similar mechanisms is one that has always been the intention of the scholars. On the other hand, modeling the behavior of the system is difficult due to the large number of its parameters, and it leads to complex equations that are difficult to solve and eventually difficult to control. In this paper, a six-linkage robot has been presented that could be used in different areas such as medical robots. Using these robots needs a robust control. In this paper, the system equations are first found, and then the system conversion function is written. A new controller has been designed for this robot which could be used in other parallel robots and could be very useful. Parallel robots are so important in robotics because of their stability, so methods for control of them are important and the robust controller, especially in parallel robots, makes a sense.
Motion Planning and Simulation Design of a Redundant Robot for Sheet Metal Bending Processes
Industry 4.0 is a vision of integrated industry implemented by artificial intelligent computing, software, and Internet technologies. The main goal of industry 4.0 is to deal with the difficulty owing to competitive pressures in the marketplace. For today’s manufacturing factories, the type of production is changed from mass production (high quantity production with low product variety) to medium quantity-high variety production. To offer flexibility, better quality control, and improved productivity, robot manipulators are used to combine material processing, material handling, and part positioning systems into an integrated manufacturing system. To implement the automated system for sheet metal bending operations, motion planning of a 7-degrees of freedom (DOF) robot is studied in this paper. A virtual reality (VR) environment of a bending cell, which consists of the robot and a bending machine, is established using the virtual robot experimentation platform (V-REP) simulator. For sheet metal bending operations, the robot only needs six DOFs for the pick-and-place or tracking tasks. Therefore, this 7 DOF robot has more DOFs than the required to execute a specified task; it can be called a redundant robot. Therefore, this robot has kinematic redundancies to deal with the task-priority problems. For redundant robots, Pseudo-inverse of the Jacobian is the most popular motion planning method, but the pseudo-inverse methods usually lead to a kind of chaotic motion with unpredictable arm configurations as the Jacobian matrix lose ranks. To overcome the above problem, we proposed a method to formulate the motion planning problems as optimization problem. Moreover, a genetic algorithm (GA) based method is proposed to deal with motion planning of the redundant robot. Simulation results validate the proposed method feasible for motion planning of the redundant robot in an automated sheet-metal bending operations.
An Autonomous Space Debris-Removal System for Effective Space Missions
Space exploration has noted an exponential rise in the past two decades. The world has started probing the alternatives for efficient and resourceful sustenance along with utilization of advanced technology viz., satellites on earth. Space propulsion forms the core of space exploration. Of all the issues encountered, space debris has increasingly threatened the space exploration and propulsion. The efforts have resulted in the presence of disastrous space debris fragments orbiting the earth at speeds up to several kilometres per hour. Debris are well known as a potential damage to the future missions with immense loss of resources, mankind, and huge amount of money is invested in active research on them. Appreciable work had been done in the past relating to active space debris-removal technologies such as harpoon, net, drag sail. The primary emphasis is laid on confined removal. In recently, remove debris spacecraft was used for servicing and capturing cargo ships. Airbus designed and planned the debris-catching net experiment, aboard the spacecraft. The spacecraft represents largest payload deployed from the space station. However, the magnitude of the issue suggests that active space debris-removal technologies, such as harpoons and nets, still would not be enough. Thus, necessitating the need for better and operative space debris removal system. Techniques based on diverting the path of debris or the spacecraft to avert damage have turned out minimal usage owing to limited predictions. Present work focuses on an active hybrid space debris removal system. The work is motivated by the need to have safer and efficient space missions. The specific objectives of the work are 1) to thoroughly analyse the existing and conventional debris removal techniques, their working, effectiveness and limitations under varying conditions, 2) to understand the role of key controlling parameters in coupled operation of debris capturing and removal. The system represents the utilization of the latest autonomous technology available with an adaptable structural design for operations under varying conditions. The design covers advantages of most of the existing technologies while removing the disadvantages. The system is likely to enhance the probability of effective space debris removal. At present, systematic theoretical study is being carried out to thoroughly observe the effects of pseudo-random debris occurrences and to originate an optimal design with much better features and control.
Effect of the Orifice Plate Specifications on Coefficient of Discharge
On the ground that the orifice plate is relatively inexpensive, requires very little maintenance and only calibrated during the occasion of plant turnaround, the orifice plate has turned to be in a real prevalent use in gas industry. Inaccuracy of measurement in the fiscal metering stations may highly be accounted to be the most vital factor for mischarges in the natural gas industry in Libya. A very trivial error in measurement can add up a fast escalating financial burden to the custodian transactions. The unaccounted gas quantity transferred annually via orifice plates in Libya, could be estimated in an extent of multi-million dollars. As the oil and gas wealth is the solely source of income to Libya, every effort is now being exerted to improve the accuracy of existing orifice metering facilities. Discharge coefficient has become pivotal in current researches undertaken in this regard. Hence, increasing the knowledge of the flow field in a typical orifice meter is indispensable. Recently and in a drastic pace, the CFD has become the most time and cost efficient versatile tool for in-depth analysis of fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer of various industrial applications. Getting deeper into the physical phenomena lied beneath and predicting all relevant parameters and variables with high spatial and temporal resolution have been the greatest weighing pros counting for CFD. In this paper, flow phenomena for air passing through an orifice meter were numerically analyzed with CFD code based modeling, giving important information about the effect of orifice plate specifications on the discharge coefficient for three different tappings locations, i.e., flange tappings, D and D/2 tappings compared with vena contracta tappings. Discharge coefficients were paralleled with discharge coefficients estimated by ISO 5167. The influences of orifice plate bore thickness, orifice plate thickness, beveled angle, perpendicularity and buckling of the orifice plate, were all duly investigated. A case of an orifice meter whose pipe diameter of 2 in, beta ratio of 0.5 and Reynolds number of 91100, was taken as a model. The results highlighted that the discharge coefficients were highly responsive to the variation of plate specifications and under all cases, the discharge coefficients for D and D/2 tappings were very close to that of vena contracta tappings which were believed as an ideal arrangement. Also, in general sense, it was appreciated that the standard equation in ISO 5167, by which the discharge coefficient was calculated, cannot capture the variation of the plate specifications and thus further thorough considerations would be still needed.
Controller Design for Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology Using Structured Singular Value and Direct Search Method
The algebraic approach is applied to the control of the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology). The objective is to find a robust controller which guarantees robust stability and decoupled control of longitudinal model of a scaled remotely controlled vehicle version of the advanced fighter HiMAT. Control design is performed by decoupling the nominal MIMO (multi-input multi-output) system into two identical SISO (single-input single-output) plants which are approximated by a 4th order transfer function. The algebraic approach is then used for pole placement design, and the nominal closed-loop poles are tuned so that the peak of the µ-function is minimal. As an optimization tool, evolutionary algorithm Differential Migration is used in order to overcome the multimodality of the cost function yielding simple controller with decoupling for nominal plant which is compared with the D-K iteration through simulations of standard longitudinal manoeuvres documenting decoupled control obtained from algebraic approach for nominal plant as well as worst case perturbation.
Flood Modeling in Urban Area Using a Well-Balanced Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme on Unstructured Triangular Grids
Urban flooding resulting from a sudden release of water due to dam-break or excessive rainfall is a serious threatening environment hazard, which causes loss of human life and large economic losses. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimise human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision, and rescue plans. This work reports on the numerical modelling of flash flood propagation in urban areas after an excessive rainfall event or dam-break. A two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water model is used with a refined unstructured grid of triangles for representing the urban area topography. The 2D shallow water equations are solved using a second-order well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Three flood events are described to demonstrate the potential benefits of the scheme: (i) laboratory experimental dam-break wave in the presence of an isolated building; (ii) flash flood over a physical model of the urbanized Toce River valley in Italy; and (iii) dam-break flood in October 1982 at the town of Sumacarcel (Spain). The capability of the scheme is also verified against alternative models. Computational results compare well with recorded data and show that the scheme is at least as efficient as comparable second-order finite volume schemes, with notable efficiency speedup due to parallelization.
Instability by Weak Precession of the Flow in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere
We consider the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a precessing sphere whose spin and precession axes are orthogonal to each other. The flow is characterized by two non-dimensional parameters, the Reynolds number Re and the Poincare number Po. For which values of (Re, Po) will the flow approach a steady state from an arbitrary initial condition? To answer it we are searching the instability boundary of the steady states in the whole (Re, Po) plane. Here, we focus the rapidly rotating and weakly precessing limit, i.e., Re >> 1 and Po
Inverse Dynamics of the Mould Base of Blow Molding Machines
This paper deals with the study of devices for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines. The displacement of the mould in the studied case is carried out by a linear actuator, which ensures the descent of the mould base and by extension springs, which return the letter in the initial position. The aim of this paper is to study the inverse dynamics of the device for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines and to determine its optimum parameters for higher rate of production. In the other words, it is necessary to solve the inverse dynamic problem to find the equation of motion linking applied forces with displacements. This makes it possible to determine the stiffness coefficient of the spring to turn the mold base back to the initial position for a given time. The obtained results are illustrated by a numerical example. It is shown that applying a spring with stiffness returns the mould base of the blow molding machine into the initial position in 0.1 sec.
Data Collection Techniques for Robotics to Identify the Facial Expressions of Traumatic Brain Injured Patients
This paper presents the investigation of data collection procedures, associated with robots when placed with traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients for rehabilitation purposes through facial expression and mood analysis. Rehabilitation after TBI is very crucial due to nature of injury and variation in recovery time. It is advantageous to analyze these emotional signals in a contactless manner, due to the non-supportive behavior of patients, limited muscle movements and increase in negative emotional expressions. This work aims at the development of framework where robots can recognize TBI emotions through facial expressions to perform rehabilitation tasks by physical, cognitive or interactive activities. The result of these studies shows that with customized data collection strategies, proposed framework identify facial and emotional expressions more accurately that can be utilized in enhancing recovery treatment and social interaction in robotic context.
Calibrations and Effect of Different Operating Conditions on the Performance of a Fluid Power Control System with Servo Solenoid Valve
The current investigation presents a study on the hydraulic performance of an electro-hydraulic servo solenoid valve controlled linear piston used in hydraulic systems. Advanced methods have been used to measure and record laboratory experiments, to ensure accurate analysis and evaluation. Experiments have been conducted under different values of temperature (28, 40 and 50 °C), supply pressure (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 bar), system stiffness (32 N/mm), and load (0.0 & 5560 N). It is concluded that increasing temperature of hydraulic oil increases the quantity of flow rate, so it achieves an increase of the quantity of flow by 5.75 % up to 48.8 % depending on operating conditions. The values of pressure decay at low temperature are less than the values at high temperature. The frequency increases with the increase of the temperature. When we connect the springs to the system, it decreases system frequency. These results are very useful in the process of packing and manufacturing of fluid products, where the properties are not affected by 50 °C, so energy and time are saved.
Bulk/Hull Cavitation Induced by Underwater Explosion: Effect of Material Elasticity and Surface Curvature
Bulk/hull cavitation evolution induced by an underwater explosion (UNDEX) near a free surface (bulk) or a deformable structure (hull) is numerically investigated using a multiphase compressible ﬂuid solver coupled with a one-ﬂuid cavitation model. A series of two-dimensional computations is conducted with varying material elasticity and surface curvature. Results suggest that material elasticity and surface curvature inﬂuence the peak pressures generated from UNDEX shock and cavitation collapse, as well as the bulk/hull cavitation regions near the surface. Results also show that such effects can be different for bulk cavitation generated from UNDEX-free surface interaction and for hull cavitation generated from UNDEX-structure interaction. More importantly, results demonstrate that shock wave focusing caused by a concave solid surface can lead to a larger cavitation region and thus intensify the cavitation reload. The ﬁndings can be linked to the strength and the direction of reﬂected waves from the structural surface and reﬂected waves from the expanding bubble surface, which are functions of material elasticity and surface curvature. Shockwave focusing effects are also observed for axisymmetric simulations, but the strength of the pressure contours for the axisymmetric simulations is less than those for the 2D simulations due to the difference between the initial shock energy. The current method is limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric applications. Moreover, the thermal effects are neglected and the liquid is not allowed to sustain tension in the cavitation model.
Efficient Computer-Aided Design-Based Multilevel Optimization of the LS89
The paper deals with a single point optimization of the LS89 turbine using an adjoint optimization and defining the design variables within a CAD system. The advantage of including the CAD model in the design system is that higher level constraints can be imposed on the shape, allowing the optimized model or component to be manufactured. However, CAD-based approaches restrict the design space compared to node-based approaches where every node is free to move. In order to preserve a rich design space, we develop a methodology to refine the CAD model during the optimization and to create the best parameterization to use at each time. This study presents a methodology to progressively refine the design space, which combines parametric effectiveness with a differential evolutionary algorithm in order to create an optimal parameterization. In this manuscript, we show that by doing the parameterization at the CAD level, we can impose higher level constraints on the shape, such as the axial chord length, the trailing edge radius and G2 geometric continuity between the suction side and pressure side at the leading edge. Additionally, the adjoint sensitivities are filtered out and only smooth shapes are produced during the optimization process. The use of algorithmic differentiation for the CAD kernel and grid generator allows computing the grid sensitivities to machine accuracy and avoid the limited arithmetic precision and the truncation error of finite differences. Then, the parametric effectiveness is computed to rate the ability of a set of CAD design parameters to produce the design shape change dictated by the adjoint sensitivities. During the optimization process, the design space is progressively enlarged using the knot insertion algorithm which allows introducing new control points whilst preserving the initial shape. The position of the inserted knots is generally assumed. However, this assumption can hinder the creation of better parameterizations that would allow producing more localized shape changes where the adjoint sensitivities dictate. To address this, we propose using a differential evolutionary algorithm to maximize the parametric effectiveness by optimizing the location of the inserted knots. This allows the optimizer to gradually explore larger design spaces and to use an optimal CAD-based parameterization during the course of the optimization. The method is tested on the LS89 turbine cascade and large aerodynamic improvements in the entropy generation are achieved whilst keeping the exit flow angle fixed. The trailing edge and axial chord length, which are kept fixed as manufacturing constraints. The optimization results show that the multilevel optimizations were more efficient than the single level optimization, even though they used the same number of design variables at the end of the multilevel optimizations. Furthermore, the multilevel optimization where the parameterization is created using the optimal knot positions results in a more efficient strategy to reach a better optimum than the multilevel optimization where the position of the knots is arbitrarily assumed.
Integrating Human Preferences into the Automated Decisions of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Due to the nature of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) missions, it is important that the decisions of a UAV stay consistent with the priorities of an operator, while at the same time allowing them to be easily audited and explained. We propose a multi-layer decision engine that integrates the operator (human) preferences by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) methods. A software implementation of a UAV simulator and of the decision engine is presented to highlight the advantage of using such techniques on high-level decisions. We demonstrate that, with such a preference-based decision engine, the decisions of the UAV are compatible with the priorities of the operator, which in turn increases her/his confidence in its autonomous behavior.
[Keynote Talk]: Determination of the Quality of the Machined Surface Using Fuzzy Logic
This paper deals with measuring and modelling of the quality of the machined surface of the metal machining process. The average surface roughness (Ra) which represents the quality of the machined part was measured during the dry turning of the AISI 4140 steel. A large number of factors with the unknown relations among them influences this parameter, and that is why mathematical modelling is extremely complicated. Different values of cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut (cutting regime) and workpiece hardness causes different surface roughness values. Modelling with soft computing techniques may be very useful in such cases. This paper presents the usage of the fuzzy logic-based system for determining metal machining process parameter in order to find the proper values of cutting regimes.
Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling
Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.
Taguchi-Based Surface Roughness Optimization for Slotted and Tapered Cylindrical Products in Milling and Turning Operations
The research follows a systematic approach to optimize the parameters for parts machined by turning and milling processes. The quality characteristic chosen is surface roughness since the surface finish plays an important role for parts that require surface contact. A tapered cylindrical surface is designed as a test specimen for the research. The material chosen for machining is aluminum alloy 6061 due to its wide variety of industrial and engineering applications. HAAS VF-2 TR computer numerical control (CNC) vertical machining center is used for milling and HAAS ST-20 CNC machine is used for turning in this research. Taguchi analysis is used to optimize the surface roughness of the machined parts. The L9 Orthogonal Array is designed for four controllable factors with three different levels each, resulting in 18 experimental runs. Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio is calculated for achieving the specific target value of 75 ± 15 µin. The controllable parameters chosen for turning process are feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow and finish cut and for milling process are feed rate, spindle speed, step over and coolant flow. The uncontrollable factors are tool geometry for turning process and tool material for milling process. Hypothesis testing is conducted to study the significance of different uncontrollable factors on the surface roughnesses. The optimal parameter settings were identified from the Taguchi analysis and the process capability Cp and the process capability index Cpk were improved from 1.76 and 0.02 to 3.70 and 2.10 respectively for turning process and from 0.87 and 0.19 to 3.85 and 2.70 respectively for the milling process. The surface roughnesses were improved from 60.17 µin to 68.50 µin, reducing the defect rate from 52.39% to 0% for the turning process and from 93.18 µin to 79.49 µin, reducing the defect rate from 71.23% to 0% for the milling process. The purpose of this study is to efficiently utilize the Taguchi design analysis to improve the surface roughness.
Numerical Simulation of Von Karman Swirling Bioconvection Nanofluid Flow from a Deformable Rotating Disk
Motivation- Rotating disk bio-reactors are fundamental to numerous medical/biochemical engineering processes including oxygen transfer, chromatography, purification and swirl-assisted pumping. The modern upsurge in biologically-enhanced engineering devices has embraced new phenomena including bioconvection of micro-organisms (photo-tactic, oxy-tactic, gyrotactic etc). The proven thermal performance superiority of nanofluids i.e. base fluids doped with engineered nanoparticles has also stimulated immense implementation in biomedical designs. Motivated by these emerging applications, we present a numerical thermofluid dynamic simulation of the transport phenomena in bioconvection nanofluid rotating disk bioreactor flow. Methodology- We study analytically and computationally the time-dependent three-dimensional viscous gyrotactic bioconvection in swirling nanofluid flow from a rotating disk configuration. The disk is also deformable i.e. able to extend (stretch) in the radial direction. Stefan blowing is included. The Buongiorno dilute nanofluid model is adopted wherein Brownian motion and thermophoresis are the dominant nanoscale effects. The primitive conservation equations for mass, radial, tangential and axial momentum, heat (energy), nanoparticle concentration and micro-organism density function are formulated in a cylindrical polar coordinate system with appropriate wall and free stream boundary conditions. A mass convective condition is also incorporated at the disk surface. Forced convection is considered i.e. buoyancy forces are neglected. This highly nonlinear, strongly coupled system of unsteady partial differential equations is normalized with the classical Von Karman and other transformations to render the boundary value problem (BVP) into an ordinary differential system which is solved with the efficient Adomian decomposition method (ADM). Validation with earlier Runge-Kutta shooting computations in the literature is also conducted. Extensive computations are presented (with the aid of MATLAB symbolic software) for radial and circumferential velocity components, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, micro-organism density number and gradients of these functions at the disk surface (radial local skin friction, local circumferential skin friction, Local Nusselt number, Local Sherwood number, motile microorganism mass transfer rate). Main Findings- Increasing radial stretching parameter decreases radial velocity and radial skin friction, reduces azimuthal velocity and skin friction, decreases local Nusselt number and motile micro-organism mass wall flux whereas it increases nano-particle local Sherwood number. Disk deceleration accelerates the radial flow, damps the azimuthal flow, decreases temperatures and thermal boundary layer thickness, depletes the nano-particle concentration magnitudes (and associated nano-particle species boundary layer thickness) and furthermore decreases the micro-organism density number and gyrotactic micro-organism species boundary layer thickness. Increasing Stefan blowing accelerates the radial flow and azimuthal (circumferential flow), elevates temperatures of the nanofluid, boosts nano-particle concentration (volume fraction) and gyrotactic micro-organism density number magnitudes whereas suction generates the reverse effects. Increasing suction effect reduces radial skin friction and azimuthal skin friction, local Nusselt number, and motile micro-organism wall mass flux whereas it enhances the nano-particle species local Sherwood number. Conclusions - Important transport characteristics are identified of relevance to real bioreactor nanotechnological systems not discussed in previous works. ADM is shown to achieve very rapid convergence and highly accurate solutions and shows excellent promise in simulating swirling multi-physical nano-bioconvection fluid dynamics problems. Furthermore, it provides an excellent complement to more general commercial computational fluid dynamics simulations.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of a Nanofluid-Based Annular Solar Collector with Different Metallic Nano-Particles
Motivation- Solar energy constitutes the most promising renewable energy source on earth. Nanofluids are a very successful family of engineered fluids, which contain well-dispersed nanoparticles suspended in a stable base fluid. The presence of metallic nanoparticles (e.g. gold, silver, copper, aluminum etc) significantly improves the thermo-physical properties of the host fluid and generally results in a considerable boost in thermal conductivity, density, and viscosity of nanofluid compared with the original base (host) fluid. This modification in fundamental thermal properties has profound implications in influencing the convective heat transfer process in solar collectors. The potential for improving solar collector direct absorber efficiency is immense and to gain a deeper insight into the impact of different metallic nanoparticles on efficiency and temperature enhancement, in the present work, we describe recent computational fluid dynamics simulations of an annular solar collector system. The present work studies several different metallic nano-particles and compares their performance. Methodologies- A numerical study of convective heat transfer in an annular pipe solar collector system is conducted. The inner tube contains pure water and the annular region contains nanofluid. Three-dimensional steady-state incompressible laminar flow comprising water- (and other) based nanofluid containing a variety of metallic nanoparticles (copper oxide, aluminum oxide, and titanium oxide nanoparticles) is examined. The Tiwari-Das model is deployed for which thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity of the nanofluid suspensions is evaluated as a function of solid nano-particle volume fraction. Radiative heat transfer is also incorporated using the ANSYS solar flux and Rosseland radiative models. The ANSYS FLUENT finite volume code (version 18.1) is employed to simulate the thermo-fluid characteristics via the SIMPLE algorithm. Mesh-independence tests are conducted. Validation of the simulations is also performed with a computational Harlow-Welch MAC (Marker and Cell) finite difference method and excellent correlation achieved. The influence of volume fraction on temperature, velocity, pressure contours is computed and visualized. Main findings- The best overall performance is achieved with copper oxide nanoparticles. Thermal enhancement is generally maximized when water is utilized as the base fluid, although in certain cases ethylene glycol also performs very efficiently. Increasing nanoparticle solid volume fraction elevates temperatures although the effects are less prominent in aluminum and titanium oxide nanofluids. Significant improvement in temperature distributions is achieved with copper oxide nanofluid and this is attributed to the superior thermal conductivity of copper compared to other metallic nano-particles studied. Important fluid dynamic characteristics are also visualized including circulation and temperature shoots near the upper region of the annulus. Radiative flux is observed to enhance temperatures significantly via energization of the nanofluid although again the best elevation in performance is attained consistently with copper oxide. Conclusions-The current study generalizes previous investigations by considering multiple metallic nano-particles and furthermore provides a good benchmark against which to calibrate experimental tests on a new solar collector configuration currently being designed at Salford University. Important insights into the thermal conductivity and viscosity with metallic nano-particles is also provided in detail. The analysis is also extendable to other metallic nano-particles including gold and zinc.
Effect of Print Orientation on the Mechanical Properties of Multi Jet Fusion Additively Manufactured Polyamide-12
The advancement of additive manufacturing, in both research and commercial realms, is highly dependent upon continuing innovations and creativity in materials and designs. Additive manufacturing shows great promise towards revolutionizing various industries, due largely to the fact that design data can be used to create complex products and components, on demand and from the raw materials, for the end user at the point of use. However, it will be critical that the material properties of additively-made parts for engineering purposes be fully understood. As it is a relatively new additive manufacturing method, the response of properties of Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) produced parts to different printing parameters has not been well studied. In this work, testing of mechanical and tribological properties MJF-printed Polyamide 12 parts was performed to determine whether printing orientation in this method results in significantly different part performances. Material properties were studied at macro- and nanoscales. Tensile tests, in combination with tribology tests including steady-state wear, were performed. Results showed a significant difference in resultant part characteristics based on whether they were printed in a vertical or horizontal orientation. Tensile performance of vertically and horizontally printed samples varied, both in ultimate strength and strain. Tribology tests showed that printing orientation has notable effects on the resulting mechanical and wear properties of tested surfaces, due largely to layer orientation and the presence of unfused fused powder grain inclusions. This research advances the understanding of how print orientation affects the mechanical properties of additively manufactured structures, and also how print orientation can be exploited in future engineering design.
Oblique Radiative Solar Nano-Polymer Gel Coating Heat Transfer and Slip Flow: Manufacturing Simulation
Nano-polymeric solar paints and sol-gels have emerged as a major new development in solar cell/collector coatings offering significant improvements in durability, anti-corrosion and thermal efficiency. They also exhibit substantial viscosity variation with temperature which can be exploited in solar collector designs. Modern manufacturing processes for such nano-rheological materials frequently employ stagnation flow dynamics under high temperature which invokes radiative heat transfer. Motivated by elaborating in further detail the nanoscale heat, mass and momentum characteristics of such sol gels, the present article presents a mathematical and computational study of the steady, two-dimensional, non-aligned thermo-fluid boundary layer transport of copper metal-doped water-based nano-polymeric sol gels under radiative heat flux. To simulate real nano-polymer boundary interface dynamics, thermal slip is analysed at the wall. A temperature-dependent viscosity is also considered. The Tiwari-Das nanofluid model is deployed which features a volume fraction for the nanoparticle concentration. This approach also features a Maxwell-Garnet model for the nanofluid thermal conductivity. The conservation equations for mass, normal and tangential momentum and energy (heat) are normalized via appropriate transformations to generate a multi-degree, ordinary differential, non-linear, coupled boundary value problem. Numerical solutions are obtained via the stable, efficient Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme with shooting quadrature in MATLAB symbolic software. Validation of solutions is achieved with a Variational Iterative Method (VIM) utilizing Langrangian multipliers. The impact of key emerging dimensionless parameters i.e. obliqueness parameter, radiation-conduction Rosseland number (Rd), thermal slip parameter (α), viscosity parameter (m), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ) on non-dimensional normal and tangential velocity components, temperature, wall shear stress, local heat flux and streamline distributions is visualized graphically. Shear stress and temperature are boosted with increasing radiative effect whereas local heat flux is reduced. Increasing wall thermal slip parameter depletes temperatures. With greater volume fraction of copper nanoparticles temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness is elevated. Streamlines are found to be skewed markedly towards the left with positive obliqueness parameter.
Thermal Stress and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion
Thermal barrier coatings are among the most popular methods for providing corrosion protection in high temperature applications including aircraft engine systems, external spacecraft structures, rocket chambers etc. Many different materials are available for such coatings, of which ceramics generally perform the best. Motivated by these applications, the current investigation presents detailed finite element simulations of coating stress analysis for a 3- dimensional, 3-layered model of a test sample representing a typical gas turbine component scenario. Structural steel is selected for the main inner layer, Titanium (Ti) alloy for the middle layer and Silicon Carbide (SiC) for the outermost layer. The model dimensions are 20 mm (width), 10 mm (height) and three 1mm deep layers. ANSYS software is employed to conduct three types of analysis- static structural, thermal stress analysis and also computational fluid dynamic erosion/corrosion analysis (via ANSYS FLUENT). The specified geometry which corresponds to corrosion test samples exactly is discretized using a body-sizing meshing approach, comprising mainly of tetrahedron cells. Refinements were concentrated at the connection points between the layers to shift the focus towards the static effects dissipated between them. A detailed grid independence study is conducted to confirm the accuracy of the selected mesh densities. To recreate gas turbine scenarios; in the stress analysis simulations, static loading and thermal environment conditions of up to 1000 N and 1000 degrees Kelvin are imposed. The default solver was used to set the controls for the simulation with the fixed support being set as one side of the model while subjecting the opposite side to a tabular force of 500 and 1000 Newtons. Equivalent elastic strain, total deformation, equivalent stress and strain energy were computed for all cases. Each analysis was duplicated twice to remove one of the layers each time, to allow testing of the static and thermal effects with each of the coatings. ANSYS FLUENT simulation was conducted to study the effect of corrosion on the model under similar thermal conditions. The momentum and energy equations were solved and the viscous heating option was applied to represent improved thermal physics of heat transfer between the layers of the structures. A Discrete Phase Model (DPM) in ANSYS FLUENT was employed which allows for the injection of continuous uniform air particles onto the model, thereby enabling an option for calculating the corrosion factor caused by hot air injection (particles prescribed 5 m/s velocity and 1273.15 K). Extensive visualization of results is provided. The simulations reveal interesting features associated with coating response to realistic gas turbine loading conditions including significantly different stress concentrations with different coatings.
ANSYS FLUENT Simulation of Natural Convection and Radiation in a Solar Enclosure
In this study, multi-mode heat transfer characteristics of spacecraft solar collectors are investigated computationally. Two-dimensional steady-state incompressible laminar Newtonian viscous convection-radiative heat transfer in a rectangular solar collector geometry. The ANSYS FLUENT finite volume code (version 17.2) is employed to simulate the thermo-fluid characteristics. Several radiative transfer models are employed which are available in the ANSYS workbench, including the classical Rosseland flux model and the more elegant P1 flux model. Mesh-independence tests are conducted. Validation of the simulations is conducted with a computational Harlow-Welch MAC (Marker and Cell) finite difference method and excellent correlation. The influence of aspect ratio, Prandtl number (Pr), Rayleigh number (Ra) and radiative flux model on temperature, isotherms, velocity, the pressure is evaluated and visualized in color plots. Additionally, the local convective heat flux is computed and solutions are compared with the MAC solver for various buoyancy effects (e.g. Ra = 10,000,000) achieving excellent agreement. The P1 model is shown to better predict the actual influence of solar radiative flux on thermal fluid behavior compared with the limited Rosseland model. With increasing Rayleigh numbers the hot zone emanating from the base of the collector is found to penetrate deeper into the collector and rises symmetrically dividing into two vortex regions with very high buoyancy effect (Ra >100,000). With increasing Prandtl number (three gas cases are examined respectively hydrogen gas mixture, air and ammonia gas) there is also a progressive incursion of the hot zone at the solar collector base higher into the solar collector space and simultaneously a greater asymmetric behavior of the dual isothermal zones. With increasing aspect ratio (wider base relative to the height of the solar collector geometry) there is a greater thermal convection pattern around the whole geometry, higher temperatures and the elimination of the cold upper zone associated with lower aspect ratio.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Rectangular Mini-Channels for Rocket Cooling Applications
In this work, motivated by rocket channel cooling applications, we describe recent CFD simulations of turbulent convective heat transfer in mini-channels at different aspect ratios. ANSYS FLUENT software has been employed with a mean average error of 5.97% relative to Forrest’s MIT cooling channel study (2014) at a Reynolds number of 50,443 with a Prandtl number of 3.01. This suggests that the simulation model created for turbulent flow was suitable to set as a foundation for the study of different aspect ratios in the channel. Multiple aspect ratios were also considered to understand the influence of high aspect ratios to analyse the best performing cooling channel, which was determined to be the highest aspect ratio channels. Hence, the approximate 28:1 aspect ratio provided the best characteristics to ensure effective cooling. A mesh convergence study was performed to assess the optimum mesh density to collect accurate results. Hence, for this study an element size of 0.05mm was used to generate 579,120 for proper turbulent flow simulation. Deploying a greater bias factor would increase the mesh density to the furthest edges of the channel which would prove to be useful if the focus of the study was just on a single side of the wall. Since a bulk temperature is involved with the calculations, it is essential to ensure a suitable bias factor is used to ensure the reliability of the results. Hence, in this study we have opted to use a bias factor of 5 to allow greater mesh density at both edges of the channel. However, the limitations on mesh density and hardware have curtailed the sophistication achievable for the turbulence characteristics. Also only linear rectangular channels were considered, i.e. curvature was ignored. Furthermore, we only considered conventional water coolant. From this CFD study the variation of aspect ratio provided a deeper appreciation of the effect of small to high aspect ratios with regard to cooling channels. Hence, when considering an application for the channel, the geometry of the aspect ratio must play a crucial role in optimizing cooling performance.
Exploration of Copper Fabric in Non-Asbestos Organic Brake-Pads for Thermal Conductivity Enhancement
Range of thermal conductivity (TC) of Friction Materials (FMs) is a critical issue since lower TC leads to accumulation of frictional heat on the working surface, which results in excessive fade while higher TC leads to excessive heat flow towards back-plate resulting in boiling of brake-fluid leading to ‘spongy brakes’. This phenomenon prohibits braking action, which is most undesirable. Therefore, TC of the FMs across the brake pads should not be high while along the brake pad, it should be high. To enhance TC, metals in the forms of powder and fibers are used in the FMs. Apart from TC improvement, metals provide strength and structural integrity to the composites. Due to higher TC Copper (Cu) powder/fiber is a most preferred metallic ingredient in FM industry. However, Cu powders/fibers are responsible for metallic wear debris generation, which has harmful effects on aquatic organisms. Hence to get rid of a problem of metallic wear debris generation and to keep the positive effect of TC improvement, incorporation of Cu fabric in NAO brake-pads can be an innovative solution. Keeping this in view, two realistic multi-ingredient FM composites with identical formulations were developed in the form of brake-pads. Out of which one composite series consisted of a single layer of Cu fabric in the body of brake-pad and designated as C1 while double layer of Cu fabric was incorporated in another brake-pad series with designation of C2. Distance of Cu fabric layer from the back-plate was kept constant for C1 and C2. One more composite (C0) was developed without Cu fabric for the sake of comparison. Developed composites were characterized for physical properties. Tribological performance was evaluated on full scale inertia dynamometer by following JASO C 406 testing standard. It was concluded that Cu fabric successfully improved fade resistance by increasing conductivity of the composite and also showed slight improvement in wear resistance. Worn surfaces of pads and disc were analyzed by SEM and EDAX to study wear mechanism.
Micro-Channel Flows Simulation Based on Nonlinear Coupled Constitutive Model
MicroElectrical-Mechanical System (MEMS) is one of the most rapidly developing frontier research field both in theory study and applied technology. Micro-channel is a very important link component of MEMS. With the research and development of MEMS, the size of the micro-devices and the micro-channels becomes further smaller. Compared with the macroscale flow, the flow characteristics of gas in the micro-channel have changed, and the rarefaction effect appears obviously. However, for the rarefied gas and microscale flow, Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equations are no longer appropriate due to the breakup of the continuum hypothesis. A Nonlinear Coupled Constitutive Model (NCCM) has been derived from the Boltzmann equation to describe the characteristics of both continuum and rarefied gas flows. We apply the present scheme to simulate continuum and rarefied gas flows in a micro-channel structure. And for comparison, we apply other widely used methods which based on particle simulation or direct solution of distribution function, such as Direct simulation of Monte Carlo (DSMC), Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme (UGKS) and Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), to simulate the flows. The results show that the present solution is in better agreement with the experimental data and the DSMC, UGKS and LBM results than the NSF results in rarefied cases but is in good agreement with the NSF results in continuum cases. And some characteristics of both continuum and rarefied gas flows are observed and analyzed.